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Full text of "History of Randolph County, Indiana with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers : to which are appended maps of its several townships"

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Illustrations and Bioo-rajihical Sketclu'S 



heprintec! I967 by Eastern Indiana Publishing Co, 
Box 85 Knight St. ovm, Ind. 
Extra copies available on request 

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^^glXTY-EIGHT yeai-s have joined tho ages before the flood since the first white settler pitched his cajup within the hordi.-rs 
i^^^ of Eandolph County. Hundieds and thousands of liardy i)ioneers followed the first bold adventurer into this waste and 
lii^ll howling wilderness. Their vigorous strokes have felled the giant monsters of the woods and opened the virgin soil to 
^^^ to the genial sunshine. In hardship and peril, under privation and want, thi-ough scarcity and sickness, in labors con- 
=|^W stant and severe, they toiled their lives away. And now hardly a single soul of all that heroic band remains on earth 
VW^ among us! Possibly a scanty, scattered few yet survive. A small number more of those? who came here as children 
4- still breathe the vital air— still linger amid the places of their youthful homes, to wonder whether those fields and farms 

and d.vellings and towns are indeed tho spots where, in the dense woods so long ago, their fathers and their mothers built the rude 
cabins, or even the " camp " or the rail pen, to shelter their dear ones from the cold and the stonn. They gaze bewildered on the 
gilded show, and marvel at the incredible change which time and toil, like mighty magicians, have wrought. Soon, full soon, tho 
grave will close over the "very last" of these ancient pioneers; and their children, too, are old and way-worn, and, one by one 
they, also, are dropping from sight; and. erelong, pioneer life will bo a thing forgotten, or known only in the recital of fireside 
tales, handed down from the days of long ago. And yet, of the history of these sixty-eight years no permanent memorial has 
ever been made. A few manuscripts, a scattering, ancient newspaper here and there, alone attest, in writing or in print, the peri.s 
and the toils of those pregnant, eventful years, those hardships, that ■^ndiu-ance, that heroism, that wonch-ous activity and persever- 
ance, that endless labor, day and night, summer and winter, in sunshine and storm, and endless and fathomless mud, out of all 
which beyond the power of the present generation even to imagine, has grown this wondrous edifice of luxmy and splendor, this 
gi-and and stately Commonwealth —the noble old mother of us all ! 

Sixty-eight years ago not one stick had been laid upon another, except by tho miserable red men to build their wretched 
wigwams. The sun shone, the waters flowed in their channels^ the forest flung its arms aloft, the bosom of mother earth lay warm 
and fertile beneath; the sand, the gravel, the lime-rock, all were stored away beneath the ground; every needed article which na- 
ture furnishes to her childi-en was at hand; the sweet and baimy air, fragiant with the breath of flowers, waved with gentle motion 
the yielding foliage; then, as now, fell the fructifying rain from the clouds, and moistened the surface of the ground; springs 
gushed from the earth, and sped dancing away over the pebbles, under the shadow of the forest. But wherefore? Ah, wherefore r 
That a few ignorant red men might chase a few deer or kill a turkey now and then; that they might eat the flesh and tan the hide of 
the one, and ornament their head with the tail feathers of the other? Is such a beggarly thing a suflicient result for so grand an 
array of appliances? Nay, vta-ily, but that a race might come at length in the progress of the ages who could take possession and 
make the utmost out of these wondi-ous possibilities; a race who should h.ive power and skill to fulfill the primal command " to 
multiply and replenish the earth and subdue it." And now tho work is (at least measiu-ably) done, the miracle of yeai-s is accom- 
plished, and from out those gloomy woods and ti'ackless jungles and primeval pathless wastes, have sprung these waving fields, 
these homes of l)eauty, those palaces of splendor, which we do now behold! And shall not the history of tho authors of tins 
mighty change be 'ATitten? Shall their mcmoiy perish from the earth? So it would seem, for among tho thousands skillful and 
gifted of the sons and daughters of these hardy sires, has never one been found to search out the events of the past and writi^ 
them for future generations. Verily, our soul cries out this thing ought not so to be. Why do these sons and daughters of those 
heroic fathers and mothers sufi'er that heroism to be forgotten, and the memory thereof to vanish from among men? The ttisk 
were, truly, not properly cms to perform; for we are only a latecomer into this "Western land. Ou. boyhood and early manhood 
were spent far away amid other and distant scenes. Out youthful eyes rested on the hills and mountains of the far-off East; but 
our boyish ears in those days, now long past, drank eagerly in the recital of events, then ancient, the tales of what was to us i>i(j- 
neer life, of hai'dship and toil, of Indiau warfare, of border troubles, of defeat and captm-e, of dreary winter camps, of loathsome 
prison ships, of poverty, sufibriug and want, of failing hai-vests, of midnight conflagt^^k-na. of deadly epidemics; all these and 
more by far, came upon men, and were heroically borne by them, by grandfathers and grandmotuers iu tLOoc j'ajS*"'"' "4'^''J_X'''"i.2 
Syne," in the land where om- childhood's hours were spent. And we have read, too, histories of those times, gathered in patient 
perseverance, by the grateful descendants of those hardy ancestors, and ])ublished as enduring m(>inorials of those by-gone years. 

Time has fled rapidly on, and the sources of history for these things in this county of oui's, have been well-nigh dried up. 
Yet thus far nothing permanent and eflectaal has been done. Pardon us, then, dear friends, if, in om- earnest conviction that 
something should be accomplished, and that without delay, we have overstepped the bounds of propriety, if in the eager desire to 
collect and preserve the memorials of these hardy settlers, we may appeal- to have usurped tho place which ought ia belong to some 
native-bom son or daughter of old Eandolph. 

But hitherto no step forward hiia been tiiken, and we have been by many who claim to bo friends, urged and encouraged to 
undertake the task; and truly a long and tedious task it has, in fact, tm-ned out to be; even longer and more tedious and dffficult 
than we had pictured to ourself. The facts are hard to find— hard to verify— hard to condense— hai'd to present in proper fonn: 
and one thing we wish to say with great frankness, that while we havedoneoui- utmost for the purpose, yet we do by no means flatter 
om-sclE to have attained complete accuracy, and perhaps hardly even an approximation thereto. The chief dependence for inf<u-- 
mation as to alleged facts is, of coiu-se. the memory of pioneers or of their relatives or friends; but memoiy is proverbially treach- 
erous and imcertain, and often contradictory, o. g., take so simple a fact as the tiiitr when the fii-st rail track reached the State line 
at Union City. The thing took place only about twenty-nine years ago; it was a notable public event, and perhaps twenty persons 
are now residents in that town who were then there and witnessed the occurrence or hem-d the fact stated by those who did witness 
it As to this event, one would suppose entire accuracy might be secm-od; yet we find it true that three different men. all claiming 
to be eye-witnesses, give three different dat<>8, varying as much as a whole month, and each one is sure that he isri^^ht, o-ivint^ 
special reasons for the exactness of his memoi-y. So, then, absolute accuracy is doubtless out of the question; and for eve^i-y de^ 
feet which any critical eye may detect in this work, we can our.9olf doubl-less point out a dozen. We are, indeed, painfully con 

sniou.s of the . imperf eotions of our work, yet, we feel, moreover, that we have expended great labor and taken exceeding cai-e to 
approach as near entire correctness as could possibly be done. And, with this conviction, we humbly solicit the forbearance of our 
readers. If it were to happen that a second edition were to be issued, corrections might be made as should be found needful; but 
as to that, time alone can tell. We can say with truth, that having taken up the enterprise, we have done what could reasonably 
bo asked or expected to make the Ixiok reliable, interesting and true; we have honestly tried to make it a work of which Randolph 
County "will not willingly let die," and which may be a worthy and valuable addition to the local history' of the Commonwealth. 

In arrangement of material, the principle of grouping has been employed to a great extent. Agriculture, education, relig- 
ion, railitaiy mattei-s, cemeteries, attorneys, physicians and several other subjects, have been treated for the county as a whole. 

The military history is unusually full and comprehensive. Biography, also, is very extensive in the work, and personal 
roiniiiif;<i>ncos have been fi'oely given, the author believing that those sketches will be full of interest. So far as possible, the lives 
(if ctuly pioneors have l>eer, detailed, especially of those who are now resting from their labors. The lives of subscribers are iu- 
.snrteJ, Imt the biogi-aphies of many may be 'found who have long since left the shores of time, and of many also who are now 
^.gt'd and feeble and iniirm, yet who are numbered still among the living heroes who have achieved the mighty conquest of human 
prowess over wild and savage nattu'e, and who have made the wilderness to bud and blossom as the rose, and who smvivo to behold 
the changes that have been wi'ought. The chapter on the public lands was framed from materials furnished from Washington, 
thiough the kindness of J. "H. Htine, Esq., Government employe therefor many years, but who still retains his connection with, 
and nft'ection for, the county which was his residence when called into the public service. 

In the militaiy history, great use has been made of Adjiitant General Terrell's Keport for Indiana, published soon after the 
dose of the war. while, in many cases also, facts from personal and other sources have been stated. The prison life of C. W. 
Diggs was condensed from Gen. Shank's lleport on the Treatment of Prisoners, published by authority of Congress in 1809. The 
details coucorning the others were written down from the lips.of the parties themselves. Great labor has been expended in search- 
ing tlio otficial records of various kinds. The county oHJcers, past and present, have rendered every practicable aid, and furnished 
every possible fiicility in fnrlhoraiico of our enterprise, and scarcely an individual has been found in the county who did not cheer- 
fully do wlKiii'Ver soeined needful to make our toilsome task an abundant success. 

Among the other woi'ks consulted have been Tuttlo's and Dillon's History of Indiana, Darke County History, Allen County 
History, Delaware County History, Elkhart County History, the Legislative jom-nals, C. H. Smith's Recollections, Smith's Eai-ly 
Afcthtxlism, and various other works. The Smitli family gave access to the manuscripts left by Hon. Jere Smith, some of whicli 
have Ijcen incorpor:ited in the work. i\Ir. Osboru, of Economy, Wayne County, allowed us to jiresent the substance of the '' weather 
lecovd '■ begun bv his father nearly fifty years ngo, and continued by the family to the present time. 


A few among the multitude who have ren<lered assistance in the work (not to exclude others ]-)ei'haps equally worthy of men- 
tion), are as follows: 

Greonsfork.- -flames C. Bowen, S(]uire Bowen, James Clark, Aaron Hill, Thfinias Hough, James Kelly, Jesse Parker, Henn' 

Washington. -Paul Beard. Jr., W. A. A\-. Dalv. William Johnson. Silas Johnson, Thomas Phillips. Mrs. Shoemaker (daugh- 
ter of Cnrlis Ckniv). 

West River. -Willi;un JL Botkin, C. W, Oaborn, Jeremiah Smith, Ira Swain. 

White. River and Winchester.— T. M. Browne, Hannah Diggs, William Diggs, Jr., H. H. Neff. M. A. Reeder, Gen. A. Stone, 
I. 1>, A\;itts. 'J honi.Ms Wnrd. Jesse Way, 3\roormau Way. Ju.litli Way, W. C. Willmore. 

I'rnn.kHn.- I'vlder Thomas Addington, Dr. Bailey, Arthur McKew, Pardon Sherman. Mj's. Sherman, Dr, Shoemaker. 

\\t\Yil Edxvard Edger, Jos.>.])h Edger, Peny Fields. John Kcv, Daniel B. Miller, John Mock. Burgett Pierce, Thomas 
\\'ard. Olnev Whipple. 

Wayiie (and Union City). — Seth Hoke, Alfred Lenox, Mrs. Thomas Mason, Robert Mm-phy, William Oit, William Pickett. 
Jesse Paxson, William Peacock, George and Asenath Thomas, James Woodbmy, W. K. Smith. 

Stony Creek.— Isaac Amburu, John H. Bond, W. A. Thornliurg. Solomon Wright, Dr. Chenoweth. 

Nettle Creek. —Mrs. Burroughs .William Cleviuger, M. L. Canady, Mrs. Patev Branson, Lemuel Wiggins, Mrs. Wine, James 
Scott, Mrs. Mark Diggs. 

Jackson. — Ezeiiel Clough, Thomas Devor, Jesse Johnson, James Porter, Mrs. Reeves, Mrs. Ruby, the Simmonses. the 

Green.— Philip Barger, filr. fzyy^n, Thomas Godwin. Thomas Hubbard. Mr. McProud. 

^^'^•'^tti.—lb:. Driver, Mj-s. Hammer, Mr. Jones, llev. Moses Marks, David Macy, John A. Moonnan, Mrs. Wallace. 

It remains for us to express our grateful acknowledgements to the many kind friends (and their name is legion, and they 
enilirace the (.nliic countv), who Ijave (>ncouraged and assisted in accomplishing our arduous task. Without their kind co-operation, 
indeed, such a task would have been utterly in vain. 

Tlie sources of history in our case liave been mostly personal and verljal. Something, of coui'se, has been gleaned from 
books and from reeords. Imt has been dr.iwii from original sources, from the aged, worthy pioneera themselves or from their 
inielligeni. and enbTprising descendants. 

Entire and absolute accuracy is, of couree, scarcely attainable iu such an enterprise, since the information is to l>o gained 
almost wholly by word i;t mc-ulh: and i-eliance must be u]ion the memoiy, often of persons who are aged and iniirm, and concern- 
ing events which (xcnrred in tiie long, long ago. Even where one would expect to find rt-cords at comnmnd iu the county offices of 
cimuty ollici:ils in the iiast, a painful deficiency is noticeable. 

It might lune well beciu suppased that a full and accurate record could have been found as to the names and terms, etc.. of 
of the various inciuulieuts of comity and township offices. It would have been thought also that a record of the names of the sol- 
diers enlisted from tin. county would have lieeii preserved as a part of the official history thereof. Neither of those things, how- 
ev(T, is to 1)0 found: ami as to some of the officers of the days of " Auld Lang Syne," to find out who they were, how long they 
served, etc.. has been wholly out of the (luestiou. And after the long experience of painful and often fruitlesa research, the 
andior feels n setlled conviction th;\t. instead of lieing blameworthy for omissions or mistolves, he is. rather, desoi-ving of public 
a|)prov.ii, not lo say admiration, for the array of facts as to the early and later history present<'d, and for the degree of accuracy 
achieved in the performance of the work. 

I?eoords, wherever nttain-ible, have been freely brought into re<piisition. Written docvunents, personal or official, have been 
used; records preserved in that precious troasm'e, the family Bible, " gi-andmother's old Bible," oftentime worn and fallen iu 


pieCJS from reading and handling, when the primeval forest frowiiod heavy aad dark over all this land, written by hands beloved 
tha< have long been cold and lifeless in the tomb, have in many cases been made to yield their sacred remembrances for oiu' benefit. 
BLiths, marriages, deaths, lists of the names of childi-en, eight, ten, even fifteen or eighteen in number in a single group, have 
hen discovered in the ancient record; or the ancient gi-andfather, or, better still, the aged grandmother, with clearer mind and 
more accurate memory, haS recited the facts, still recollected, of the events of their early youth and their active matm'ity, of Indian 
tijubles, of early migration, of primal forest life, of privation and hunger and hardship, when the roads were trails, and the 
stream-crossings were fords, when the dwellings were cabins and the towns were not. 

It is greatly to be hoped that, while minor errors may, doubtless, be found, and possibly of such not a few, yet substantial 
accm-acy will have been attained; and, if not, that such errors will rather be regarded as mistakes to be lamented than as faults to 
be condemned. 

To the business men, the legal fraternity, th(^ medical profession, the clergy and the press, to the officials, past and present 
of every degree, and to all and sunth-y, too many even to name, citizens of Randolph, now or heretofore, for every encouraging 
word spoken, and for every friendly act done in its behalf, sincere and hearty thanks are hereby cheerfully tendered by the author of 
Randolph County History, by the publishers thereof, and by all who have taken part or bimie responsibility in its la'cjiaration. 

And now, to the citizens of Randolph, the waiin-hearted, generous men and women of our noble eld county, and to those 
who have at any time been residents therein; to those who, remain of the old stock, and to the children of the pioneers wherever 
they may be found, and truly they are scattered far and wide throughout this mighty ^Wstern valley and among the mountains 
stretching boilndless to the ocean shore; and to the reading public at large, we modestly and timidly, yet confidingly, present this 
iinal result of long and wearisome labor, fondly hoping that those who receive and those who read the work 'will, at least, do us 
the justice to lielieve that, in this pious attempt to rescue fi'om hopeless oblivion the memory of the venerable past, and to assist 
the pr(\sent and coming generations to bestow fitting and reverential honor upon the hardy and glorious band who, in by -gone years, 
witli mucJi labor and unknown hardship, led forth "the grand procession of the ages" to lay the foundations of this princely Coiu- 
'" of the latter day; that, in tliis diificult, yet sacred and jileasing, task which our hands have undertaken to accomplish. 

"we have done what 

(The deaths r,f the pi 
have dro])ped into the grave, 
from the lips of aged j-.ersor 
tomb! I 

[Note. — It is jiroper to state that while thi 
considerable number of the biographical sketches 

leers ;u'e occurring 
This treatise w; 
then hale and 

rith alarming frequency. Since this work was begun, many of the aged veterans 

planned, indeed, in the " nick of time." It contains important statements taken 

ow, alas! pale and silent in death, and hidden in the cold and solemn 

idy of this volume is the work of myself, it is true, nevertheless, that a 
1 ill the book have been Sy other hands. K. TLCKEl!. ] 




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Gkneral— Spanish Exi'i.okations— Relics— Antiqtiitie.1. 

ABUNDANT evidence exists to show that North America, (and 
/A. South America as well), was inhabited hundreds, possibly 
thousands, of years ago by a swarming human population. Even 
though we possessed no written records of the doings of men upon 
the Eastern Continent during the ages that are past, yet the ruins 
that still remain of the works which they left behind them would 
attest their presence and their power. In the stirring words of 
the poet, 



but 111 

cord in the d< 

On the waste sands ; statues fallen and cleft, 

Heaped like a host in bittle overthrown ; 

Vast ruins where the mountain's ribs of stone 

Were hewn into a city J streets that spread 

In the dark earth where never breath has blown 

( Cf heaven's sweet air, or foot of man dares tread 

The long and perilous ways : the Cities of the Doad I" 

The immense walls and towers, the stupendous temples, the 
wondrous pyramids, the burnt and molten mounds filled with 
bricks and pottery — the caves hewn from the solid rock, the tombs 
excavated into the sides of cliffs, the marble slabs and huge pil- 
lars covered with writing; made by human hands ; Porapeii and 
Herculaneura, deep buried, or dug from the bowels of the earth ; 
the roads and highways remaining still to show to us in these 
later days how those old nations practiced locomotion in those 
by-gone ages ; the marble pillars, the fallen statues, the gigantic 
sphinxes, the ruins of Thebes and Athens and Palmyra; — all these, 
and a myriad ether things declare the certain fact that, long gen- 
erations ago, human inhabitants dwelt in number% and in power 
upon those spreading Eastern lands. 

It happens, indeed, that we possess legible written records 
of human actions as performed by a few men who belonged to 
some of the ancient nations who once occupied portions of Europe 
and Asia and Africa. We have histories telling lis somewhat of 
the things which some of the ancient peoples did ; telling us of 
the Jews, the Phoenicians, the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the 
Chaldeans, the Greeks, the Romans. 

But these histories are (as all histories must be) merely frag- 
mentary. They name a few men, a few cities, a few rivers, and 
describe some of the actions of a small number of persons out of 
the mighty multitude who once swarmed along those plains and 
mountains and valleys. But the great mass of human deeds of 
even the historical periods, so called, must for ever lie inextricably 
hidden beneath the mist of the unknown and unrecorded past. 

So of these Western plains. The written history for unknown 
ages is wholly lacking — intelligible records, made as such by 
human pen or pencil or chisel, are not to be found ; but the un- 
conscious record shown in earth, in mounds and embankments, in 
burial-grounds and human skeletons, is abundant on every hand. 
The ancestral remains scattered far and wide throughout the 
Western Continent incontestably prove the fact that, before the 
stubborn Briton, the jolly Frenchman, the bluff Dutchman, the 

stern and haughty Spaniard ; before Gilbert and Hudson, before 
De Soto and La Salle, before Columbus and Cortez and Balboa 
and Pizarro ; before even the wandering, wigwam-dwelling reil 
man, there dwelt throughout this vast Mississippi Valley a thronfr 
ing race of men : a race, moreover, neither feeble as to powei, 
nor lacking in knowledge and in skill. 

These ancient peoples would seem indeed to have labored 
under some great and serious drawbacks to their power, since no 
proof has been found of an acquaintance with iron or with iron 
implements, and little or none, moreover, of the' existence of 
domestic animals of draft or burden. 

Yet their achievements, despite these serious drawbacks, as 
shown by the remains of the; • works, by the ruins of what they 
once possessed and dwelt in and of what they constructed, are 
indeed wonderful. And would it be too much to affirm that, — 
were the proud Anglo-Saxon race, and the other European races 
as well, to be swept during the next century from the American 
Continent, leaving no written records preserved and handed down 
to following ages, and (say) two or ten thousand years were to 
pass, while the tooth of time should gnaw remorselessly upon the 
dwindling remnants of their fading glory — would it be too much 
to declare that, after such a lapse of time, who should then 
tread the American shores, would behold, in that far-off future 
time, fewer and less striking proofs of the former presence and 
power of these boastful " white men " than do now appear to 
attest the prowess of the " Mound-Builders " and " Fort-makers," 
of the Palace-dwellers of Central America and Yucatan, the 
" Cliff-dwellers" of Colorado, or the Sun-or-Devil-worshipera of 
Tetzuco ? 

All over this great valley, and among the mighty mountains 
and yawning canons of the far-off West, once lived and moved a 
mighty race of men. The works which they have forsaken, the 
ruins which " Old Father Time *' himself has been able neither 
to deface nor destroy, yet stand, and raise their heads beneath the 
canopied sky, and say — " Whose works are all these?" 

Mystery hangs over the story of these people, darkness 
deeper than the darkness of the catacombs covers them, yet they 
were here ! 

As England was peopled before the Norm.ans, the Saxons, 
the Danes, so was the American Continent peopled before the 
white man or the red man. And not merely were such rac>;s 
scattered far and wide upon our mountains and over our plains, 
but here, in Randolph County, Ind., here, on these lands which 
we now own and hold and till, they dwelt. On these rivers atid 
streams they paddled their canoes, the animals of these forest- 
they slew for food. Here they ate, they drank, they toiled, fhoy 
dwelt, they fought, they died and were buried. Here, even like 
heroes of other lands and times, recorded or otherwise, they tried 
in battle fierce and stern defense, to beat back their ruthless foes • 
but alas ! like other hapless races, they failed and dwindled, and 
disappeared from the earth ! Whence they came, how long they 
and their ancestors had been domiciled on these lands, and in 
what manner was the process of extinction ; who were and whence 
came their strong invaders conjecture can only imagine. 

The world has been full of hostile migrations, and of the 
absorption or the destruction of the nations dwelling upon the 


invaded lands; and had not the history of 
•ritten, no mortal could now supply the lack, 

ich : 

)ada been 

They were here, and they iii'c gone ! And 
sadly on their fortifications and on their bones exhumed from 
the places of their sepulture, and, as the sighing west wind gently 
whispers '• Whence and what were those ?" echo mournfully re- 
peats " whence and what?" but the answer never comes ! 

A race so numerous, so intelligent, so skillful, so iabofious, 
so brave, must have had dwellings, towns, clothing, implements of 
labor and of warfare. But of their manner of life we know lit- 
tle. It is strange, indeed, that amid all tlie remains of their 
works so little is left to give a clew to their life, their habits, 
their dwelling.?, their towns, their civilization. 

Some tokens indeed there are, but these indications are not 
many. In Europe, among the lake dwellings and elsewhere, are 
found matting, stone arrow heads, copper and stone knives and 
axfcs, shell heaps, fragments of woolen cloth, bones of o.xen, horses 
and cattle, of sheep, dogs and goats; seeds of strawberries, rasp- 
berries, etc., loaves of bread, and many other things. 

In America also have been found matting, pipes, hammers 
(made of stone) large enough for two men to wield, and in heaps 
sufficiently large to be hauled away in cart loads, and in quanti- 
ties enough to be used in walling a well ; stone-axes, stone, wood 
and copper tools in mines worked by those primeval races ; pot- 
tery of curious construction and various device, figures supposed 
to have been idols ; cups, bowls, and dishes of divers shapes and 
designs, etc. 

In the northern and eastern portions of the United States, 
few remnants of stone-work have been found. But in Yucatan, 
Centra] America, and Colorado, ruins of great towns remain, 
nearly rivaling the desolated cities of Asia and Africa, while in 
New Mexico, Colorado and the adjacent regions, stone dwellings 
and fortresses and towns built upon inaccessible heights, and 
reached by flights of steps or by ladders, are found, and aborigi- 
nal tribes of men still dwelling in them. 


The history of Spanish explorations in New Mexico and 
California reveals a wonderful state of things ; and modern trav- 
elers discover present remnants of those ancient peoples and of 
their wondrous towns. 

Bryant's History, speaking of Spanish explorers in l.'381-2, 

"Traveling up the valley of the Rio del Norte, * * * 
a journey of _.tcn days brought them to villages containing ten 
thousand people. The houses wore well built, four stories high, 
with good chambers, most of them having fire-places for winter. 
The people were well dressed in cotton and leather, with good 
shoes and boots, such as the Sjtanish had not seen in America 
before. After four days the travelers went on to another tribe, 
called the Tiguas, of sixteen towns. In two days they came to a 
country of eleven towns, of which the natives said the popula- 
tion was more than 40,000. They next visited the Quires and 
found five towns with l."),000 people. Fourteen leagues farther 
they found the Cunames, who had five towns with 20,000 people. 
Their houses were built of stone and lime and were the best the 
Spaniards had seen. Next wore the Amejes, 30,000 in number. 
Fifteen leagues westward they found the town of Acoma with 
G,000 people. 

"This town (Acoma) is still in existence, peopled probably 
with the same race of inhabitants. It was on a high cliff, which 
was more than fifty platforms in height, and could be ascended 
only by steps cut out of the rock itself. All the water the peo- 
ple had was in cisterns. The arable land was two leagues 
:away, being watered by artificial means from a little river in the 

Judge Cozzcns thus describes the town of Acoma as it was 
in a 860: 

"Acoma stands upon the top of a rock at least ■"(•'jO feet 

above the plain. The Puchio can be reached only by means of 
a staircase of 37.5 steps, cut in the solid rock. At the upper 
end of this [staircase] is a ladder eighteen feet long, made from 
the trunk of a tree, from which notches have been cut for the feet." 

Bryant continues: "Twenty-four leagues farther west, 
Espcjo and his companions came to Zuni, where they found the 
crosses, etc., left by Coronado half a century before. The Zuni 
live there still." 

It appears then, that our western regions, New Mexico, Ar- 
izona, California, etc., were, at the time of their exploration by 
the Spanish, inhabited by a cultivated people, clothed, dwelling 
in houses, with cities, in some respects, the most remarkable in 
the world. 

J.^W. Powell, in Scrilmcr, December 1875, says: 

" Thus, in this desert land, we find an agricultural people, 
dwelling in stone houses, with walls laid in mortar, and plastered 
within; houses two, three, four, five and six stories high; skill- 
ed in pottery, weaving, dyeing; with picture writing, mytholo- 
gy and religion ; with no beasts of burden and no knowdedgo of 
metals, their tools being bones, stone and wood." 

He says further that there were found, when the region was 
discovered by the Spaniards and explored by them in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, about sixty towns, and that some 
thirty of these towns still remain ; that nearly all were semi- 
Christianized by the Spanish Catholics, but that seven exist now 
as in ancient days. 

These seven towns are in what is called the province of 
Tusayan, anil are named as follows: 0-rai-bi, Shi-pau-i-luv-i, 
Mi-shong-i-ni-vi, Shong-a-pa-vi, Te-wa, Wol-pi, Si-choam-a-vi : 
the last three called the Moqui towns. They are all built on 
high rocks or cliffs, with houses of several stories, entered by 
ladders, or steps, or both. Before 1540 the clothing was cotton ; 
but between 1.540 and 1600 they were supplied with sheep 
through the Spaniards, and since that time they have nsed 
woolen and now employ it largely. The men wear moccasins, 
leggings, shirts and blankets (which they make themselves); the 
women wear moccasins with long tops, besides short petticoats 
and a shawl over the right shoulder, a belt around the waist and 
an outer garment. 

These seven towns have at present 2,700 inhabitants, 
though they are much dilapidated, and when in their glory tlioy 
doubtless contained a far greater number. 

Mr. Powell says further : 

" The ruins of towns are found in great profusion throughout 
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Southern 
California, on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, on the 
western slope as well ; * * * over all this vast territory, in 
every beautiful valley and glen, by every streamlet and every 
sjjring, on the high mountains, on the clifl's, away out in the des"- 
erts of drifting sand, and down in the deep canon-gorges are 
found ruins, stone implements or fragments of pottery." 

Mr. Powell thinks the Navahoes^ the Apaches and kindred 
tribes have swept down in past ages from the north and gradu- 
ally uprooted these ancient races, leaving only the feeble rem- 
nants that are now existing. 

The Mexicans and Peruvians, when visited and conquered 
by Cortez and Pizarro, were far advanced in many arts of domes- 
tic life — in building, weaving, road-making, tilling, etc., etc. 

The Natchez, a tribe of great intelligence but of limited 
numbers, and dwelling on the Lower Mississjppi, claimed to be de- 
scendants of the ancient inhabitants and declared that their pro- 
genitors had occupied that land for unknown centuries. 

The traditions of the Indians of the northern lake region 
extend back for " thousands of moons," even to the time, as these 
traditions declare, in which the Mastodon, whose remains abound 
throughout the region, still dwelt in those wilds. 

And now, interesting questions press themselves upon our 
notice: Who are they — whence came they — how long dwelt they 
— -whither went they — how came they to leave tlic region — are 



md if s 

nd what 

any traces of them stil 
and how many ? 


Conjecture is idle. But opinions are rife and diverse — and 
fruitless. Baldwin thinks they came from the southward — grad- 
ually extending through the great valley farther and still farther 
toward the North. This conjecture may be true. But even this 
would bo only an approximation. 

How came they in Central America "' Was that the grand 
center from whence the conquering hordes came northward to 
the great lakes and over the vast land of the Western Cordilleras, 
and spread southward to Peru ? And if so, we repeat, how came 
they in Central America 'i Echo answers, how ? Or did they 
come from the North, going southward, still and ever southward Y 
The settled opinion seems to be that the invaders who swept those 
older races from the face of the country came from the North ; 
and, if so, why not tho former occupants as well ? And then 
again the question arises, whence carae those northern invading 
hordes if such there were? That portion of the continent could 
not now nourish such hosts of men, nor furnish such a birthplace 
of nations — how could it in ancient times ? 

Some insist upon an American center and originating point 
for the race, or rather for " nne of the races," as they say. Be it 
so — but that only multiplies the miracle of the creation of man, re- 
quiring not one but many "Edens." The sad fact appears to be 
that much, very much of our opinion upon such subjects is bare 
conjecture — simply "guesswork" and nothing more. It is 
granted that races other and older than the Indians of Colum- 
bus's, or at least of De Soto's time, have filled the land; but who 
they were, whence they came, how long they dwelt, who swept 
them away, and when and how the dread result was accomplished 
we may imagine, we may guess, but the world will be none the 
wiser therefor ; and these questions, though full of interest, can 
probably never find an answer. 

There might, indeed, be some apparent ground for an opin- 
ion that tho ancient inhabitants of Mexico, Yucatan, Peru and 
Colorado, as found by the Spanish explorers and conquerors in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, are the descendants of the 
same people who built the "mounds" and "forts "and "em- 
bankments " of the central regions ; yet even this is only a " may 
be so." ' ^ 

And, where history is utterly wanting, conjecture is wholly un- 
able to supply the lack. Volumes might be written, as they 
have already been, and doubtless will be in time to come, but 
who will know any more of the matter through their means ? 

But not to dwell. This ancient people (or succession of peo- 
ples) must have been numerous, intelligent, skillful, enterprising 
and of long continuance ; and the loss of their history to the world 
is a misfortuue that can never be regarded otherwise than with 
profound regret. 

The scant and meager remains that still exist from their nu- 
merous and widely scattered works, make us wish only tho more 
that we could know who and whence were this wondrous and mys- 
terious race of men. 

A book is extant, indeed, written some thirty years ago. con- 
taining an account, apparently authentic and sincere, of the travels 
and explorations of the author in the Mississippi Valley, as to tho 
mounds in that vast region, which declares as a fact chat he found 
among the Dakota or Sioux Indians, a venerable chief of great 
age, named De-coo-dah, who claimed to be the last surviving mem- 
ber of the Elk tribe, who were the remnants of the ancient 
Mound-Builders. The author affirms that the old chief traveled 
with him in the explorations of the ancient relics ; and, more- 
over, that he made abundant statements, giving the traditions 
handed down from his ancestors, of the reason and purpose of 
the different kinds of structures visited by them. The work is 
now very rare, only three copies being known to exist. One be- 
longs to Prof. E. H. Butler, of Winchester, obtained, after much 
time and trouble spent in search of it, through Clarke &. Co., 

publishers, of Cincinnati. Another was found in some old libra- 
ry in the southern part of Indiana by Daniel Hough, Esq., late 
of Fountain City, Ind., and now in the library loft by him at his 
decease. That copy was obtained by Mr. Hough by exchanging 
therefor $20 worth of other books. Another one ia known to 
he in existence in the United States but its exact locality cannot 
now by us be given. The title and description of the book is as 
follows : " Traditions of De-coo-dah, and Antiquarian Researches, 
comprising extensive explorations, surveys and excavations of the 
wonderful and mysterious remains of the Mound-Builders in 
America ; tho Traditions of the last Prophet of the Elk Nation 
relative to their origin and use ; and the evidences of an ancient 
population more numerous than the present Aborigines, by Will- 
iam Pigeon. Published at New York by Horace Thayer, 18 
Beekman street, New York, 1858. Entered in the Southern Dis- 
trict of New York, 1852." 

If space could be spared for the purpose, which, however, 
cannot now bo done, it would be of deep interest to give a resume 
of the contents of the treatise in question. Whether the book be 
a true recital or not, we cannot tell. It seems to have every 
mark of authenticity, and no appearance of fraud or trickery of 
any kind. The announcement of the chief fact, that the author 
had discovered a descendant of the Mound-Builders, may strike 
many as being strange ; yet such a thing would be in itself no more 
strange than the fact that the Welsh are descendants of tho 
ancient Britons. 


Numerous indeed and wonderful are the relics of these unknown 
races of men, scattered through the length and breadth of the 
Mississippi Valley and elsewhere; some of which also are to be 
found in the county of Randolph. In Ohio alone, more than 
10,000 mounds, and 1,500 inclosures and embankments are said 
to have been found, all presumably the work of these races. 
These mounds, etc., are found often covered by trees from five 
to eight centuries old. 

Shell heaps, apparently gathered by human hands, abound 
all along the coast from Nova Scotia to Florida — some of them 
are very extensive. One heap upon Stalling's Island in Savannah 
River, 200 miles from its mouth, is 300 feet long, 120 feet wide, 
and 15 feet high. Doctor Koch of St. Louis states that in 
1839 he dug up, in tho bottom lands of the Bourbeuse River (in 
Missouri), at eight or nine feet deep, the bones of a mastodon, 
with legs standing erect and sunk in the deep tenacious clay. 
Fires had been kindled around it, and, in the ashes, from two to 
six inches deep, were found half-charred wood, half-burned bones, 
stone arrow-heads, stone axes, rough stones, etc. 

A year later the same gentleman discovered, in the bottom 
of the Pomme de Terre River, Benton County, Mo., a skeleton 
of a mastodon, almost entire, with two arrow-heads underneath 
it. They lay in a bed of vegetable mold covered by strata of 
sand, clay and gravel, hitherto undisturbgd, and on the surface 
stood a forest of old timber. 

The works which have been discovered are of diiferent kinds 
in different regions. In Ohio, Indiana and Illinois the mounds 
are round, square, or having many angles, re-entrant or otherwise. 
In some rpgions, mounds are found in the shape of animals. 

In Wisconsin, a few miles below the mouth of the Wisconsin 
River, is one called the " Big Elephant Mound," from its shape 
like an elephant. Tho length is 135 feet, and its width is in 

Many of tho works were probably for defense, many for 
burial, some, perhaps, for worship, while to some no apparent 
purpose has been assigned. Many of them are very large. 

On the Scioto River are embankments, the aggregate length 
of which is twenty miles!; The walls, in some cases, are twenty- 
five feet high, with an outside ditch fifty to eighty feet wide. 

Some inclosures contain 150 acres of ground. They are 
arranged in groups of squares, circles, squares in circles, circles 
in squares, etc. 


The mounds are of various shapes — pyramids, circles, trun- 
cated, terraced, approached by inclined planes and what not. 
Avenues between embankments appear, extending, in one instance, 
near the Ohio River for sixteen miles. 

The squares, circles, etc., are perfect, and, in some ciises, 
more than a mile in circuit. Their shape and measurement are 
so accurate as to show a high degree of geometrical knowledge 
and skill. 

I There are some Temple Mounds, so-called because they appear 
like the Mound Temples in Mexico. Altar Mounds occur, con- 
taining layers of ashes, etc. 

In many of them are found relics of various kinds — pottery, 
arrow-heads, axes and hammers (made of stone), copper tools, 
pipes, images, and sometimes human bones, though mostly tne 
sand banks and the gravel banks alone seem to have been lised 
for places of burial. 

The copper mines of Minnesota would appear at some remote 
period to have been extensively worked by some ancient unknown 
people. Trenches, twenty feet deep, have been found by modern 
miners, containing tools made of stone, of copper and of wood, 
and covered by centuries of vegetable and forest growth. In one 
deserted mine in Minnesota there was found, eighteen feet down, 
a mass of copper ore weighing six tons, raised up on a frame of 
wood five feet high, apparently for removal. How they did these 
tilings, moved tiiis mass, worked their copper, made their tools, 
etc., is entirely unknown. Whether they used fire and molds, 
or pounded the tools into shape with their J)onderous stone ham- 
mers, or otherwise, will always remain a fathomless mystery. 
Some of the mounds were of immense size. One at Cahokia, 
111., covered six acres of ground, and its truncated top measured 
200 by 450 feet, and its cubical area equaled one-fourth of that 
of the great Pyramid of Ghizeh in Egypt. There are graded 
roads leading from terrace to terrace, evidently for easiness of 

In Ohio has been found a work combining a square with two 
circles. Each square measures exactly 1,080 feet to a side, and 
the circles are precisely 1,700 and 800 feet. Implements have 
been discovered made of polished porphyry, of granite, of jasper, 
of quartz and of obsidian. 


[Note. — All kinds of curious antiquities are given promis- 
cuously in the following sketch, whether strictly pre-historic or 
not, and even though not pertaining to the ''Mound-Builders."] 


There are many antiquities in Randolph County, i 

embankments, etc., some of which are described beh 

1. One of the best known is to be seen (partly) in the fair 
grounds northwest of Winchester. It is an inclosure of forty- 
three acres in the form of an exact square. The embankment was 
from seven to ten feet high, with openings east and west eighty 
feet wide; as also having a mound in the center of the area fif- 
teen feet high. The whole inclosure and the embarkment also, 
when found by the first settlers was covered with large forest 
trees exactly like the adjacent regions. The eastern opening was 
unprotected, the western one was surrounded outwardly by an 
embankment shaped like a horse shoe open toward the gate, 
joined on the north side to the main embankment, but left open 
at the south side of the gate for a passage to the outer grounds. 
The embankment has been considerably lowered throughout 
the greater portion of its extent by cultivation, by the passage 
of highways, etc., but it is still several feet high, and is very 
plainly traceable along its entire extent. 

Some of the bank on the south side toward the southeast 
corner still remains as it existed at the first settlement of the 
country. That part is now some six feet high, and perhaps 
twenty-five feet wide. A large portion of the eastern bank has 
lately been dug away for tlie purpose of brick-rnaking, and it is 

said that charcoal is found scattered throughout the mass of clay 
composing the embankment. ' 

On the side of a creek not very far distant were gravel 
banks containing great quantities of human bones, which are said 
to have been hauled away by wagon loads. These skeletons 
were many of them large, but the bones wei'e much decayed, and 
crumbled readily when disturbed and brought .out to the air. 

2. Another embankment eiists on the Ileaston farm west 
of" Winchester, neai the crossing of Sugar Ct-eek, inclosing per- 
haps an acre — not very hi^h. 

3. There are mounds m Washington Township. One is 
iiear the Hogback Pike on the right of the Winchester and Lynn 
road. It covers two acres an|l is forty or fifty feet high. 

4. Up Sugar Creek on the Iluhtsville pike, a burial place 
was excavated, throwing out bones and other things. 

5. A remarkable hill or mound, forty or fifty feet high, com- 
prising several acres, round like a ilattish liay -stuck, is in the 
southeast corner of Washington Township. 

6. In Paiater's gravel bank in the bluffs of Bear Creek, near 
Elder Thomas Addington's (Section 32, 20, 14), were found (in 
1879) fifty or sixty skeletons of human frames. Some had been 
buried separately and some were in a trench three feet deep. 
Those buried singly werd in a sitting posture with the lower 
limbs extending horizontally. Those in the trench appeared to 
have been thrown in promiscuously, some of them crosswise. 
Some of the graves had been eight feet deep, others only three or 
four. In the trench was surface earth mixed with the gravel, 
elsewhere- the gravel was pure. Whether the gravel diggers have 
uncovered the whole trench is not known. 

Many, perhaps most, of the skeletons were of unusual size. 
One jaw was so large as so pass readily outside when applied to 
an ordinary man's face. One thigh bone was so long that, when 
put beside the thigh of a man six feet high, the lower part of the 
bone reached four inches below the knee. 

The teeth in the jaws were perfectly sound, some were much 
worn but none were decayed. No hair was found, nor any 
woody nor fibrous material, such as cloth, etc. The bones were 
brittle but the teeth were firm and solid. Elder Thomas Ad- 
dington saw these things personally, helping to take the gravel 
from the bank, and the bones from the gravel. He is a sober- 
minded, intelligent, truthful man. Mr. Painter put the bones in 
a box, and buried them on his farm. 

Mr. Addington said one of the skeletons had high cheek 
bones and long, thin skull like an Indian, and beside it were a 
pipe and dog. The others were not so. 

7. Skeletons have been found in, and taken from a gravel 
bank near Joseph Mills's, on the Windsor pike, two miles south- 
east of Farmland. 

8. Two skeletons were found in Jones's bank near Olive 

9. East of Windsor and north of the Pike, on Esq. Thomp- 
son's farm, may be seen a largo oval mound, covering an acre, 
and twenty-five or thirty feet high. It is 450 yards round the 
base and longer than it is wide. When dug into, it shows clay 
mixed with ashes, and coal more or less. A chunk, seeming to 
have been a sod of grass, was thrown up from the bottom of a 
hole twenty feet deep, dug from the top vertically downward. 
A red oak tree, four feet through, was standing (forty years ago) 
near the top of the mound, but no other trees of much size were 
on its surface. The ground around the mound was then covered 
with large forest trees. There are now many trees growing along 
the sides of the mound, from six to fifteen inches through. 

An excavation of considerable size appeared (forty years ago) 
perhaps twenty rods from the base of the mound, which is thought 
to bo the place whence the earth for its construction was taken. 

Another smaller mound lies across the river not far away. 

Esq. Thompson has preserved many fine specimens of arrow 
heads, hatchets, hammers, pestles, etc., picked up on his farm. 
The hatchets and hammers have hollows cut around them for 


withe handles. The relics arc all of stone. Many of ihcm are 
worked smooth and highly polished. 

10. There was found on Section 34, Town 20, Range 12, 
on Bear Creek, Franklin Township, by George Addington, on 
the farm upon which he resides, a hidden well. He was digging 
in a low but not boggy place on his farui for stock-water. About 
three feet down he struck some puncheons lying Hat, and upon 
removing them he found below a hollow '' gum," and a well, 
inclosed by the gum, ten or twelve feet deep. lie put in an oil 
barrel to complete the " curb,'' and the well is there now, and he 
uses it to water his stock. 

11. Arthur McKcw, of llidgevillc, a prominent and relia- 
ble citizen of the county for nearly fifty years, says that, when 
he was taking the assessment of Greensfork Township (say 
thirty-five years ago), a light-colored mulatto man who lived 
apart from the "settlement" and who had a white wife, showed 
him, not far from his house, what seemed to be a sort of a sunken 
well, filled with logs set endwise in the earth, the ends of the 
logs reaching to the top of the ground. The well ( if it was a 
well) was in the center of a brush-pond, with more or less water 
around it. The roots of the trees for some distance around had 
been "blazed," the blazes pointing from several directions to- 
ward the well as a central point. 

Mr. McKew saw the well and the sunken logs and the 
blazed trees, and it was his understanding that none of the set- 
tlers had dug the well, nor filled it up nor had done the blazing, 
and that none of them knew anything about how the thing 
came there. 

[Note. — The country in the region had been settled some 
thirty years, and it is possible, though hardly probable, that the 
work had been done by some of the settlers.] 

12. There is a large, whitish, mound-like hill or knoll, 
rounil and smooth, with neither trees nor grass, not far from 
Snow Hill Station, north of Lynn, on the Grand liapids llail- 
road, cast of the railroad and west of the [like. This knoll, cov- 
ered in the winter with snow, is thought to have given the name 
to the old town, orhamlot, of Snow Hill. 

1-'!. The graveyard in Jericho ( Friend.^ ) seems to have been 
an ancient burial ground, and human bones have at ditferent 
times been thrown out where none were known to have been 
buried. The graveyard is a large gravelly knoll, of an acre or 
more, ten or fifteen feet high, at a (listance from any stream of 

14. The gravel bank which forms the graveyard at Arba 
is an ancient burial ground. 

15. Bones have been taken from a gravel bank northwest 
of Spartansburg. 

16. Human bones were found in a gravel hill north of 
Stocksdale's, east of the pike, and southeast of Bartonia. 

17. In a gravel bank on the west side of White River, west 
of Mt. Zion Church, near Nathan Butts's, were found several 
skeletons; and, Avith nearly every one, coals of fire seem to have 
been thrown in. They were three or four feet below the surface, 
lying horizontally, and mostly large 'L'he teeth were solid, 
though some were worn. 

[Rev. N. T. Butts, who lives near and helped take them out, 
is our informant.] 

18. There is a considerable knoll, or mound, in Washing- 
ton Township, west of the railroad and of the wagon roail that 
passes along west of the railroad and parallel thereto. It is 
southwest of Snow Hill station, located in Cal. Johnson's field, 
and in sight of the large clayey knoll (No. 12). 

1!). There are some circular embankments on the Bales 
farm (now owned by Mr. Branson), not farfrom Cedar (Friends) 
Meeting House, in Stony Creek Township, a little north of Cabin 
Creek. In one place there are two circular embankments to- 
gether. The circles cut each other. A mound is in the center 
of each circle, higher than the embankment. The earth for both 
the wall and the mound would seem to have been taken from the 

space between the two. The embankments are now about three 
feet higher than the level of the ground outside. The central 
mounds are perhaps ten feet across and four feet high. The 
ground inclosed in both is about three acres, two acres in the 
larger and one acre in the smaller. There is an opening like a 
wagon-way on the east side of each inolosure. 

20. Another on the same farm (Bales's) and on the other 
side of Cabin Creek, is a semi-circle opening to the west. The 
opening is nearly closed by a curved bank, except a space about 
twelve feet wide at each end of the bank. There are depressions 
leading through the passage ways. In the center is a mound 
fifteen feet across, and the inclosure is about two feet high 
(1880), containing two acres. South and near by, is another 
mound fifteen feet across and four feet high. 

The fields have been tilled thirty or forty years (or even 
longer.) At first they were covered by the forest and their 
height was much greater than at present. 

21. Near Buena Vista a stone wall was found near the sur- 
fiico at the base of a hill, extending downward into the earth. 
How doej) it went or how long the wall was, our informant does 
not know. The part he saw was a rod or so long. It was be- 
tween Buena Vista and Unionsport, on the south side of the 
•oad, on land owned by Elliott, about one-half mile south of 

the r 


22. Temple Smith (now living near Stone Station) picked 
uitastonc (triangular, six inches to a side) an inch thick, scoopcil 
hollowing in the middle on both sides, very smooth, and highly 
polished, of a dark, yellowish cast. 

23. On Mulligan's farm east of Stone Station, Mr. Lewis 
f<jund (ten or twelve years ago), a dark, streaked stone, very 
smooth, long and round, two inches through, with a smooth, 

I round hoi.! drilled nearly through lengthwise ; one end had been 
j broken olV, the otlKr was smooth and fiat. 

24. /imri Moll'at, east of Winchester, found a tombstone with 
part broken oft', 144 years old. [When it was found was not 

I told]. 

2o. When digging a well near Solomon Wright's, not far 
I from the mouth of Cabin Creek, the diggers found, at the depth 
j of twenty-five feet, a walnut log six inches thick. They cut the 
j log out as long as the wiMi of the well, and brought it to the top. 
j This was thirty years ago. The log lay at least ten feet below 
the channel or bod of Cabin Creek near by. 

20. A Mr. Osborn, who was at Amos Smith's, one-half 
mile south of Powers' Station, Jay County, Ind., told as follows 
[1880] : 

In a ditch dug by Joseph Stevens, in the northeast part of 
Green Township, nearly south of Powers' Station, to drain a pond, 
great numbers of human bones were taken out, many being of 
unusual size. The jaw bones were full of teeth. 

The jaw.s were Iirittle, and the teeth, though sound and solid 
in texture, were yet so loose as to shake readily in the sockets. 

There was founil also what seemed to be a shriveled hand, 
like the hand of a little child. 

[Not:;.— Whether any remains of mastodons or other huge 
animals have come to light in Randolph County, we are unable 
at present to say. No such discovery has ever come to our 


(JlLAl'TER n. 



uiiiks-Ua('ks — ('unci 



Ti!()Ui)Li:s— Wails — T 

tiCATiKs — ltnsi;i;\ 



(;t— DlcsTiNV— W 

AND Chief— Pea( 

E Coming— TixvMSKu' 



T PROM its first (liscovery by Do Soto in 1540, as also at and 
Jj after the time when La Sally and the French pioneers explored 
the great river in 1680, down to the period 6f which \vc intend- 
more especially to treat, tliere had been e.xisting through the 
whole Mississippi Valley a somewhat dense Indian population. 
AVlien De Soto reached the Mississippi (as rchited by his 
clironicler), " A great cacique, Aquixo, came to meet the strang- 
ers with an imposing array of 200 canoes, filled with armed men, 
a part of whom stood up to protect the rowers with feathered 
shields, but all with their bodies and faces painted, and their 
heads adorned with plumes of many colors. The caciques and 
other chiefs were sheltered under awnings. Tlie canoes were 
most neatly made, and were very large, and, with their pavilions, 
feathers, shields and standards, looked like a fleet of galleys. 
They brought presents of fish and fruit and bread ; and came, 
they said, to welcome and do homage to the strangers." 

And when the French explorers floated down the river to 
Akansea, and when La Salle after them and 140 years later 
than De Soto, guided his adventurous canoe along the current of 
the mighty Father of Waters downward to the Gulf of i\Icxico. 
and set up the cross and tlie flag of France, as a token of the 
proud claim that this whole vast region belonged by right of dis- 
covery and exploration to the haughty monarch of that proud 
kingdom, — they found, at every point, abundant evidences of a 
numerous population. 


At that time and long before it, the region now composing 
the territory of Indiana was occupied by the tribes of Indians 
belonging to the Miami confederacy. 

That confederacy consisted of several Algonfjuin tribes, and 
it had been formed many years before for mutual protection and 
defense, especially against the fierce and powerful Iroquois, or 
Five Nations, who had made frequent and fatal incursions into 
the beautiful valley against the Indians dwelling therein. Prom- 
inent among these Western tribes were the Miamis, the Pottawat- 
omies, the Weas, the Piankeshaws, etc. 


At the junction of the St. Mary's and the St. Joseph's, near 
what is now the city of Ft. Wayne, .stood, as the key to the grand 
thoroughfare from tlie lakes to the Ohio, Kekionga, the ancient 
and venerated capital of the Miamis. It had been visited by 
white men at least as early as 1076 (and jierhaps even much 
earlier than that, as late researches into the French accounts of 
the explorations of those times would seem to indicate). Says a 
narrator. Judge , given in Tattle's History of Indiana : 

"The ancient route between the Ottawa (Maumee) and tlie 
Wabash, and onward to the Ohio and the Mississippi, was first made 
known to the French in Canada by a visit of one of their priests 
from the mission on Lake Michigan to Kekionga about the year 
1676. Nor can there be any doubt that Baron La Salic was at 
Kekionga in the year 1680, as his letter to the Governor General 
of Canada states that fact, and also mentions that the route 
alluded to had already been traversed by French traders from 

La Salle is said by some to have built a stockade fort at 
Kekionga in 1680. Vincennes was at the place in 1705, and 
found there several Indian traders from Pennsylvania. Periiaps 
Vincennes at that time (1705) built the French stockade, the dim 

1 visible when Gen. Wayne built Ft. 

i of the Western India 

outlines of which \ 
Wayne in 1794. 


A brief account may here be ; 
and of their Eastern enemies. 

Two great confeileraoies had been formed. 

1. The Iroquois in the East. 2. The Miamis in the West. 

The Iroquois confederacy is supposed to have begun with the 
Mohawks, that tribe uniting at first with the Oneidas. After- 
ward the league was enlarged by the accession thereto of the 
Onondagas, the Senecas, the Cayugas ; and, after many years, 
finally by the Tuscaroras (in 1712). Their territory was at first 
in New York and Canada, but they enlarged their hunting grounds 
by conquest, till at length they roamed over parts of New En- 
gland, over New York, Kentucky, Virginia and Illinois. They 
had warred against the tribes in the Ohio region, and obliged them 
also to combine for the common protection and defense. 

The Algonquins, consisting of many tribes, occupied portions 
of the country from Massachusetts and New Jersey on the cast 
to the Mississippi on the west. The chief nations were the New 
England Indians, the Mohegans, Delawares and Powhatans in 
the central East, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, 
Miamis, Shawnees, etc., in the Mississippi Valley. 

The Algonquins were a splendid race, rivaled only by the 
Dakotas in the West and the Iroquois in the Lake Regions. The 
Miamis were perhaps the leading Algonquin nation, at any rate, 
among the ablest belonging to that race. 

The tribes mainly inhabiting Indiana were the Miamis, the 
Pottawatomies, the Weas and the Kickapoos. 

The Shawnees were chiefly in Southern Ohio and Kentucky 
and the Illinois between the Wabash and the Mississippi. 

The tribes in the Missi.ssippi Valley, northwest of the Ohio, 
had been greatly weakened by their fierce conflicts with the power- 
ful Iroquois, yet they still had considerable strength. For many 
years after the coming of the French, they were able to muster a 
large array of armed warriors, e(iuippod for attack or for defense, 
and, even up to the beginning of the second decade of the nine- 
teenth century, continued to cause much fear and suSering, and 
great calamity upon the encroaching and aggressive white man. 


Miamis. Meche-cun-naquah, or Little Turtle, 1747-1812. 
Jean B. Richeville (Richardville), 1761-1841. Francis La Fon- 
taine, 1810-1847. The Godfreys, Fram.ois and Lewis, lived at 
Godfrey Farm, and then at the mouth of the Mississinewa. 

Fottim atomies, Metea, died 1827 ; Waubunsee, war uf 1812. 

Delawares, Red Hawk, battle of Kanawha. 

Ciujuija or Mingo, Logan, battle of Kanawha. 

Slunviwe, Spemica Lawba (Iligh-horn) or Capt. Logan, born 
on Mad River, Ohio, 1788 ; friendly to the whites ; gave great aid 
to the whites; killed near Fort Wayne, 1812. 

Cornstalk, battle of Kanawha, 1774 ; treacherously murdered 
l)y the white soldiers in a fort which he had entered peaceable and 

Shawanose, Blue Jacket, at Wayne's victory, 1794 ; chief 
spirit among the tribes. Black Wolf, born in Florida, of high 
rank; cunning, graceful, brave; was at Braddock's defeat, 
and So on to 1794 ; was mild and merciful ; died at Wapokonet- 
ta, one hundred and ten years old. Tecumseh, born on Mad 
River. Ohio, 1768; killed on the Thames, Canada, 1813. The 
Prophet, brother of Tecumseh, confederate with him ; survived 
the war ; pensioned by British Government. 

WyaiidotH, Nicholas ; conspiracy of 1747-48. 

Ottaivas, Pontiac, war of 1763, near Detroit. 


I\Ir. Hawkins says : (Joseph Hawkins, of Jay County, Ind.) 
" I was well acquainted with Johnny Green, the old Indian war- 
rior mentioned by Jere Smith. 



" The Indian chiefs were Cornstalk, Blue Jacket, Split Log 
and Capt. Johnny, Shawnees or Delawares ; Kichardville and 
the two Godfreys, Fran(;ois and Lewis, Miamis. 

" This Cornstalk was not the chief who led the Indians in the 
battle of th(; Kanawha, 1774. That Cornstalk (as also his son) 
was basely ghot while in a fort by the soldiers therein, into which 
he and his boo had gone in a peaceable and friendly manner." 

Mr. Htvwkins was intimate when a boy with the Godfroy 
chiefs and thsir families. He gives the following incident con- 
cerning Poqua Godfroy (son of Chief Fran(;ois): 

" Poqufe Godfroy (son of Chief Francois) got into an affray 
at Hamilton. He was about twenty-one years old. He was 
frightened, and thought the white folks were going to kill him, 
and so he tried to be beforehand with them, and sliished away right 
and left himself. He was arrested for assault and battery, but 
was at length released on bail, and suffered to depart. On his 
way home,' the first man he saw whom he knew was my brother, 
Samuel Hawkins, at Winchester, after the mail. The boy was 
wild with joy ; he cried out, ' 0, you my friend; you shall go 
home with me. They try to kill me, but you my friend ! ' 

" And Samuel took his mail that way, and went home with 
Poqua and stayed overnight at the house of the old chief, much 
to the delight of the frightened Indian boy and his aged father 
also." Chief Godfroy afterward moved to the mouth of the Mis- 
sissenewa, uni died there not far from 1840. Ilis stately monu- 
ment is still to be seen on the north side of the river near the 

Godfroy was the home chief, and Richeville was the war chief 
of the Miamis. Godfroy was an honest, upright, reliable man, 
esteemed by the whites and beloved by the Indians. 

Black 'Hoof [Cat-ah6-kasa], a Shawnee chief, was born in 
Florida, wliije his tribe sojourned in the South. They returned 
to Ohio and he with them. 

The tirue of his birth is not known, but he was a leading 
chief at Bi-addock's defeat, in 1755, and in all the Indian wars 
for forty years afterward. 

He felt keenly the encroachments of the whites, and fought 
them with the bitterness of desperation. But, seeing at last the 
utter hopelessness of the struggle, he yielded, and ever afterward 
he stood for peace. Tecumseh tried to draw the old chief into 
his conspifacy, but tried in vain. Black Hoof liad fought the 
whites long enough, and bade the fierce Tecumseh go his way. 
He opposed polygamy, living forty years with a single wife and 
rearing a large family of children. He died at Wapokonetta, 
aged one Jtundred and ten years. 

Blue Jacket [Weya-pier-scn-wah], a Shawnee chief, was 
the Indiati leader at their defeat by Gen. Wayne in 1794. 
In the council held before the battle, the decision would have 
been for p(!ace, but his voice changed the day, and they made the 
attack an(i were routed. 

He was at the treaty of Greenville, spoke for peace, signed 
the treaty and kept his word. 

Cornstalk (the elder) was a Shawnee chief of bravery and 
distinction, and one of the leaders of his tribe at the battle of the 
Kanawha (Point Pleasant), Va., in 1776. He had tried before 
that disastrous engagement to induce his people to bury the 
hatchet, but in vain. After that, however, his efforts were 
crowned with success. He submitted in good faith to the whites, 
joined in the treaty and observed it faithfully, and lived quietly 
and at pejicp. Some of the Indians, however, remained hostile, 
and such was the temper of the times and so ready were the 
whites to commit atrocities against the helpless "red men," that, 
in 1777, wtten Cornstalk and his son, Enilipsco, both of excellent 
character, of kindly disposition, and entirely and sincerely friendly 
and peacojible, entered, in amity and good will, the American fort 
at Point pleasant, they were murdered in cold blood. Cornstalk 
himself foil pierced by seven or eight bullets. His grave is said 
yet to be visible at Point Pleasant near the site of the ancient 

Some of the descendants of the old chief are thought to be 
still living, residing on the Kansas River. One of his sons lived 
to a greatly advanced age. 

^'■Johnny Green" was a chief who dwelt in the region of Ran- 
dolph, and well known to many of the settlei's of that time. 
Several mention him in their " Reminiscences." He was some- 
what noted in the Indian wars, being present at " Wiiyne's vic- 
tory " in 1794. He is supposed to have been concerned in the 
killing of Morgan in Wayne County. He had much provoca- 
tion to the deed, since Morgan was a bitter " Indian hater," 
and had, not very long before, undertaken treacherously to procure 
the murder of the old Indian. At Brookville (perhaps), 
"Johnny" had obtained leave to accompany some whites in a 
trip they were making. Soon after they started, Morgan, among 
others, tried to induce the crowd to kill Green, and succeeded in 
getting a vote to that effect. One of the party took Johnny under 
his protection, and got him safely away. 

A white man was burned at the stake by the Indians some- 
where east of Muncie, but the particulars of the fact, whether as 
to reasons, time or parties engaged, we have never learned. 

[Note. — Whether this " Johnny Green's tribe " (mentioned 
below) belonged to the "Johnny Green " already named, we are 
not able to state. There may have been more than one " Johnny 
Green," as there were two "Cornstalks" and two " Killbucks." 
Johnny Green's Tribe. — They emigrated to the West and 
settled in Iowa, and they now live in Story County, near Mar- 
shalltown, on the Iowa River, above Iowa Rapids. 

Johnny Green, the old chief, is dead, and his son, "Buck 
Green," is now chief The number of the tribe is about 350. 
They own a reserve of land ; have good houses and dress mostly 
like whites, though the women go bareheaded and wear blan- 
kets and moccasins, Indian-fashion. 

The men spend most of their time in hunting ; the women 
make baskets and beadwork and other curious things. The 
tribe is harmless and peaceable. The squaws may often be seen 
riding by on ponies, with pannier baskets laden with trinkets 
for sale, and having, besides, a child in each basket, the whole 
cavalcade presenting a sight comical to behold. [This account is 
given by a friend of the author's, who resides in Iowa in the 
vicinity of the tribe in question]. 

. Francis La Fontaine, Miami Chief.— His Indian name was 
To-pe-ah. His father was French and his mother a Miami woman, 
and he was born near Ft. Wayne, in 1810. In 1832, he married 
Catharine (Po-con-go-qua), daughter of Chief Richardville, and 
upon the old chief's death was chosen principal chief. He 
moved to the forks of the Wabash, and lived there till the re- 
moval of his tribe west of the Mississippi, in 1846. 

He spent the Winter with his people, but returned in the spring ; 
was taken ill on the journey, and died at La Fayette, April 13, 
1847, aged thirty-seven years. In person, he was tall, corpulent 
and robust, a man of wonderful size and strength, his usual weight 
being 350 pounds. He presented, when dressed in Indian cos- 
tume, a splendid specimen of manly dignity. 

He had seven children, only two of whom are now living. 
His body was embalmed at La Fayette, brought to Hunting- 
ton and buried there. 

Edward Edger, long time a dealer in furs, etc., with the In- 
dians, says that one chief La Fontaine, was living there ten or 
twelve years ago, on the Indian Reserve, that he visited that 
chief at that time, at his house in that region. 

JoJin B. Richardiiille (Pe-che-wa), was the son of the sister 
of Little Turtle, Taucumwah, by a French trader, Joseph 
Drouct de Richeville, born about 1761. Pe-che-wa became 
the recognized chief by a daring act of humane valor when but a 
young man. He was present at's defeat in 1790 ; signed 
the treaty of Greenville in 1795, of Ft. Wayne and of Vin- 
cennes in 1809, and of St. Mary's in 1818. 

In 1827, he built a fine dwelling on his reservation, five miles 
from Ft. Wayne. He was an extensive trader, having an estab- 


lishmentin Ft. Wayne, but moving, in 1836, to the Forks of the 
Wabash, he died at his house at St. Mary's, August 13 ,1841, 
aged about eighty-one years. He was of middling height and 
weight, quiet, modest and retiring, but genteel and manly in his 
deportment with the whites, and having a large influence over his 
people and, moreover, highly respected and confided in by the 
white settlers. His daughters erected a marble monument over 

He was succeeded by Francis La Fontaine, who had married 
Catharine, daughter of Richardyille, 

Captain Logan (Spemica Lawba — High Horn), a Shawnee 
chief, was born on Mad River, Ohio, in 1778. He was captured 
when a lad by Capt. Benjamin Logan, of Kentucky, in 1786 ; 
was adopted by him, and afterward returned to his tribe, con- 
tinuing, however, to be the friend of the whites. This friend.ship 
he showed in a most remarkable manner, finally sealing his fidel- 
ity with his hlood. 

He was one of Gen. Hull's guides to Detroit in 1812. Af- 
terward he conducted twenty-five women and children from Ft. 
Wayne to Piqua, through the wilderness, with signal kindness 
and humanity, making the entire journey without sleep, and 
treating his helpless charge with the utmost gentleness and the 
most delicate attention. 

During the siege of Ft. Wayne by the Indians, after the 
surrender of Detroit by Hull in August, 1812, it was determined 
to send relief from Piqua, and it became necessary to convey the 
information to the beleaguered fort. Two white men with Capt. 
Logan and some friendly and faithful Shawnees undertook the 
perilous task. They paissed the besiegers and reached the fort 
in safety, and Capt. Logan, with Capt. Johnny and Bright Horn, 
two of his Indian companions, retraced their steps to their com- 
rades, who were waiting outside the besiegers' linos. The rc-en- 
forcoraents reached the fort, and the Indians finally withdrew and 
abandoned the siege. Subsequently he met his death in a most 
affecting manner, which can be best related by quoting (substan- 
tially) from " Kingma.n Bros.' History of Allen County, Ind." 

On the morning of November 22, 1812, a subordinate officer 
charged him with unfaithfulness. Stung by this charge and to 
prove its falsity, he started with Capt. Johnny and Bright Horn 
down the Maumee to reconnoiter. Suddenly they were surprised 
and captured by a company under Winarnac, a Pottawatomie chief, 
and Elliot, a half-breed in the British employ. Seizing the op- 
portunity, they attacked their captors, killing two and wounding 
three more. Logan, however, received a fatal wound, and Bright 
Horn was also wounded. Capt. Johnny mounted the two wound- 
ed men, each upon one of the enemy's horses, and started them 
toward the camp, which they reached about midnight. He stayed 
long enough to secure Winamac's scalp, and came in on foot, 
reaching camp by daylight. Capt. Logan lingered two days in 
intense suffering, and died. He was buried with the honors of 
war, but his death cast a gloom over the entire army, and espe- 
cially caused great grief to him whose bitter words had impelled 
Capt. Logan to the act by which he met his untimely death at 
the early age of thirty-four. 

Metea, a Pottawatomie chief, was a brave, skillful and 
athletic warrior, reaching the acme of his power during the war 
of 1812. Ho undertook to ambush Gen, Harrison's army as they 
were marching to the relief of Ft. Wayne. 

He might perhaps have succeeded, but hi.< party were dis- 
covered by Capt. Mann of the American forces. Metea was 
behind a tree, but his left arm was e.\posed. Capt. i\Iann 
instantly took aim, crippled the arm, and rushed forward in hot 
pursuit. Metea fled and escaped. 

The chief's arm never recovered, and Metea often recounted 
the incident, giving Capt. Mann great praise for his bravery. He 
was remarkably intelligent, a fine orator, and an acute reasoner. 
He died in 1827 from poison by some hostile Indians. 

Liltle Turtle. (Me-che-cun-ne-qiiah) was tlie son of A(]uc- 
nac-que, a great Miami war chief, who represented his nation at 

the treaty of Lancaster, Pcnn., in 1748. Little Turtle was born 
in 1748. His mother was a Mohegan, and a superior woman. 
They lived at the Turtle village on Eel River, sixteen miles 
northwest of Fort Wayne. He showed remarkable power and skill 
even from boyhood, and, on the death of his father, was chosen 
chief of his tribe. He proved the wisdom of the choice by his 
wonderful prowess. He led the savages at Harmar's and St. 
Clair's defeats ; he was at the attack on Fort St. Clair, near 
Eaton, Ohio, in November, 1792, as also at the action at Fort 
Recovery, Ohio, in June, 1704. He took part in the fight at 
Wayne's victory in the fall of 1794, though he protested against 
attacking Gen. Wayne and advocated peace with the whites. 

The Government built him a house on his reservation at Eel 
River in consideration of his efl"orts for peace, and he lived like a 
white man. In 1802 (or 180-3), he appealed to the Legislature of 
Kentucky to stop the sale of liquors to the Indians, and likewise 
to that of Ohio, but without success. He said: "They [the 
traders] strip the poor Indian of skins, guns, blankets, everything, 
while the squaws and children lie shivering and starving in his 
wigwam," — a picture true to the life, and a burning shame to the 

He firmly opposed Tecuraseh in his schemes for a general 
war, and, January 25, 1812, wrote to Gen, Harrison pledging him- 
self to do all in his power to preserve peace. But shortly after- 
ward he died. He had the gout and went to Fort Wayne to 
obtain medical aid, but without avail, for he died July 14, 1812, 
at the " Old Orchard," in his tent. He was buried with the 
honors of war, and his Indian ornaments and accouterments, 
including a sword, given him by Gen. Washington, and a medal 
having upon it Gen. W.'s likeness, were buried with him. 

Some years afterward Coesse, his nephew, who was himself a 
chief, came to Fort Wayne und pronounced a most elo<iuent and 
pathetic oration over tiie grave of his uncle, which was listened to 
with deep interest by many of the citizens of Fort Wayne. 

Wauhumee, Pottowatamie, was a cruel and vindictive savage. 
He often became drunk, and was then more of a devil than a 
man ; yet he was reckone<l a brave and daring chief. He was one 
who added to the awful savagery of tlie terrible massacre after 
the surrender at Fort Dearborn by his ferocious brutality. 

Francois Godfroij \^:\?, a Miami chief; he lived on the "God- 
froy Reserve" till about 1839, when he sold out and moved to 
the mouth of the Mississincwa, where he died about 1840, and 
where his monument is still to be seen on the north side of the 
river, near the mouth. He had three sons — Francis, Poqua and 

There were several Indian villages in that region — White 
Woman's Village, Deaf Man's Village, Blind j\Lan's Village, 
and Cote Sippon's Village. Meshomingia's Village was farther 
up the Wabash. 

Godfroy was a fine ?pecimen of Indian character, as were also 
several of the other chiefisofthe region — Cornstalk, Richardville, 
La Fontaine, etc. 

Tcciiimcli, Shawnee chief, was born near the Indian town 
of Piqua, on Mad River, Ohio, in 1708. His parents moved 
from Florida about 1750. His father was killed in tiie famous 
battle at Point Pleasant, on the Kanawha in Western Virginia. 
Tecumseh became leader of the tribe, being declared chief some 
time before 1795, living then near Deer Creek, Urbana, Ohio. 
In 1798, he is supposed to have changed his residence to White 
River, Indiana. Judge Wharry, of Greenville, whoso memory 
extends back to those times, says that Tecumseh and his brother 
came to Mud Creek, near Greenville, and took up their residence 
there not far from 1799. He says that their tribe had driven 
them away, and that they were still living near Greenville at the 
first settlement of Darke County, and that the place where they 
had their dwelling is still called Tecumseh Point. If this be so, 
and Judge Wharry would seem to have the means of knowing ttie 
ficts, the statement explains their whereabouts lietwcen 1708 and 
1809. His brother, Lau-le-wa-si-kau, announced himself as a 


" Prophet" by the name of Pems-quat'a-wah (Open Door.) Te- 
cumseh \Yas five feet ten inches high, stoutly buiit, and of great 
endurance, of superior shrewdness and skill, and large intelligence 
for an Indian. He is stated to have been able to read and 
write. He is said also to have occupied the first dwelling on 
the site of Chicago. Tecuraseh, in 1809, was at Harrison's 
treaty at Fort Wayne, and would not sign that treaty, severely 
denouncing also those who did so. In 1810, he traversed the 
Southern regions, stirring up the Indians of the whole eastern 
Mississippi Valley to vengeance and a war of extermination ; and 
with much success, though many, especially in the Northwest, 
refused to join him. 

He traveled incessantly, haranguing his dusky countrymen 
with wonderful eloquence, and amazing power and effect. He 
opposed land grants by the Indian tribes, declaring that they 
should give no more foothold to the white intruders. The excite- 
ment amn.ig the Indians was very great, though Tecumseh failed 
to carry the whole body of his race to his views and plans. If 
ho had been able to do so, the disastrous results would have 
indeed been terrible beyond conception. Even as it was, they 
were fearful enough. Tecumseh was greatly enraged at his 
brother the Prophet, because he had precipitated the conflict 
between the Indians and the whites before he (Tecumseh) was 
ready. The result of the battle at Tippecanoe (Prophet's Town), 
so disastrous to the Indians, disconcerted their plans, and greatly 
discouraged the haughty leaders and their wild and savage fol- 
lowers ; but the contest was still kept up for some two years, till 
the death of Tecumseh at the battle of the Thames, in Canada, 
in 1813, crushed the hopes of the warriors, and a lasting peace 
was made. 

Gov. Harrison from Vincennes had tried to conciliate the 
chieftain and his brother before the war opened, but in vain. 

He marched at length to Tippecanoe, and November 7, 1811, 
resisting a terrible night attack of seven hundred Indians, routed 
them in the morning, burned the Prophet's Town, and marched 
back to Vincennes triumphant. 

Tecumseh was in the south at the time, and on his return, 
finding the Indian power broken, attached himself to the British, 
betaking himself and the braves who still clung to him to Canada 
for the purpose. 

Tecumseh, though stern and savage, had yet some noble 
traits. He was less cruel than some of the British officers. Like 
the Mohawk chief, Thayandanega [Brant], in the Revolution, 
who was far less cruel than Col. Walter Butler, the Tory parti- 
san, and many times saved prisoners when Butler would have 
slain them, so Tecumseh, though fierce and furious, yet inter- 
fered in behalf of mercy against the relentless Proctor, the Brit- 

Tecuraseh was active with the English in Canada after he 
joined them till he was killed at the battle of the Thames, Octo- 
ber 5, 1813. His death utterly crushed the hopes of the native 
confederacy. A large portion of the Indians had held out against 
all the efforts of Tecumseh and his brother, and now the " hos- 
tiles " submitted, and for this region Indian war waB forever at 
an end. 

In several battles soon after, in the south, the Indian power 
in that region also was demolished. At Emuckfau, January 22, 
1814, the Creeks were defeated by Gen. Jackson. March 27, 
1814, at 'Tohopeka [Horseshoe Bend], a bend in the Tallapoosa, 
the Creeks, a thousand strong, besides their women and children, 
in a strong fortification awaited the final onset of the whites. 
Gen. Jackson led his men to the attack, storming the breastworks 
and killing the whole number. The chiefs who were not at the 
battle submitted, and the power of the nation was at an end. 

Maj. Adams, who was in Harmar's defeat, and who was in 
later years Judge of Darke County Court, had five balls shot 
into him in that terrible battle, which he carried to the end of 
his days, as a continual reminder of Indian prowess. 

Gen. St. Clair was utterly unfit for the command of such an 

expedition into the wilderness against fierce and unruly savages. 
He was bed-ridden and helpless with the gout. He could neither 
mount nor dismount his horse without help, and his second in 
command. Brig. Gen. Richard Butler, was killed in the fatal bat- 
tle resulting in St. Clair's defeat. 

Harmar's army is said to have been in a wretched condition, 
lacking supplies and almost in mutiny. St. Clair's men, it is 
stated, were much in the same condition, the troops worn out with 
forced raiirches, and half starved with great lack of rations. Both 
armie.'' were badly supplied, badly fed, badly led, badly handled ; 
and bad, shameful, disgraceful defeats were the wretched result. 
The efforts of the Indian braves at various times since the intrusion 
of the European invaders to rid the country of their hated pres- 
ence have indeed been heroic ; and, in any other race of men, 
would have challenged and commanded the admiration of man- 
kind. Opecancanough, Philip of Po-kan-o-ket, Pontiac, Tecum- 
seh, Osceola, Capt. Jack, and others like them, struggled bravely, 
as much so, perhaps, considering the fearful odds against them, 
as any people under the sun, but ever in vain. They saw the 
wave of invasion rolling fiercely and ceaselessly over the land, 
and put forth herculean and sometimes frantic attempts to check 
its progress and destroy its power, but their cunning and their 
fury were alike for naught. 

Tecumseh was an orator of wonderful power, and his speech 
in reply to Gov. Harrison, at Vincennes, was one of the most 
remarkable ever delivered. The chief was straight, athletic, 
manly, dignified ; and in a most impassioned appeal he described 
the wrongs of his race by the Vihite man, and declared his uncon- 
querable determination to submit no longer, but to stand to the 
death, and crush the white man's power or be crushed thereby. 

That interview between the two chieftains. Gov. Harrison and 
Tecumseh, is historic. It was the stern defiance of the red man, 
and his bitter challenge to a grand, final and exterminating con- 

Tecumseh was bold, intrepid, arrogant. As the Governor was 
speaking, " Tell him he lies," broke from the Indian warrior, 
which ended the interview. The next day, at the final confer- 
ence, Tecumseh said, " The whites must not cross the ' old bound- 
ary.' " Replied Gon. Harrison, " The United States will enforce 
the treaty, by the sword, if need be." " So be it," was the reply 
of the warrior, and they parted, to meet in person during life no 

Tecumseh hasted southward, and, by heroic and almost super- 
human exertions, he undertook to arouse the native tribes to 
relentless hostility. While he was absent, the battle of Tippe- 
canoe had occurred, contrary to his express orders, and frustrat- 
ing all his plans. Still, however, he kept a bold front, striving 
constantly to maintain the conflict against the United States. In 
1812 or 1813, he joined Gen. Proctor at Maiden, and took part 
in the battle of the Thames, October 5, 1813, in which the famous 
chieftain was killed. By whom the act was done has been reck- 
oned uncertain. Most have supposed that Col. R. M. Johnson, 
of Kentucky, was the fortunate personage, but a statement is 
made in a " History of Indiana and of Elkhart County," Charles 
C. Chapman & Co., Chicago, 1881, as follows, page 108 : 

" Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the Thames, October 
5. 1813, by a Mr. Wheatly, as we are positively informed by Mr 
A. J. James, now a resident of La Hsrpe Township, Hancock 
Co , 111., whoso father-in-law, John Pigman, of Coshocton County, 
Ohio, was an eye witness." Col. Johnson never positively 
claimed the honor of having killed Tecumseh, but his simple 
statement of the circumstatices of that battle seemed to render 
it probable that he had done so, and most people have thought 
he did. 

As has been stated, the death of Tecumseh crushed among 
the Indians every possible hope of success, and they sucoumbec^ 

Lau-le-was-i-kaw, the Prophet, who called himself Pems- 
quat-a-wah (Open Door), was a Shawnee warrior, and the broth- 


er of tlie celebrated Tccuraseh ; was a good orator, and ingratiat- 
ed himself with the tribes by denouncing witchcraft, the U3e of 
liquor, mingling with white men in marriage, dress, etc. He 
pretended to cure all diseases and to make his tribes victorious. 
Ho leagued with his brother, Tecumseh, establishing himself at a 
town nonr T,a Fayette. 

In the battle of Tippecanoe, he stood on a hill singing a favor- 
ite war song, assuring them of an easy victory. Their defeat 
broke their faith in the Prophet and crushed the confederacy. 

The Prophet took up his abode with a few Wyandots, on 
Wildcat Creek, his town being destroyed November 8, 1811. 

In 1812, the Prophet and some warriors moved to Detroit 
and were received as friends and allies of Great Britain. 

At the close of the war he retired to Canada, returning after- 
ward to the Shawnee settlement in Ohio, and still again emi- 
grating westward beyond the Mississippi, where he died in 1834. 
The British Government allowed him a pension till his death. 
Judge Wharry (often mentioned in these sketches) says that he, 
when a lad, saw the "Prophet," in 1813, at Frankfinton, near 
Columbus, Ohio. 

He seems to have been far inferior to his brother, the fam- 
ous chieftain, in the elements of greatness; and to his incompe 
tence as a leader, Tecumseh always charged the defeat of his 
plans and the crushing failure of all his schemes for the con- 
quest of the whites; although it is, of course, true, that no possi- 
ble combination among the Indians could have achieved success 
against the superior intelligence and power of the redoubtable 
white race. 

Black Hmok, Sac chief, was a famous warrior and chieftain 
(born at the mouth of Rock River, 1767), who led his nation in 
the struggle of the savages against the whites about 1832. After 
a few months of conflict he was taken prisoner and carried to 
Washington and elsewhere, to let him realize by veritable eye- 
sight the actual and wondrous superiority of the whites over his 
own people. He saw, and was convinced, and submitted to terms 
of peace and amity. 

He died about 1837 or 1838, on the banks of the Des Moines, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground in Indian style. [Another account 
snys he was buried in a grave six feet deep.] They were stolen 
and carried away, but were recovered by the Governor of Iowa, 
and placed in the museum of the historical society at Burling- 
ton, Iowa, where they were finally destroyed by fire. 

David Connor, Indian trader and chief [white man], came 
to Greenville in 1811 or 1812, and opened a small store and trad- 
ing house, from which he dispensed blankets, calico, powder, lead, 
flints, tobacco, whisky and what not, to the "noble red men." 
He was married, but his wife remained in Greenville, refusing to 
accompany him in his wild life among the Indians. Although a 
rough, hard man in many respects, yet ho had some good traits. 
He wielded a great influence over the Indians, which ho some- 
times employed for good purposes. In about 1824 (so says Judge 
Wharry, of Greenville, Ohio, who knew Connor all his life) some 
New York Indians, traveling to Green Bay, were murdered by 
some white villains in Indiana. Connor succeeded in securing 
justice and keeping the peace, and the Miamis on that account 
made him a "chief" of their tribe, with all due ceremony. He 
established himself at Fort Recovery soon after the war of 1S12 
had closed in the West, probably in 1814. Ho had used his in- 
fluence in securing the treaty of peace, and had made some ene- 
mies thereby. Several Indians came to his store one day, and 
told him they had come to kill him. " All right," said he " give 
mo a few minutes to fix things up." They granted his request 
and sat down. Suddenly he took a keg of powder, poured it on 
a deer skin, and seizing a fire brand, swore in strong, rough 
Miami, that he and they "should go to h — 11 together." They 
"got" in a "heap hurry." The Indians never molested him 
again. One of them told Judge Wharry: " Connor one devil of 
a man; he care no more for Indians than he care for himself." 

He next built a shanty above Deerfield (1820-21). After a 
few years he moved down the river to three miles below Wheel- 
ing and twenty miles above Marion. Still again he moved three 
miles below Marion, bought land, built mills, grew rich, and died 
some years ago. 

[Note. Some will have it that he had a station at Mississi- 
newa crossing, near Allensville, and also one at Ridgeville, but 
the residents along the river do not understand the matter thus.] 

At Greenville, the understanding was that ho had a wife and 
two boys, and that she would not go with him in his wild, roving 
border life, and he "took up" with Polly Voorhees, by whom he 
raised a large family. He was a very rough, outbreaking man, 
80 passionate that few dared to cross him. R. H. Sumption taught 
school near him, and six of his children attended the school. He 
did not call for his pay till the middle of the second term. The 
bill was large, and Mr. S. feared he might not take the matter 
kindly. Connor happened to be in good humor and paid the 
bill without a word. At one of his " posts," the Indians got 
" ahead " of him. He had a shed at tho side of his cabin, and a 
log out on the side next the store-room, and as he bought bun- 
dles of skins, he would toss them through the " crack " into the 
shed. By some means the Indians made or found a hole from 
the outside into the shed, through which they got out parcels of 
skins. First one would get out a parcel and take it in and sell 
it to Connor, then another, and so on, till Connor began to won- 
der whore they got so many coon skins. Polly had noticed the 
game of the " red skins," and at last she said, " Connor, you fool, 
how long are you going to buy your own coon skins ? " " Why?" 
said he. " Because," said she, " those tarnal Ingins have been 
stealing your coon skins and selling them to you over and over." 
What he did then and there is not told, but we may easily guess 
that there was a "rumpus," or danger of one about that time. 
[Burgett Pierce and others mention Connor in their recitals.] 

Tho " Jay County History " says " that a pioneer family lived 
for a considerable time in a cabin built at Fort Recovery, Ohio, by 
David Connor, for a trading house at that point. So that most 
probably Mr. Connor traded at one period with the Indians near 
Fort Recovery. Judge Wharry, of Greenville, who knew Con- 
nor well, states that ho went from Greenville to Fort Recovery 
in 1814, and stayed and traded at that location for several years. 


We subjoin an account of the death of "Fleming," an 
Indian (not indeed a chief), which occurred near Ridgeville, 
soon after the settlement of that vicinity, given by Joseph 
Hawkins, Esq., of Jay County, Ind., as told him by parties 
acquainted with the transaction. Some account of thesams trag- 
edy may be found in the reminiscences of Thomas Ward, George 
Thomas, and perhaps others. One Smith, a mulatto, had a white 
wife. She told the Indian, Fleming, that if he would kill Smith 
she would marry him. The Indian shot Smith through tho body, 
but did not kill him. Out of this in some way grew the fact that 
some half-drunk Indians (Fleming and others) made an attack on 
Joab Ward. He was at breakfast, and they came in armed with 
butcher knives. He arose, seized a g-n from the hooks, and 
sprang backward to the outer door, and into the back yard, point- 
ing his loaded gun at one and another of the gang. Elias Kizer 
managed to get another lo.aded gun, and joined Ward in the yard. 
Then Fleming began to run, and Ward told Kizer to shoot him, 
which he did, the bullet striking his foot, as it was raised in run- 
ning, passing in at his heel and up his leg to his knee. The 
other Indians begged so hard that they were let go. Fleming got 
across the river and lay down in the bushes, remaining there some 
time. Jesse Gray, the famous "Indian hunter," hearing the 
fact, came with his brother John (a lad of sixteen), to shoot the 
Indian. He told his brother to shoot him. The Indian lay on 
his belly, and as the boy went to shoot, he bent his body upward 
from the ground; and as the boy shot, he drew himself suddenly 
down, hugging close to the ground, and the bullet only grazed his 


back. But he acted as though he had received a fatal shot, and 
they thought him killed and went off. After the poor fellow had 
been wounded (in all) three days, Lewallyn, from pity, took 
him in. Some days after, Jesse Gray and Smith came to Lew- 
allyn's and shot Fleming in the bed as he lay, and killed him. 
The Indian saw them come, and turned over to the wall and 
wrapped his head in the blanket, and Smith put his gun against 
Fleming's back and shot him through the heart as he lay there 
in bed. 

[Note. — Joab Ward told Hawkins as to the attack, and 
Charles Simmons, an employe of David Connor, told iiim as to 
what Gray and Smith did]. 

DEATU OF ELEMINQ — By Thomas Ward. 

"A white man brought whisky and sold it to the Indians. 
That white man fell out with my father, Joab Ward, one morning, 
and told him he should ' smell h — 1 ' in less than an hour. Within 
an hour's time three Indians, Fleming, Killbuck and another, 
came to father's house as they were eating breakfast, armed with 
big knives and partly drunk. Elias Kizer and Thomas Andrew 
were there. All three managed to get their guns. Fleming 
tried hard to kill father; but when the men got the guns, Fleming 
ran, and the other Indians began to beg. Elias Kizer shot Flem- 
ing as he ran, the ball striking his heel when his foot was raised, 
niul KiHiiiijg up his leg to his knee. He managed to cross the 
river, but fell in the wocd.s on the north bank, and lay there sev 
eral days. Jesse Gray and his brother came and undertook to 
kill him as he lay in the weeds, and thought they had done 
They, however, did not injure him. Lewallyn, who lived near, 
took him in out of pity, but Smith, the mulatto whom Fleming 
had shot through but had not killed, came with Jesse Gray to 
Lewaliyn's house and shot him dead in his bed, as he lay upon a 
pallet of deer skins. Before Fleming was killed, he kept on 
threatening to kill Joab Ward and my father." 

It seems that the Indians were not much offended at the death 
of Fleming. He was vicious, and they had turned him off, and 
he skulked around, getting his living from place to place among 
the whites as he could. They came and buried him, but said, 
" He no good — Fleming bad Indian." 

Jesse Gray, however, was afraid of the vangeance both of the 
Indians and the whites, and he fled the State, taking up his abode 
in Ohio, near Hill Grove, Darke County, and resided at that 
place several years. 

Tyre T. Puckett, residing west of Winchester, relates, con- 
cerning the poor Indian, that Fleming lay wounded on a deer- 
skin at Lewaliyn's cabin. The Indians, though they had ban- 
ished him from their tribes, nevertheless took pity on him. In 
particular, "Aunt Sally," wife of "Uncle Jake," and mother of 
" Indian Jim," came and doctored him, and said he would get 
well. Gray and Smith came to the cabin. Gray undertook to 
get Mrs. Lewallyn out of the house; she resisted, and he pulled 
her out, she crying out meanwhile, " Don't do any murder 
here." Almost instantly she heard the shot, and, struggling back, 
she saw Fleming lay dead upon his pallet. 

The grand jury (of which Mr. Puckett's father was a mem- 
ber) indicted Jesse Gray (and probably Smith) for the homicide, 
and a " true bill " was found against them. They fled the county 
and the State, and no special pains were taken to find them, since 
everybody was glad the " vicious Indian " was out of the way. 
Mrs. Lewallyn was the witness, of course, for the State, because 
she was the one (and the only one, perhaps) who saw the "deed," 
except indeed Smith and Gray themselves. 


In the " History of Delaware County," by Kingman Brothers, 
may be found sketches of several other chiefs of the Delaware 
Indians, viz. : Tamanend, Capt, White Eyes, Capt. Pipe, Buck- 
ongahelas and Killbuck, Jr., for whose history we ^ave no 
room. A brief mention must sufiice. Tamanend was a mighty 

chief, brave, illustrious, patriotic and virtuous. The scene of his 
e.xploits was on the eastern seaboard, near Philadelphia, and he 
died about 1G85. 

Capt. White Eyes [Ko-gue-tha-gech-ton] was a distinguished 
Delaware Chieftain, and a firm friend of the Americans. During 
the Revolution, he steadfastly refused to be drawn into the strug- 
gle between England and America. He died at Philadelphia in 
1780, supposed to be 120 years old. 

Capt. Pipe [Hop-o-can, tobacco-pipe, and Ko-giesch-qua-no- 
hei, maker of daylight], was a noted war- chief of the Wolf tribe 
of the Delawares. He was an active partisan of the British, 
dying about 1818. 

Buckongahelas was a more famous chief than Logan. He 
favored the English, but after Wayne's defeat he disdained their 
favor, and was firm in his friendship to the Americans. On his 
death-bed he adjured his people to desert the British, and remain 
steadfast to the United States. He was brave and truthful. Hi.s 
death occurred in 1804. 

Killbuck, Jr. [Gelelemend] was the son of the elder Kill- 
buck ; was firmly attached to the United States, and was specially 
protected by them in a treaty made with his nation. He died in 
1811, aged about eighty years. 

Delawares. — Kithawenund, or Capt. Anderson, Pee-keelund, 
Magh-pi-way, or Red Feather, Pit-cheke-ka-pou, The Beaver, 
Hock-ingpora-skow, Lah-pah-ni-hi, or Big Bear, James Nanti- 
cope, Ne-te-ho-pun-a, Capt. Tu-nis, Capt. Ketch-ura, The Cat, 
Ben Beaver, The War Mallet, Capt. Cagh-Koo, The Buck, Pet- 
che-nau-a-las, John Quake, Que-nagh-to-oth-mait, Little Jack. 

Miamis. — Pucan, The Owl, Little Turtle, Wa-pe-mau-qua (the 
Loon), Silver Heels, Sha-wa-pe- no-mo. 

The above signed the treaties made with their tribes in 1804, 
1809 and 1818. 

Other Indians, — Mont-see (Monsie) was chief of the Miamis 
and resided at Mont-see town (Muncie). An account of him is 
not at hand. 

" Uncle Jake " resided at the Indian town near Muncie long 
after the rest of the natives had emigrated westward, and till his 
death, as did also his wife "Sallie," and his son "Jim." 
" Aunt Sally " died first; she was buried in the old Indian grave- 
yard near their town, and her husband, " Uncle Jake," watched 
over her grave, keeping his lonely vigil for two weary days and 
nights, and when he died, " Indian Jim," their son, did the same 
for him ; but when "Jim," poor fellow, died, he was the last of 
his race, and none was at hand to perform the solemn, sacred 
watch over his lonely grave. " Jake " was well known to the 
early settlers, a fine specimen of his nation ; " tall, straight and 
stout, clever and nice when sober, but vicious when drunk, — " 
much like white people in that. " Sally " was very small, but 
active and sprightly ; she, too, loved the bottle, and, like her hus- 
band, got drunk. "Jim" lived with the white settlers and 
became civilized, working and earning his livelihood in a friendly, 
peaceable manner. It is not many years since his death 
took place. (See History of Delaware County, 1881.) This 
family seem to have been dwellers in Randolph County in the 
early time, since Ira Swain, coming to the region when'a small 
lad, used to know them, and used also to play with the Indian 
boy "Jim." (See Account of Ira Swain.) 

Cornstalk, the younger, was a chief in later times after the 
war of 1812. He was friendly, and a fine, stately, noble Indian. 
He used to come to Randolph County to hunt, spending more or 
less time among the settlers. A striking incident is related of 
Cornstalk and his wife by Squire Bowen, which occurred soon 
after the settlement of his father, Ephraim Bowen, in the county. 
We have no detailed statement of the life of this chief at our 

Fonttac, Ottawa chief, was in 1761, a great friend of the 
French. He was tall in person and dignified and stately in de- 
meanor, fifty years of age, and civil and military ruler of the 
Ottawas, Ojibways and Pottawatomies. He formed his cele- 


brated conspiracy suddenly in 1763. Many tribes were joined in 
that movement ; Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Dela- 
wares, Mingocs, etc. Nine British posts fell: Detroit was saved; 
the war was short ; the conspiracy was soon crushed, the struggle 
ending in 1764. 


Statement of Mrs. Henry Horn, of Arba, Indiana: " I trav- 
eled during the summer of 1880 in Northern Michigan. There 
are Indian Reserves in that region, and I became acquainted, 
among other persons, with an educated and talented Indian lady 
of the Ottawa tribe. Margaret Boyd, by name (she has also a 
long and difficult Indian name, Oqabegijiqokwe). She was educated 
when young, by the Catholics, they intending her for a mis- 
sionary ; she now lives near Petoskey, Northern Michigan ; is 
seventy-two years old, and supports herself, in Indian fashion, by 
making various curious and useful articles for siile, baskets, moc- 
casins, pin cushions, slippers, etc., of most exquisite workman- 
ship and surpassing artistic skill. One of her brothers (Mac- 
coteybinassee, Black Bird) went to Rome for education as a 
Catholic priest, .(^n Indian comrade was the companion of his 
journey and was to remain with him while at Rome; but alas! 
erelong her poor, lonely brother sickened and died in that far- 
off foreign land, alone, except that one faithful comrade and 
friend. She commemorated her brother's death by composing a 
poem in English, of rare beauty and exquisite pathos, a copy of 
which is here given : 


The morning breiiks! See bow ihe glorious sun, 
Slow wheeling from Ihe East, new luaier slieJs 
O'er Hie soft climes of Italy. The flower 
That kept ita perfume through the Jewy nij^ht 
Now breathes it forth again. 

Hill, Tale and grove, 
Clad in rich venlure bloom, and from the lOok 
The joyful w 

Ll thou, Imperial li 

houldst lift thy h 

Decked with thy triple crown, where eloudlesi 
And lands rejoicing in Ihe summer sun 
Rich blessings yield. 

But there is grief to day! 
A voice is heard within thy marble wall.'), 
A voice lamenting for the youthful dead. 
For o'er the relics of her forest boy 
The mother of dead empires weeps, and lo! 
Clad in white robes, the long procession moves. 
Youths throng around the bier, and high in front, 
Star of our hopes, the glorious cross is reared. 

Flowing spoulauoo\is from the spirit's depths 
Pours its rich tones, and now the requiem swells — 
Now dies upon Ihe ear. 

Who stands beside my brother's grave, and though ii 
Dims his dark eye, yet doth his spirit weep. 
With throbbing heart he gazes on the spot. 
Where his young comi-ade shall forever rest ; 
Fur they, logether, loft their forest home, 

Glad tidings of great joy. My brother dear 
o sleeps beneath the sod his labors blessed. 


Of (helo 

e Indiai 
:nt< of his 

boy I 

'C the d 

Imagination clothes his tearful thoughts 
In rude and plaintive cadences of woe! 
Soft be thy peaceful sleep, my brother loved. 
At Nature's call Ihe branches here shall wave, 
The wailing winds lament above his grave!" 

The dewy night shall weep ; 
And he, the lonely youth, my cousin sad, 
(), he shall come to shade with moss the grave 
To plant above his head the mystic cross; 
To hope, to pray, to mourn in silent grief! 
No marble here shall grand and slalely rise, 

But o'er thy tomb 1 11 le 
To lift its pensive head : 
Uejoicing in the skies. 


Such us my fathers thought when all arou 
Shook the old forest trees. 
Dost thou forget the hour, my brother dea 
When first wo heard the Christian's hope i 
When fearless warriors felt their bosoms r 
And yield beneath the power of mighty love? 
The heavenly Truth persuasive moved our souls 
Whilst on the flowery mount the preacher stood. 
The gentle messenger of Christ proclaimed 
The dying love of Jesus tu an outcast race, 
And through the listening silence of Ihe wood 
His gentle, solemn words like spirits passed ; 
And oh ! Iiadst thou been spared, my tender boy, 
We two hail gone to bless our fatherland. 
To spread rich stores of grace, and, hand in hand. 
Each holy labor would in love have shared ; 
But there the relio of my brother lies 
Where Nature's flowers shall bloom o'er Nature's cli 
IS stretch and classic art has piled 



n high. 

Sleep on, sleep peaceful 
The traveler from thy far-on lana suau come 
And claim this spot, and give to thee in grief 
What kingly tombs have not— the tribute of 
An honest tear shed o'er ihy lonely grave I 

The woman who wrote the foregoing lines is now living at 
Little Traverse City, in Northern Michigan, with a remnant of 
the Ottawa tribe, to which she belongs. Mrs. Horn visited her 
at her own home, had with the Indian lady a most interesting 
and instructive interview, and brought away several beautiful and 
curious ornaments wrought by the skillful hand of the worthy 
poetess. Some of the articles were a basket, a paper-receiver and 
lamp mat, all made of birch bark, wrought with porcupine quills; 
a pin-cushion made of velvet, ornamented with beads in a unique 
manner, and other things besides. Mrs. H. had also a mat pur- 
chased of Petoskey's son, who is a merchant in the village of 
the same name. All the specimens are wonderfully rich and nice. 

Chief Petoskey lives there still among his tribe, near the 
town. He is ninety-eight years old, but strong and hearty, 
standing straight, tall and vigorous, like a tree in their forests. 
Ho wsLi at the door chopping wood when they called for a friendly 
visit; hi lei them into his dwelling, and entertained his guests 
like a prince, as he is. He is an Ottawa chief, living with his 
tribe upon their reservation. 

Mr. Henry W. Horn has a photo of the old chief, which he 
says is a most striking likeness. The picture looks like that of a 
white man of striking appearance; yet Petoskey is a full-blood 
Ottawa Indian. They brought also the photo of Minonquet, an 
aged Indian woman (103 years), living at the old Mission Farm, 
some miles from Petoskey. She is bowed with years, but vigor- 
ous still, remarkably so considering her wonderful age. 

At Petoskey, in the suburbs of the town, is a natural park of 
two acres, covered with a young growth of sugar trees, inclosed 
with a plain fence. Through the park runs a narrow path 
between the trees, and at the head of the path stands a post with 
a board put up, and on the board this inscription : 

Original Trail between Grand Traverse Bay and Mackinac. 
'J'raveled for hundreds of years by the Indians, and more 
(ban two hundred years ago by Father Maniuollc, the 
I'umous missionary and explorer. 


As a specimen of treatment of Indians by white men, and as 
the " spark which set the magazine on fire " in this region at the 
beginning of the war of 1811-13, we give the following from the 
history of Darke County : 

"A S()uaw, with her husband and son, wag coming to Green- 
ville to purchase supplies at David Connor's. They camped over 
night by Irvin's Spring, a mile out of Greenville. A white man, 
who had traveled with them, went on into town and told that 


some Indians were np by Irvin's Spring. The commander was 
absent, and a villain bj' the name of Fish was exercising authority 
at the time. He went out and killed the Indian and his wife, 
and wounded tho boy. The lad fled like the wind, and, in an 
incredibly short space of time. Fort Meigs, 100 miles distant, was 
besieged by 2,000 savages bent on revenge for wrongs that were 
past, and for the utter extermination of the cruel white men." 

David Connor came to Greenville in 1811, or early in 1812, 
and with him came a man by the name of David Thomson, who 
had been a soldier with " Mad Anthony " in the Indian wars of 
twenty years before, being with Gen. Wayne at Rouge de Bout 
and elsewhere. 

D. T. died in 1840, aged eighty years. His oldest daughter, 
the widow of Judge Beers, one mile north of Greenville, died in 
August, 1881. 

Shortridge was killed and scalped by the Indians near where 
Cambridge City now stands. Shdrtridge had on clothes belong- 
ing to an " Indian hater," and the Indians thought he was the 

Charles Morgan and his two brothers were killed by the 
savages at a sugar camp in the northern part of Wayne County, 
where they were boiling sugar water. Morgan resisted power- 
fully, but was overcome and tomahawked. One boy was killed 
by the tomahawk and the other was shot p.s he started to run. 
All three were scalped. This took place before 1811. Morgan 
was a leader in the band that tried to murder Johnny Green, an 
Indian warrior residing in the region, and many thought at the 
time that Morgan's death was accomplished by Green in revenge 
for his bitterness against the Indians. 

"PIGEON roost" massacre, SCOTT COUNTY, 1812. 

A settlement was formed in 1809, five or six miles from any 
other white residents, on about a square mile of land. Jeremiah 
Payne and Mr. Coffraan, two of the settlers, were hunting on the 
afternoon of September 3, 1812, two miles north of the Pigeon 
Roost settlement, and they were surprised and killed by a party 
of Indians. The savages then attacked the settlement (about sun- 
set), and in one hour had killed one man, five women and sixteen 
children, also burning the cabins with some of the dead bodies of 
the victims. Those slain were as follows : 

Henry Collins and wife, Mrs. Jeremiah Payne and eight 
children, Mrs. Richard Collins and seven children, Mrs. John 
Morrill and one child and her mother ; Mrs. Jane Biggs and 
three children slipped away, and, before daylight, got to Zebulon 
Collins's, six miles distant. 

William Collins, an old man of sixty years, with Capt. John 
Norris. defended themselves against the Indians for three-quarters 
of an hour ; and, after dark, escaped with two children, and 
arrived at Zebulon Collins's the next morning. The militia 
gathered and went to the settlement, and found the smoking 
ruins with some of the charred bodies of their slaughtered friends. 


In the Indian village of Old Town, five miles above Muncie, 
many victims were tortured to death by a slow fire. They were 
tied to a stake, which was of oak, and ten or twelve feet high. 
A ring of ashes was round the stake, and tho dancing in a circle 
by the Indians had tramped the ground as hard as a brick. The 
stake remained for many years to be seen and shuddered at by 
tho passing traveler. 

Mr. Thomas S. Neely, of Muncie, Ind., and a pioneer of that 
region (in history of Delaware County also elsewhere quoted 
from), says : " On the farm of Samuel Cecil, in Section 2.5, 
Center Township, in 1839, was a piece of ground near the then 
Richmond State road, now the Burlington Pike, on which tradi- 
dition says one Col. Winchester was burned by the Indians. 
The stake was visible when I came, and was charred. Around 
it for about fifty feet the ground was level and smooth, and the 
spot was round like a circus "ring, only not thrown up on the cir- 

cle. This tradition had gained considerable credence at the time, 
and all believed it to be true." 

Who this Col. Winchester was, when the act was done, or 
why in particular they subjected this prisoner to that fate we have 
no information. This method of putting to death was but com- 
mon among the Indians, and many wretched captives both of In- 
dians and whites perished in that way. 

Indians always traveled in single file. Hundreds of them in 
a company would move in this way, and the line would extend 
perhaps for miles. They would approach a house by stealth. 
The first one would know, adozen Indians, all armed and painted, 
would be standing at the door, with guns, tomahawks and scalp- 
ing knives, looking frightful enough. 

Mr. W. C. Smith says : " Killbuck, a noted Indian, came 
to father's cabin when the family were all abed and demanded 
admittance. Father gave no answer. He struck the door several 
sharp blows with his tomahawk, declaring he would split the door 
down if it were not opened. Father said to him, ' I'll put a rifle 
ball through you if you don't clear out.' Killbuck said he was 
cold and hungry, and wished to warm himself and get something 

" Father being afraid he was drunk, would not let him in, but 
told him ' go up to " Sal's " wigwam (a squaw who had lived not 
far off), and come back in the morning.' He went and came 
back in the morning, saying, 'white man heap brave, he no cow- 
ard.' " 

Another incident. Some Indians came to a cabin to pur- 
chase provisions. The man was absent. The woman went to 
the smoke-house to get them some bacon. One squaw seized a 
large piece and went to carry it off. The white woman wrenched 
it from her, striking the squaw to make her let go of the flitch of 

The other Indians were greatly pleased at her boldness, pat- 
ting her on the shoulder, saying, " white squaw heap much brave, 
heap much fight." 

The white traders used to practice all sorts of tricks upon the 
natives. One trader told the Indians that tho needle-maker was 
dead, and that after his supply on hand was gone, there would be 
no more. He sold his needles for a coon-skin apiece, worth fifty 
to seventy-five cents. 


He was shot by young Lewallyn as related in Burgett Pierce's 
reminiscences. The Indians were greatly excited by his mur- 
der, and were with difliculty pacified by promises of a fair 
trial, and assurances that the guilty one should be punished. Mr. 
Lewallyn the elder, is related to have walked all the way to 
Muncie to tell the Indians that his son should be given up for 
the proper course of justice. But he was tried and acquitted, 
and the Indians were more dissatisfied than before. It is said that 
" Christmas's " horse ran all night saddled and bridled, reaching 
the home of his owner at Muncietown early next morning. The 
body of the Indian was buried on the bluff just west of the cross- 
ing below Decrfield, between the road and the river, perhaps 100 
yards west of the crossing. Skeletons were so much in demaind 
in early times that a certain physician is stated to have dug up 
his bones for an "anatomy." 

Armfield Tiiornburg, of Windsor, says that the three Indians 
who killed Morgan and the two lads were " trailed," and were 
killed on the banks of Stony Creek, three miles south of Wind- 
sor, just in Delaware County. 

"Jay County History" mentions the killing of Christmas 
thus : " One day one of the men shot an Indian whom he caught 
stealing cabbage from his garden. This aroused the anger of the 
Indians, and the settlement were very much alarmed lest they 
should all be murdered. They made a fort of Lewallyn's house, 
and the four families lived in it for two weeks in constant fear of 


an attack. But their enemies did not come, and they again vent- 
ured forth to their usual avocations." 

Burgett Pierce says of this same Indian that they came 
in a large company to bury their murdered comrade, and 
that they performed over his remains a most affecting ceremony, 
one aged chief making a feeling oration, the tears streaming down 
his cheeks as he did so. 

Our understanding is that Burgett Pierce himself witnessed 
the burial rites, and beheld the tears coursing down the cheeks 
of the dusky orator, while he stood recounting in mournful elo- 
quence the virtues of their deceased comrade. 


"Johnny Green," spoken of by Jere Smith ; " Charles 
gan," by Jesse Parker ; " Fleming," by Hawkins, Ward, Thomas, 
etc.; "Cornstalk" (elder), J. Hawkins; "Cornstalk" (later), 
Squire Bowen ; "Killbuck," by Burgett Pierce. 

Indian traders were David> Conner, on Mississinewa 
Joseph Gess, south of Winchester ; and Goldsmith Gilbert, in 
Delaware County, etc. 

Indian " trails " were from Muncie to Greenville, passing 
south of Winchester and of Mount Zion Methodist Episcopal 
Church on White River, and also not far from Spartansburg. 
From Muncie to Fort Wayne; from Godfrey's to Fort Wayne ; 
from Muncie to Godfrey's; along the Mississinewa River ; along 
the White River, etc. 

A prominent Indian trader and fur dealer was Edward Edger, 
of Deerfield, Randolph County, who is living in a cheerful old age 
at Winchester, Ind. 


Forts were built by setting upright split timbers, eighteen or 
twenty feet high, fast in the ground and close together, with large 
gates, strong, thick and heavy, made of hewn timber from three 
to six inches thick. In each fort was at least one block-house, 
two stories high, with the upper story projecting two or three 
feet over beyond the lower, and having port-holes to shoot down 
from. The Indians could make nu headway against a block- 
house, except, indeed, by setting it on fire. At the beginning of 
the war of 1812, a fort was built at the cabin of George Smith, 
near Richmond. 

One day when the men were out at work, the dogs barked and 
the women thought the Indians had come. They formed a troop, 
made one of their number captain and marched out, leaving one 
to care for the children, and to open the gate for their return. 
Each woman took her husband's gun as bold as a warrior. The 
alarm proved false, the dogs were barking at some stray ponies ; 
but the women had proved their bravery, and came back almost 
sorry that they had found no Indians. 

People sometimes got lost, and the trumpet (or the tin horn) 
would be blown to call the settlers together to hunt for the lost 


In 1747-4S, a deep conspiracy was laid, under Nicholas, a 
famous Huron (Wyandot) chief, for the destruction of Detroit 
and other posts, and to crush the French. The attempt failed, 
and Chief Nicholas abandoned his home neur Sandusky, having 
burned his villages and his fort, and sought a resting-place far- 
ther west. On the 8th of April, 1718, he departed for White River, 
Indiana. He is thought to have died in the White River Val- 
ley, near the Wabash, in 1748, aged fifty-eight years. 

Fort George, near the head-waters of the Savannah, and Fort 
Loudoun, near the sources of the Tennessee, were built by the 
English, for defense against the Indians in that quarter. 

Pontiac, a famous Ottawa chief, in 1763, formed a powerful 
confederacy, consisting of the Ottawas, the Chippewas, the Pot- 
tawatomies, the Sacs and Foxes, the Menoraonees, the Miamis, 
the Wyandots. the Shawnees, and still other tribes, which were 
crushed in 1763-64. 

Bryant says : " Pontiac was chief of the Ottawas, whom he 
is said to have led at Braddock's defeat. * * * His mother 
was an Ojibway. * * * He was now fifty years of age, unusu- 
ally dark in complexion, of medium height, of powerful frame 
and haughty bearing ; subtle, patient, cruel, and of more than 
ordinary capacity. He possessed all of the few good qualities of 
his race, and most of their bad ones. He incited a rising of the 
Indian tribes from the Lakes to the Lower Mississippi." 

Pontiac submitted at length, attended the grand Indian Coun- 
cil held at Oswego, 1766, made his great " peace speech," and 
returned laden with presents to his Western home, living on the 
Miami like an ordinary hunter. 

At the battle of the Kanawha, in 1774, the Indians were led 
by Cornstalk, a Shawnee chief; Red Hawk, a Delaware chief; 
and Logan, the celebrated Cayuga or Mingo chief and orator. 

The battle resulting in " Wayne's Victory " was fought in 
November, 1794. The number of Indians engaged in that fight 
has been thus stated : Delawares, 450 ; Wyandots, 27-5 ; Shawnees, 
275 ; Miamis, 175 ; Ottawas, 225 ; and of the Senecas, Potta- 
watomies and Chippewas from 200 to 300. There were also 
perhaps 100 Canadians. 

The battle was fought against the advice of Little Turtle, who 
told his people that they would better make peace, for, said he, 
" The Americans are led by a General who never sleeps." Blue 
Jacket overruled Little Turtle in the Council, and the battle was 
fought and lost. Little Turtle and Blue Jacket both were ready 
for peace after this defeat, and they continued faithful to the 
treaty, resisting the whole force of Tecumseh's power and elo- 
quence, and holding many of their people from joining in his 
scheme of extermination against the whites. 

The -famous Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, who 
jointly incited the tribes, from the Lakes to the Gulf, to relent- 
less hostility, were Shawnees. Tecumseh was born on Mad River, 
Ohio, 1768. The Prophet fixed his headquarters at the mouth 
of Tippecanoe, on the Wabash, and for several years (1811-13) 
a terrible Indian war was waged, which was ended by the battle 
of the Thames, in 1813. Tecumseh was killed in that battle, 
and the hope of the savage confederacy was crashed. 

In May, 1812, a great Indian Council was held on Mississine- 
wa River, at which the Wyandots, Chippewas, Ottawas, Potta- 
watoraies, Delawares, Eel Rivers, Weas, Miamis, Piankeshaws, 
Winnebagoes, Shawnees and Kickapoos were present. The 
council seemed for peace, but Tecumseh was furious for war, and 
many joined him. 

Fort Wayne was besieged by Tecumseh in the summer of 
1812, but he failed. The massacre at Fort Dearborn took place 
August 15, 1812. Mackinaw was surrendered to the British July 
17, 1812. Detroit was given up to the British in 1812. 

The treaty of Fort Harmar (Marietta) was made January 9, 
1789, and agreed to by the Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, 
Chippewas, Pottawatomies and Iroquois (under Governor St. 

Wayne's Treaty, made at Greenville in 1795, was signed by 
the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Wyandots, Delawares, 
Shawnees, Miamis, Eel River Indians, Weas, Kickapoos and 

Gen. Harrison's treaty at Fort Wayne, in 1809. was entered in- 
to by the Delaware, Eol River, Pottawatomie and Miami tribes, 
and was sanctioned by the Weas at Vincennes, October 26, 1809, 
and by the Kickapoos, about the same time, ceding the 12-mile 
strip, etc. Gen. Harrison concluded a treaty at Fort Wayne in 
1803, with the Delawares, Shawnees, Pottawatomies and Kicka- 
poos, and the Eel Rivers, Weas, Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias. 

In 1818, Messrs. Jennings, Cass and Parke, as United States 
Commissioners, made a treaty at St. Mary's, Ohio, with the 
Miamis, who ceded all their land in Indiana, with reservations. 

Other treaties besides the ones mentioned above have been en- 
tered into by different tribes, till, at present, but a single band 
remains (near Peru, Miami County). 

<i#- . 



As a specimea of reservations and exceptions, those made by 
the United States in the Indian country, in the treaty of Green- 
ville, 1795, are here stated, to wit : 

A tract of land at Loraraie's store, six miles square ; Girty's 
Town, two miles squire ; head of Auglaize, six miles square ; 
Fort Defiance, six miles square ; Fort Wayne, six miles square ; 
eight miles west of Fort Wayne, two miles square ; Ouatenon, six 
miles square ; Maumee, foot of Rapids — old British fort — twelve 
miles square ; mouth of Maumee, six miles square ; Sandusky 
Lake (old fort), six miles square; Lower Rapids, Sandusky, two 
miles square; Detroit, irregular tract; Mackinaw, mainland and 
island and Isle Bois du Blanc ; Fort Dearborn, six miles square ; 
mouth of Illinois, twelve miles square; Peoria, fort and village, 
six miles square ; Clai-k grant, 150,000 acres ; Post Vincennes 
and French lands; Fort Massac and lands adjacent near mouth 
of the Ohio River. 

As an example of reservation to the Indians, we give the fol- 
lowing at the treaty made at Fort Wayne, 1818 : 

Ten miles square, opposite the mouth of the River A. Bouette 
[Aboite]; three sections to Jean B. Richardville ; two sections to 
the same ; to Joseph Richardville and son Joseph, two sections ; two 
sections to Francis La Fontaine and his son ; one section to the son 
of George Hunt ; one section to Little Turtle ; one section to 
Josette Beaubien. 

In the different treaties made in later times, certain tracts 
were reserved for Indian occupation by various tribes, as the Pot- 
tawatomies, the Wyandota, the Miamis, the Shawnees, etc. 

On these " reserves " the Indians dwelt for a longer or shorter 
time. The tribes sold out, however, by and by, one by one, until 
none are now left in this region, except a single band (Me-shin- 
go-me-sia). The rest of the Miamis ceded their lands about 
1840, and left about 1846. Fran(;ois Godfroy, a Miami chief, 
hada " reserve" partly in Jay County. He died between 1837 
and 1840, at the mouth of Mississinewa. 


When the Miamis made their final cession [1840], the band 
above named refused to leave, and they were allowed to remain 
and hold their lands. 

The territory was held in common till 1873, in which year a 
distribution was made (by United States law) among the mem- 
bers of the band. Each person received an equal amount in 
value (of unimproved land). The division was made by Com- 
missioners appointed by the United States, of whom one was 
Jonas Votaw, Esq., of Jay County, who furnished the informa- 
tion here given. 

The transaction excited much interest. The commission met 
on the Indian land, and sat from day to day till the work was 
completed. The basis of the award was the tribe as it existed in 
(about) 1840, (including those who had intermarried into the tribe 
since that time), and the descendants of such. It was for the 
interest of the tribe to have the number of shares as small as pos- 
sible, of course, since the fewer the shs.res, the more each one 
would get. 

The greatest dispute arose as to an Indian named Waukoon. 
He was a Pottawatomie lad who would not go with his tribe, but 
hid himself till his people were gone, and then lived with the 
Miamis, and with this band, and in the family of the chief, 
Meshingomesia. Upon these facts he claimed membership in the 
band. He had a wife and seven children, besides which he had 
cleared out a large farm. 

The commission decided in his favor, and his family got their 
shares with the rest. 

Meshingomesia died a very old man in 1878; Waukoon is liv- 
ing yet (1880). There is still quite a settlement of that band 
living chiefly as farmers, having churches, schools, etc. The 
preaching and teaching are done mostly by members of the band. 

Originally, a large '' reserve " was held by the Miamis, some 

thirty miles square, between Eel and Salamonie Rivers. That 
Reserve lay in Howard, Tipton and Grant Counties. The In- 
dians left in (about) 1846, and it was opened to settlers in 
1847. Filling rapidly with eager emigrants, it has become a 
flourishing and populous region. Sixty-six persons were 
recognized by the Commission as members of that " Indian 
band," and the division was made among those sixty-six persons, 
averaging about eighty acres to each. Waukoon and his family 
got over 600 acres (with his improvements thrown in). 

These shares were to be exempt from taxes for five years, 
as also to be entirely free from any previous claim on the owners 
of the land, and moreover incapable of alienation for the same 


The various tribes had their hunting-grounds, their fields, 
their dwellings, their towns. 

Kekionga, at the head of the Maumee, as already stated, was 
a celebrated Miami town at the time of the first French explora- 
tion. Later, there were several more in that vicinity, belonging 
to different tribes. An article in the Philadelphia Register in 
1791 states as follows : 

There were at that time [it does not say when, though 
ibly not long before that date] seven towns near the conflu- 
ence of the three rivers — St. Joseph's, St. Mary's and Maumee : 
The principal village of the Miamis, called Omie Towh, contain- 
ing also several French traders. It stood on the east bank of 
the St. Joseph, or on the north side of the Maumee, directly 
opposite the mouth of the St. Mary's. Another village (Miami) 
of thirty houses, stood on the opposite bank, across the river from, 
the Omie Town. 

The Delawares had three villages, two on the St. Mary's, 
three miles from its mouth, of forty-five houses. There was one 
also on the east bank of the St. Joseph's, two or three miles from 
its mouth, with thirty-six houses. 

The Shawanoes [Shawnees] had two villages, two miles down 
the Maumee : one was Chillicothe, on the north bank (fifty-eight 
houses); another was on the south bank, opposite Chillicothe, 
having sixteen houses." 

The army demolished all these towns and burned 20,000 bush- 
els of corn, so that it would seem that the troops, though defeated, 
had destroyed the villages and the property of the Indians. 

Ouatenon was a large and important Wea town, eight miles 
below Lafayette. [Note — A towu on White River above Muncie 
was called Ouat-i-nink.] 

Prophet's Town was built at the mouth of Tippecanoe River, 
as the headquarters of the tamous brother of Tecumseh. 

Mont-zee-town (Muncie) was originally an Indian town on 
White River. There were many others scattered through the 

As late as 1820, and also since that time, Indian towns were 
to be found scattered along White River in Delaware County and 
below. Old Town, Montzee Town, Yorktown, Bucktown, Straw- 
town, Andersontown, etc., were Indian villages on the banks of 
White River. No towns are known to have existed in Randolph 
County. They hunted here, their trails passed through this 
region, they had wigwams and huts and cabins scattered here 
and there through the woods, but their villages, so far as are now 
known, were located elsewhere. 

Many, perhaps most, of the towns belonging to the Indians 
have at one time or another been destroyed by the whites. When- 
ever, since the first white settlement, hostilities would arise, the 
villages of the savages would be the first and chief objects of 

Gen. Harmar, in 1790, undertook to d'^molish a Shawnee 
town near Chillicothe, and also a Pickaway town in the same 
region, and Kickapoo and Miami towns in Indiana were burned 
the same year. 

In 1791, Gen. Scott utterly demolished the Wea town, Oua- 
tenon, said to have contained .5,000 people, and Gen. Wilkinson 



carried the same fate to Kickapoo towns on Eel and Wabash 
Rivers. In the same year, Gen. Harraar, though badly defeated, 
burned all the towns (seven in number) near the junction of the 
St. Joseph's and the St. Mary's. 

In 1811, the " Prophet's Town," at the mouth of Tippecanoe 
River, was destroyed by Gen. Harrison. 

In 1812, the Miami villages on the Mississinewa (near its 
mouth) were taken and burned by Lieut Campbell. They 
marched from Dayton December 4, 1812, and came early on the 
morning of December 17 upon a town of Delawares and Miarais 
on the Mississinewa. In taking it by surprise, eight warriors 
were killed, and forty-two persons taken prisoners. The place 
was burned outright, as were also three other villages, and the 
soldiers returned, hungry and frost-bitten, to Greenville, Ohio. 
Their route in returning, and probably in going, passed through 
Jackson Township, in the northeast part of Randolph County. 
As they were going to Greenville, they camped on Army Branch, 
in the west part of that township, near land afterward settled by 
James Simmons. They were detained upon the expedition longer 
than they had expected, and were, moreover, incumbered with 
prisoners, and the troops were at the point of starvation. Run- 
ners were sent ahead to the settlements near Eaton, and provis- 
ons were sent forthwith for their instant relief. Joseph Haw- 
kins, now of Collett, Jay Co., Ind., whose father was one of the 
band of young men who went to the relief of the suffering army, 
gives the following account : 

" When Lieut. Campbell was coming back with the expedition 
which had gone against the Indians on the Lower Mississinewa, 
they had been detained so long and had so many prisoners that 
they were nearly worn out, and well-nigh starving, their provis- 
ions being gone. Runners were sent ahead to inform the settle- 
ments, and to ask for instant succor. The people were aroused 
at once, and young, light-footed men (soldiers at Fort Nesbitt) 
took biscuits hastily baked by the women, and went forward at 
full speed to find and feed their starving countrymen. They 
found the soldiers camped on Army Branch, Jackson Township, 
Randolph Co. It was an affecting sight, and many cried for joy. 
The older men went on later with pack-horses laden with provis- 
ions. One man sold his load, and when he got back to Fort 
Nesbitt, the soldiers there ' rode him on a rail.' 

" My father was one of the young men who went forward for 
the relief of the troops." 

Mr. Hawkins further says : " There was a line of forts along 
the frontier. Forts Jefferson, Black, Nesbitt, Greenville, Recov- 
ery, Auglaize, Defiance, Loramie, Wayne, St. Clair, etc., were 
erected for the defense of the pioneer settlers." 


Mr. Neely (of Muncie) says : " When I came here, an Indian 
graveyard was in a good state of preservation, located on the 
north bank of the river, and about three hundred yards west of 
the Greenville road. A great many graves were visible, and some 
had been and were then being txhumed by the curious relic- 
hunters and others. This was the principal burial-ground of the 
Delaware Indians at this point." 

Mt. William Jackson (in the same history) says : " The old 
Indian village and graveyard stood on the north bank of White 
River, a little west of the bridge on the Muncie & Greenville Pike. 
When I came (1835), many distinct features were still visible. 
The graves, in many instancen, were surrounded with pens of 
poles piled round them. Many skeletons were exhumed, and 
several skulls have been preserved which were taken from this 


From the beginning of European occupation the savages 
were so treated by the whites for the most part as to provoke 
bitter' and relentless hostility. Cruelty was returned for kind- 
ness, and treachery for generous confidence. The history of 
European intercourse with the Aborigines is crowded with ac- 

counts of uncalled for severity and needless cruelty. It is small 
wonder, therefore, that the American natives should be hostile. 
For ages they . beheld a strong and cruel race of men invading 
their country, taking possession of their lands, encroaching upon 
their hunting-grounds, destroying their dwellings, laying waste 
their corn-fields, and burning their villages; and with the genuine 
instinct of universal humanity, they strove to defend their homes, 
and to beat back and destroy the fierce invading hordes. It has 
been indeed a gallant, though a fruitless struggle, which the 
Indians have waged. It has been weakness against strength, 
poverty against wealth, bows and arrows and hand-missiles against 
firearms, tomahawks against cannon, footmen against horsemen, 
untutored cunning against cultivated skill, savagery against 
civilization. They fought with a bravery and resolution worthy 
of a less hapless destiny, but the struggle has been ever ih vain. 
Nearly four hundred years have iled since Columbus 
landed at Guanahani, and what a conflict has the world beheld 
on these Western shores during the ages that have passed since 
that momentous era ! The struggle has been long and fierce 
and bitter, cruel and remorseless alike on the one side and on the 
other, but ending ever in defeat, utter and hopeless to the poor, 
untutored red man. 


From the moment when the haughty Spaniard under the 
leadership of the Genoese navigator set foot on the shores of Gu- 
anahani up to this very hour, a conflict, stern, bitter, relentless, 
has been going on. Now active and wild, now lulled and hushed 
for a time, now bursting into an awful explosion of massacre and 
conflagration, followed by fierce retaliation, and blank extermi- 
nation of the particular tribes then engaged, and now given up 
as if in utter and hopeless despair; quieted for brief spaces as in 
case of the Quakers and of the French Catholic missionaries, but 
breaking forth anew with each succeeding generation. Well 
nigh 400 years have witnessed this fearful spectacle, and even 
yet in some remote regions it is taking place. 

But through the whole cycle of centuries, the aborigines of 
the American Continent, whether gentle Mexicans, civilized Pe- 
ruvians, or more savage North Americans, have been alike, a 
doomed race. And for most of the descendants of the ancient 
dwellers — the hapless offspring of the native races on these 
W^estern shores — that doom has come. to be an accomplished fact! 

Yet they were verily worthy of a gentler fate. And had they 
been met from the outset with the kind and faithful spirit of jus- 
tice and mercy and truth, the history of the new world, need not 
have been as now it has been, and must be, written in blood! 

Had the white race reciprocated even the kindly advances 
made by the aborigines, a lasting friendship might have been the 

There were fifty years of peace between the noble old chief, 
Massasoit, with his braves, and the Massachusetts colonies. 
The Indians and Quakers, under the mild and just treatment 
set on foot by William Penn, walked on the broad pathway of 
love and good will for seventy long and happy years. The French, 
for the most part, had peace and friendship, because, in the main, 
their treatment of the savages was fair, kindly and huteiane. 

Cases are numerous in private life where justice, truth and 
confidence by the white man have begotten a like spirit in the 

There is acase which, by the way, has perhaps never yet been 
put into print, so fully in point that we cannot forbear to state it : 


Just after the Revolutionary war had come to an end, a gen- 
tleman, Mr. White, the founder of Whitestown, Oneida Co., N. 
¥., moved with his family into the forest a few miles from where 
Utica now stands. He built a cabin and moved into it. A Mo- 
hawk chief, who during the war had been an ally of the British, 
lived not far off. Mr. White sent for the chief, and he came. 
Said Mr. White, " The war is over, let us be friends." The red 


man scarcely spoke, and was non committal. Bat, spying with 
his eagle eye a boy, the son of a widowed daughter of his host, 
he said to Mr. White: "That boy, me take him — three days." 
The mother sprang to her child, wild with affright ; but her father 
hushed his daughter, and said calmly, "Take him." The chief 
took the boy. And on the thin! day, just as the sun was sink- 
ing into the tree-tops, a whoop was heard, and as they looked, 
they saw the chief and the child — both dressed in royal style, the 
boy dancing with glee as he came — emerge fi-ora the shadow of 
the woods. They entered the cabin, the chief gave the boy to 
his mother, and said, " There, white man trust Indian ; now In- 
dian trust white man." And he did ; and ever after there was 
friendship between the two. 

For ages long, since the coming of the European across the 
mighty deep with his winged ships and his weapons of fire, war 
had been between the incoming strangers and the natives of the 
soil. But for these regions that war was at l_e_ngth well-nigh over. 
Indian conflict had ceased in these parts before the first dweller 
had touched the soil of Randolph, The last battle had been 
fought with these Indians, and final and hopeless defeat had 
crushed the fierce and bitter spirit of the savage foe. 

Tecumseh, perhaps the ablest and the bravest chieftain that 
ever roused the warriors of his race to conflict, had formed his 
league and rallied his dusky hosts, and, after weary and bloody 
yenrs of mortal warfare, had been slain on the banks of the 
Thames, not one short year before (1813). The prophet, deceit- 
ful and cruel, but not noble nor brave, had, upon the death of 
hisieroic brother, sunk into his native nothingness; nearly all 
the other great chiefs had, even before Tecumseh's career, 
despaired of any hope of success against the omnipotent white 
men, and were, though sullen and morose, yet disposed for peace. 
There had been war, and massacre, and battles, and destruction 
of cornfields, and burning of towns and villages, through the sad, 
eventful years of 1811, 1812 and 1813. But the Indians were 
crushed ; and they gave up the struggle in hopeless despair. 
Great numbers indeed had stood aloof, and refused to join Tecum- 
seh's league, convinced that success against the whites would be 
impossible. Little Turtle, the famous Miami chief, even before 
Wayne's victory in 1794, advised peace. Said he, "We cannot 
succeed; the foe have now a chieftain that never sleeps." He 
fought in that battle, but ever after, he was on the side of peace. 
Yet Tecumseh's influence was great, and he drew away many in- 
to the war. But his eloquent voice was hushed in death ; his 
famous league was broken, and the tribes sued for peace. 

tecumseh's war. 
The pioneers of Dearborn and Wayne, of Clark and Harrison, 
and of Knox and Jefferson Counties, on the eastern border of 
Indiana Territory, and along the valleys of the Ohio and the 
Wabash, who had made their homes in Indiana forests between 
1793 and 1811, lived for two eventful years in mortal apprehen- 
sion. Says one aged lady, a resident of Wayne County in 
writing some "Reminiscences" of that fearful time: "After 
the battle of Tippecanoe (1811) we lived in constant fear, and 
passed many sleepless nights. Well do I recollect how I kept 
my head raised from ray pillow to listen for the Indians to come 
and take our scalps. They were often seen scouting round, but 
harmed none that were peaceable; still we feared and trembled." 
Another says (after the Pigeon Roost Massacre September 3, 1812, 
in Scott County, Kentucky, by some Shawnees): "The way I 
lived was this : On all occasions I carried my rifle, tomahawk 
and butcher knife, and a loaded pistol at my belt. When I went 
to plow I laid my gun on the ground, and stuck up a stick by it 
for a mark, that I might get it quick if I needed it. I had two 
good dogs; at night (or by day either) I kept one outside to bark 
and give the alarm, and one inside to bark and waken us (if in 
the night), to be ready if there was any danger. My weapons 

were always loaded and ready to my hand. I kept my horses in 
a stable close to the house with a port hole so made that I could 
shoot from inside the house to the stable door. During two years 
I never went from home with any certainty of ever returning, 
not knowing the day nor the hour nor the minute that I might 
receive a fatal bullet from some unknown, hostile hand ; but by 
Divine mercy I was preserved, and am now alive to tell the tale." 
And yet, through all this fear and peril, candor compels the 
statement that, throughout this region at least (to quote from the 
narrative again), the Indians "harmed none who were peacea- 
ble." The pioneers in general seem to agree to that fact that the 
Indi.-ina molested only hostile white men. 

Charles Morgan who (with his two half-brothers) was killed 
at a "sugar camp" near Washington March 10, 1813, was a 
bitter "Indian hater." It seems that Johnny Green, an Indian 
warrior, but at peace with the whites, was at an Indian town on 
Blue River, also at peace. He asked leave to go with some 
whites to the settlements; they let him go with them, and agreed 
not to harm him ; as soon as they had him fairly among them, 
however, the party bound him, and' many of them wished to take 
his life. He was conveyed to Esquire Hunt's, seven miles south 
of Centerville, where a vote was taken, and a large majority 
called for his immediate death. Morgan was present, and was 
very eager for the death of Green. It came to pass, however, 
that Thomas McCoy, a stout Irishman, cut the ropes, took him 
on the horse behind him, and carried him away from danger. 
Green was fierce and revengeful, and, for this dastardly attempt 
upon his life by Morgan and others. Green is thought to have 
killed Morgan. 

Shortridge also had on clothes belonging to George Ish, 
another violent " Indian hater," and the Indians thought they 
were killing Ish. Thus stood the times while the fierce Tecumseh 
and his cruel, but cowardly brother, were gathering their warrior 
clans, and cheering them to the bitter, deadly conflict. 

But in 1813 these scenes were forever ended, and the settlers 
of Randolph, after their coming hither, saw no Indian war. The 
men who came and pitched their camps, and reared their cabins, 
and made their homes within these borders from and after 1814, 
had the Indians only for quiet, friendly neighbors, who would 
bring them deer, and turkeys and squirrels, and help at raisings 
and log-rollings, and whose pappooses would gambol and play 
with the children of the white pioneers. 

But even this was not to be of long duration. In a few 
years the red men forsook their huts, and left their wigwams 
tenantless, and passed on gradually, and ere a long time had 
fled, came back no more. 

For a brief space, dusky-faced men, warriors no longer, their 
women, mayhaps, keeping them company, would go trooping on 
foot, or on their little ponies, or leading their pack-horses along 
the old time-beaten trail from north to south, or east to west, or 
the opposite. For a few years the humble remnants of these 
once haughty and powerful forest tribes would pass meekly and 
peaceably by, bring buckskins, and baskets, and moccasins and 
paltry trinkets, and timidly ask an exchange for corn, and salt, 
and meal, and powder and whisky. 

And the trader, or mayhaps the settler would take their 
" truck," and give them in return what they wished, but especially 
the whisky. And thatcurse of human kind, that foeof the universal 
human race, would do its devilish work upon these poor red men, 
and they would get drunk and fight, and stab and kill, or lie 
helpless and besotted till the horrid debauch was over, and then — 
they would " seek it yet again !" And now this whole drama is 
past, and it has become to us like the fitful charges of a forgotten 
dream. Perhaps not one in a hundred of the dwellers of Ran^" /ph 
County ever set eyes upon an Indian. Be it so ! Be it so ! Two 
such races as the fierce, ambitious, domineering, insatiable 
European, and the savage, bold, wily, revengeful Indian cculd 


never ds^ell together in tlie same land ; and since the European 
came to stay, there was nothing left for the Indian but to go ; 
and from these regions, for the most part, HE HAS GONE ! 



Location — Boundaries — Indian Boundaries— Counti&s— Sec- 
ond Boundauy—Kekionga— Miscellany— Public Lands- 
Meridians and Base Lines — Surface— Veoetation- Ani- 
mals— Drainage— Minerals— Inland Waters— MississiNE- 
wa— White Kiveb— White Water— Miami— Divides— Uses 

WE have thus far treated somewhat at length the pre-historic 
state of the county and the region, and spoken briefly of 
its Indian history. We now propose to proceed in a somewhat 
regular way, describing Randolph County in systematic detail. 
First, then, as to her material and physical features : 


Randolph County, as at present constituted, lies in the east- 
ern part of the State of Indiana, directly upon the Ohio line, 
somewhat midway of the State from north to south. It is about 
twenty-one and three-quarter miles in extent from cast to west, and 
about twenty-one miles from north to south, containing nearly 
4.57 square miles, or about 292,000 acres. It may be properly 
enough described by stating first its boundaries and matters con- 
nected therewith. 


Randolph is bounded north by Jay County ; cast by Mercer 
and Darke Counties, Ohio; south by Wayne County, and west 
by Henry and Delaware Counties. It lies wholly inland, and 
has no lakes nor large navigable streams on its boundaries. The 
fortieth parallel of north latitude extends through the southern 
part of the county (running east and west], near Arba. Win- 
chester is not very far from this parallel, and is thus within one 
or two degrees of the latitude of several of the great cities of the 
world — New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, Lisbon, 
Madrid, Rome, Constantinople and Pekin. That fact docs not 
prove, indeed, that Winchester is a great city like the places just 
named, but only that our latitude round the habitable globe is 
favorable for the growth of towns. 

The eighth meriilian of longitude west from Washington (or 
the eighty-fifth west from London), passes through the county 
north and south near and west of Ridgeville and Winchester. 
Thus the diffcronce of time with New York is 40 minutes, with 
Chicago about 12 minutes, with St. Louis about 20 minutes, and 
with San Franscisco about 150 minutes. 

INDIAN boundaries. 

Two old Indian boundaries pass through the county, both in a 
southwesterly direction, and, except in the northern portions, 
exactly parallel to each other. 

1. VVnyne's boundary, agreed on in a treaty made at Greenville, 
Ohio, in 1795, between Gen Anthony Wayne and several tribes 
of Indians. (See Indian History.) This boundary (as to that 
part of it which extends through Indiana) begins at Fort Recov- 
ery, and passes southwest to the mouth of Kentucky River. It 
extends through Jay, Randolph, Wayne, Union and Franklin, 
between Dearborn and Ripley, between Ohio and Switzerland 
Counties, and through Switzerland County. This line enters 
Randolph near the northeast corner of Jackson Township (and 
of the county, and passes through Jackson, Wayne and Greens- 
fork Township. It strikes the north line of Wayne Town- 
ship about li miles west of the Ohio line — of Greens- 
fork about 3 m'iles, and the Wayne County line about 4^ miles 

west from the State line. (See maps.) It passes near and a 
little west of New Lisbon, Union City, Bartonia, Salem, Spartans- 
burg and Arba. 

The surveys on the east side of this boundary were made by 
the United States Government soon after 1795, certainly between 
1795 and 1803. The surveys extended from the State line west- 
ward to the boundary, making fractional sections on the east side 
of the boundary, and on the west side as well, when the land on 
the west side was surveyed. "Jogs" also are found in the sec- 
tions at the boundary, on both sides, of course. 

The system of survey now in vogue (by meridians, ranges, 
townships and sections) was instituted by the national Con- 
gress, May 25, 1785, and May 18, 1796, and from its 
excellence and supreme convenience it has been retained con- 
tinuously from the time of its adoption. The surveys and plat- 
tings made before that day of patents granted under the kings of 
England, and by other sovereigns, and also of grants made by 
our own government to persons as a reward for meritorious serv- 
ice, were effected without regard to meridians. As, for instance, 
in the State of New York under English and Dutch grants -and 
in Louisiana Territory and Indiana, Illinois and Missouri under 
French grants, and in Ohio and elsewhere in the case of grants 
to soldiers and others — other and widely varying systems of sur- 
veying prevailed. (See chapter on Public Lands.) 

When the first settlement of eastern Indiana after the Revolu- 
tion began, only the land east of the old (Wayne's) boundary had 
been surveyed, and persons who settled had to stop on the east 
side of that line, c. g., some of the early settlers near Newport 
(now Fountain City) that came in before 1809 have stated that 
they went into the woods just as far as they could get, entering 
their land directly on the boundary. 


The counties in the southeastern part of Indiana (Territory) 
that were formed before the " twelve-mile strip " had been sur- 
veyed extended at first westward only to the old boundary. And 
Randolph (laid out in 1818) reached, when first created, only to 
the twelve-mile boundary. Afterward the limits of the counties 
were altered so as to make them stand as at present. 

Dearborn County at first embraced all the territory between 
the Ohio line, the Ohio River and Wayne's boundary. And this 
whole region was for a time known as the Territory (or even 
State) ot Dearborn. 

Settlement was begun thei'c in 1796 by Adam Fluke the year 
after Wayne's treaty was made, and, of course, before the land 
had been surveyed. The county (Dearborn) was created (by the 
Territorial Government) seven years afterward, in 1803. Dear- 
born was the third county in the Territory, Knox (around 
Vincennes) being the first, and Clarke (on the Ohio) the second. 
The fourth county was Harrison, on the Ohio, west of Clarke. 
The fifth county was Wayne, taking the northern portion of 
Dearborn. Whether Wayne County, when it was created, ex- 
tended across the " twelve-mile strip," we do not know. It may 
have done so, since that strip was ceded by the Indians in 1809, 
and the county was erected in 1810. When the first settlers 
came into Randolph (1814), the land between the two boundaries 
had been surveyed, and was open for settlement. But the land 
west of the "twelve-mile strip" was not ceded by the Indians 
till 1818, and not surveyed till 1821-22. 

Randolph was the next county organized east of the " bound- 
aries," viz , in 1818, two years after Indiana became a State. A 
more detailed account will be given hereafter. 


About fourteen years after the first boundary had been estab- 
lished at Greenville by Gen. Wayne (1795), a second boundary 
was drawn according to a treaty which will now be described, viz : 

The second boundary (already mentioned) passing tlirough 
the present limits of Randolph County, is the twelve mile bound- 


ary in the western part of the county. It was agreed on in a 
treaty made with the Indians by Gen. Harrison, Governor of 
Indiana Territory, in 180U (at Fort Wayne, September 30, and 
at Vincennes, October 26). It was called the twelve mile bound- 
ary because, in that treaty the Indians ceded (along with other 
lands perhaps) a strip twelve miles wide west of the old boundary 
already described. This twelve mile line begins at Fort Recovery 
(at the same point with the other), and, proceeding in a straight 
line, but at a greater angle than the old boundary till it reaches 
a point not far from, and a little west of Ridgeville, and twelve 
miles west of the old boundary ; it runs thence parallel with the 
said old boundary to the Ohio River. 

This second or new, or twelve mile boundary passes a little 
west of Ridgeville, and a little east of Unionsport. It crosses 
the Missisaincwa River in southeast quarter Section 11, Town 
21 north. Range 13 east, Franklin Township, and White River 
in White River Township about one mile east of the northeast 
corner of Monroe Township, southeast quarter of Section 16, 
Town 20, Range 13. The surveys might seem to have been made 
without reference to this twelve mile boundary. At any* rate, 
there appear to be full sections lying across the boundary without 
"jogs " on either side of the line. The ranges are numbered 
from the second meiidian, which is about ninety miles west of 
the west line of Ohio. The fact seems to be that the second 
meridian was located and the base line established, and the ranges 
measured and marked on the base line, and then the land be- 
tween the boundaries was surveyed before the land on the west 
of the " twelve-mile strip," and, after the cession iii 1818, the 
survey was completed. As to this lattef purchase and session. 
Judge Jere Smith, in his Civil History of Randolph County, 
(manuscript) says : " In the month of October, 1818, a treaty was 
made by the United States Government with the several tribes 
occupying the territory of the State of Indiana. The council 
was held on St. Mary's River, somewhere near Shane's Prairie, 
not far from where Willshire now stands. Lewis Cass, then 
Governor of Michigan Territory, and Jonathan Jennings, Gov- 
ernor of Indiana, were appointed by President Monroe, Commis- 
sioners to make the treaty. At that treaty, all the country lying 
west of the twelve mile purchase and south of the Wabash, and 
up it to the rcouth of Little River, and up that river to its head, 
and to the Fort Wayne Reservation made by Gen. Wayne in 
1795 (with certain reservations specified), was ceded to the 
United States. This cession embraced the whole central part of 
the State. The land was all surveyed in 1820-21-22, and settlers 
flowed in rapidly." 

When Randolph County was tirst created (as already re- 
marked) it embraced only the land east of the twelve mile bound- 
ary. But at the session, commencing December, 1819, the 
Legislature laid out, in advance, much of the ceded territory into 
counties, and in so doing fixed the final boundaries of Randolph 
County as they now stand, but attached thereto for judicial pur- 
poses, all the territory north of it to the State line, as also Dela- 
ware and Grant. Blackford, Jay, Wells, Adams, Allen, etc., were 
vacant land for years afterward, and all that territory was, for 
the time, attached to Randolph County ; and the Commis- 
sioners, at their session, August, 1820, made all that territory 
into a single township and named it Wayne, and ordered an 
election to be hold at Fort Wayne for the choice of two Justices 
and one Constable. Rather an extensive township that ! largo, 
indeed, as to size, but weak as to population. And for some five 
years the courts of Randolph had jurisdiction over that region. 


The Miami capital, Kekionga, had stood for ages near the 
present location of Fort Wayne, and it was first visited by white 
men at least as soon as 1676, and probably much sooner. A 
French missionary from Michigan visited the Indian capital in 
that year, and Chevalier La Salle is thought to have been there 
about 1680, and, about 1705, the French planted a fort there. 

Fort Miami. In 1745, the Ilurons burnt this fort. The French 
built another there in 1748. In 1759, with the fall of Canada, 
all the Frencli posta fell into tlie hands of the English. Ensign 
Holmes, of the Army, built a fort on the east bunk of the 
St. Jo.seph in 1760-61. 

In 1763, in Pontiac's war. Ensign Holmes was betrayed and 
slain, and the Indians captured the fort. However, Pontiac's 
war was soon ended, and the English again garrisoned the fort 
in 1764. 

The war of Independence followed, and the peace of 1783 
was accomplished ; yet the British, though their government 
had agreed to withdraw their troops with all convenient speed, 
seem to have held for years several posts, as Detroit, Niagam, 
Michilimackinac, and also one near Fort Wayne. When " Mad 
Anthony" marched against the Indians in 1794, he found the 
British occupying a fort on the Mauraee River, and some ratlier 
sharp correspondence took place between the two commanding 
officers. Fort Wayne was built by order of Gen. Wayne 
after his victory over the savages at the rapids of the Maumee. 
For many years after its erection. Fort Wayne was a prin- 
cipal center of dealings with the Indian tribes occupying the 
forests of Indiana. 

Greenville, too, was a place of Indian payment from 1795 (n 
1815. From that time onward Fort Wayne was the pldce tif 
meeting for the payment of Indian annuities. 

A great deal of trade was carried on, chiefly with the Imlians, 
at Fort Wayne at the times of payment. Still no permanent 
settlement was made there till about 1815. Fort Wayne was 
evacuated as a military post in 1819, but it became a depot 
of trade in furs, provisions and whisky. 

Richardville, one of the Miami chiefs, grew immensely rich 
by dealing in furs and by his sales of land. At the Indian pay- 
ments traders would come from Ohio and Michigan and even 
New York, to peddle their wares and cajole the Indians. 

When Indiana was admitted as a State (1816), Allen County 
was a part of Knox. The seat of justice for Fort Wayne re- 
mained at Vincennes till about 1819, when that was attached 
to Randolph County ; and it so continued, with Winchester for 
the county seat, till about 1823, at which time Allen County was 
created. Fort Wayne was laid out as a town in 1823, and the 
plat is recorded in Winchester. 

David Connor had a trading post at various locations on the 
Mississinewa River, and elsewhere. He stationed himself at Fort 
Recovery, then above Deerfield, afterward below Wheeling, and 
finally below Marion. An Indian trader was at La Gro, on the 
Salamonie, and another at the crossing of the Wabash, by the 
" Quaker trail," near New Corydon, Jay County, Ind. 

A trader had been (probably for a short time) at the crossing 
of the Wabash, near New Corydon, Jay County, much earlier 
than the time of David Connor's operations on the Mississinewa, 
perhaps before the war of 1812. His name was Miller, his goods 
were furnished him by Vanausdal, of Eaton, Ohio. Miller was 
murdered by parties unknown. 

Allen County was created in 1823, and embraced at first also 
what is now Wells, Adams, Huntington and Whitley, leaving 
Jay, Blackford, Delaware and Grant still belonging to Randolph. 
Huntington was organized in 1834, Adams in 1836, Wells in 
1837, and Whitley in 1830, Delaware in 1827, Grant in 1831, 
Jay in 1836 and Blackford in 1839, leaving in that latter year 
both Allen and Randolph at their final and permanent size. 


The system of rectangular survey for public lands was pro- 
posed by a committee of the Continental Congress, viz.: 

Messrs. Jeff'erson, Williamson, Howell, Gerry and Reas, who 
reported. May 7, 1784, by Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, their 


'• An ordinance tor ascertaining the mode of locating and 
disposing of land in the Western Territory, and for other pur- 
poses therein mentioned." 

The ordinance was considered, debated and amended, and on 
motion of Mr. Grayson, of Virginia (May 3, 1785), seconded 
by Mr. Monroe, the size of the township was reduced to six miles 
square, and May 25, 1785, the bill became a law. 

Under this ordinance, that part of Ohio called " The Seven 
Ranges," was surveyed into ranges of townships extending north- 
ward from the Ohio River, and numbered toward the north. 

The sections were not surveyed, but "mile corners" were 
established in the exterior lines of the townships, and the " mile 
lots" were numbered from one to thirty-six, beginning with the 
southeast corner of the township. 

The area of the " Seven Ranges " was 1,641,724 acres. By 
act of Congress, May 18, 1796, a Surveyor General was ap- 
pointed (the year after Wayne's treaty at Greenville had been 
made with the Indians). 

Under this act, one-half the townships were divided by " run- 
ning" lines each way, two miles apart, through the townships, 
and making "mile marks" on these lines. The sections were 
numbered from one to thirty-six, beginning at the northeast 
corner of each township, and proceeding west and east alternately, 
ending with thirty-six in the southeast corner. Fractional town- 
ships were numbered exactly as though they had been full size. 
This method of numbering is still employed and has been used 
ever since its adoption. The act of May 10, 1800, directed the 
subdivision of townships into half-.sections of 320 acres. The 
act of February 11, 1803, directed the subdivisions into quarter- 
sections (160 acres). The act of April 24, 1820, subdivided 
into half-quarter sections (eighty acres). The act of April 5, 
1832, directed the survey of quarter-quarters, i. e., forty acres. 

No further reduction has ever been made. The price of the 
public lands also has varied somewhat as follows : 

At first not less than a section could be "entered," and the price 
was §2 per acre, the purchaser paying in four equal annual pay- 
ments. Afterward, "floating claims" were allowed, i. e., if a 
man failed to complete his payments he might have a patent for 
as much as the money he had paid would cover, and let the rest 

After awhile the price was set at $1.25 cash, with the privi- 
lege of buying 160 acres, and then of eighty, and by and by 
forty acres. In (about) 1840, the right of pre-emption was se- 
cured by act of Congress; and in 1862, the "Homestead" act 
was passed. 

In 1872, an act was passed for " soldiers' homesteads," allow- 
ing their terra of service to count on their homestead time. 
At some time a provision was made, graduating the price of the 
public lands according to the time they had remained unsold in 
market, coming down at tiie lowest point to 12J cents per acre. 
And it is a noteworthy instance of the public benefit of a judi- 
cious railroad system, that, while millions of acres had been stand- 
ing for years unsold at the minimum price in Central and Southern 
Illinois, in the route of the Central Railroad ; after the road had 
been built under a grant of immense quantities of land to the 
railroad, the part retained by the Government was sold by it at 
$2.50 per acre (twenty times the former price), yielding a net in- 
come of over $9,000,000. 

The land in Indiana east of the " old boundary " was sur- 
veyed from 1799 to 1802. The "twelve-mile strip" was sur- 
veyed in 1811. The land west of the " twelve-mile strip" was 
surveyed from 1820 onward. 

The following statement concerning meridians and base lines, 
i.s condensed from the report of the Commissioner of the Land 
Office for 1875 ; pages 37-38. 


Certain north-and-south lines, called meridia 
as initial lines of reckoning. 

and west are designated, called base lines, crossing the meridians 
at right angles. 

From the meridians the rjnges are numbered cast or west, or 
both, as may happen. From the base lines the townships are 
numbered north or south, or both, as the case may be. 


During the course of ninety-six years (May, 1785), the fol- 
lowing meridians have beon designated : 

The first meridian is the west line of Ohio, commencing at the 
Ohio River, at the mouth of the Miami River, being 84° 51' 
west from Greenwich (or about 7° 49' from Washington). 

The lands in Ohio and those in Indiana east of the " old 
boundary," are numbered east and west from the first meridian. 
The base in this case is the Ohio River. 

The second meridian is located ninety miles west of the west- 
ern Ohio line, and extends northward to the Indiana State line. 
[86° 28' west]. 

All the lands in Indiana west of the " Old Boundary," are 
controlled by this meridian, and also that part of Illinois included 
by fifteen ranges west ; and the ranges are numbered eastward 
fifteen ranges, or ninety miles, to the State line (or a less distance 
to the " old boundary "), and westward fifteen ranges, or ninety 
miles, extending some distance into Eastern Illinois. The base 
line is an cast and west line crossing the meridian twenty-four 
miles north of the Ohio River. 

The third meridian extends northward from the mouth of the 

to the northern boundary of Illinois. This meridia 
regulates the land between it and those subject to the second me- 
ridian, and westward to the Illinois River. It is the line of 89° 
10' 30" west from Greenwich. 

The fourth meridian extends from the mouth of the Illinois 
northward from latitude 38° 58' 12" through Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota. 

This meridian controls all the lands in Illinois, west of the 
Illinois River, or of this meridian north of its intersection there- 
with ; all the lands in Wisconsin, and all in Minnesota lying east 
of the Mississippi and of the third guide meridian (west of the 
fifth principal meridian) and north of the river. 

The fifth meridian extends northward from the mouth of the 
Arkansas River, with a base line westward from the mouth of 
the St. Francis River. It controls Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, 
Minnesota west of the Mississippi and the third guide meridian, 

[90° 58' west]. 

St] extends from latitude 37' 

ne is the 40th degree of lati- 

!, Nebraska, Dakota south and 
and Colorado (except the Rio 

and Dakota east of the- Missouri 

The sixth meridian [97° 
to the Missouri River. Its base 1 

This meridian controls Kar 
west of the Missouri, Wyorair 
Grande Valley). 

These are the six principal Meridians. Besides these there 
are others, as follows: 

The Michigan meridian for Michigan, the Tallahassee meri- 
dian for Florida, the St. Stephens meridian for parts of Alabama 
and Mississippi, the Iluntsville meridian for Northern Alabama, 
the Choctaw meridian for Northern Mississippi, the Washington 
meridian for Southwestern Mississippi, the Louisiana meridian for 
Louisiana west of the Mississippi, the St. Helena meridian for 
Southeastern Louisiana (east of the Mississippi), the New Mexico 
meridian for New Mexico and Colorado in the Rio Grande Val- 
ley, the great Salt Lake meridian for Utah, the Boise meridian 
for Idaho, the Mount Diablo meridian for Central and Northeast- 
ern California and all of Nevada, the San Bernardino meridian 
for Southern California east of the meridian and some west of 
it, the Humboldt meridian for northwestern California, the Willa- 
mette meridian for Oregon and Washington, the Montana meridian 
for Montana, the Gila and Salt River meridian for Arizona, the 
Indian meridian for Indian Territory. 

[NorE. It may bo remarked that the Texas Lands are not 


mentioDed. They were left in the ownership of the State, and 
hence, are not included in the United States Surveys. Thus it 
is seen that twenty-four meridians of survey have been designa- 
ted by the Government.] 

Randolph County land is numbered from two meridians, first 
and second. 

The first meridian is the line between Indiana and Ohio. The 
second meridian is ninety miles west of the first. 

The land east of the old (Wayne's) boundary is surveyed and 
numbered westward from the first meridian. 

The second meridian begins at a point on the Ohio River in 
Perry County, Ind., ninety miles west of the Ohio line. It ex- 
tends north between Perry and Crawford, through Crawford, 
Orange, Lawrence, Monroe, Morgan, Hendricks, Boone, Clin- 
ton, Carroll and Cass, between Pulaski and Fulton, between 
Stark and Marshall, and through St. Joseph to the north line of 

The land west of the old boundary and to the second meri- 
dian, is surveyed and numbered eastward from the second meri- 

One range in Randolph County (fractional), and four ranges 
in all, are counted from the first meridian, and fifteen ranges in 
all are reckoned eastward of the second meridian to the Ohio line. 

Randolph County embi-aces Range 1 west of the first princi- 
pal meridian (east of the old boundary), and Ranges 12, 13, 14 
and 15 east of second principal meridian. 

It embraces townships 16, 17, 18 and (south half of) 19 
west of first meridian, and townships (north half of) 18, and (the 
whole of) 19, 20 and 21, east of the second principal meridian, 
in Ranges 12, 13, li and 15 aforesaid. 

The base of the survey on the east side of the old boundary 
would seem to be the point where the boundary touches the Ohio 
River. At any rate the townships number thence toward the 
north. Hence the south line of Randolph County is about 
ninety miles north of the point where the old boundary strikes 
the Ohio. 

[It is however only about sixty miles from the nearest point 
on the Ohio.] 

The base line of the survey on the west side of the old boun- 
dary crosses the second meridian about 24 miles north of the 
point at which that meridian touches the Ohio River, there being 
four townships south of the base line to the Ohio on the east side 
of the second meridian. 

On the west side there are fourteen townships in Indiana 
south of that base line. 

The whole of Indiana west of the second meridian is surveyed 
and numbered westward from that second meridian and also more 
or less of Illinois. 

There are "jog^" on both sides of the ''old boundary," the 
surveys on the two sides of that boundary having no connection 
with each other. There are no "jogs" at the '-twelve-mile 
boundary." The surveys west of the '' old boundary," and on 
both sides of the " new boundary " were all made from the sec- 
ond meridian eastward, although the land east of that second 
boundary contiguous thereto was surveyed before the land on the 
west side. 

One thing may be of interest, and not universally known, as 
to the survey of the public lands, viz : The townships are square, 
six miles on aside, while the meridians are not parallel (of course). 
This disagreement causes fractional sections, which are made to 
occur at the side which is at the close of the survey. The range 
lines were first established six miles apart, and then the townships, 
six miles square, were measured off, and afterward the section lines 
were run each way, one mile apart. The section corners were 
established by corner trees, as also by witness trees, all marked 
with descriptions of size, measurements, distances from corner, etc. 

By these section-corners the section is afterward divided into 
halves, quarters, eighths, sixteenths. The original surveys arc 
described as they were taken, in the " field notes," which are de- 

posited in the office of the County Auditor, and are accessible to all 
who wish to consult them. Owing to various obstacles and diffi- 
culties and possibly sometimes to carelessness, the original surveys 
were not always accurate and sometimes seriously wrong. The 
corners, however, established in such survey, when they can be 
determined, must stand. It is true, indeed, that some sections 
contain more than other.\ and the lines between corners are not 
always regular ; but certainty and stability are of paramount im- 
portance, and far more so than mere quantity. Legal methods, 
have been established by the State for completing the survey of 
a section, and for ascertaining and fixing any desired corner, line 
or boundary ; and when done according to law, the work of the 
" lawful surveyor " has to stand. 

It may or may not be known by all although it is neverthe- 
less a certain fact, that surveying is for many reasons a most deli- 
cate and difficult operation ; and the fewest number, even of pro- 
fessional surveyors, are able to execute an extensive survey with 
even approximate accuracy. It is true also that " disputed bound- 
aries " are a fruitful source of quarrels between neighbors, and 
not seldom fierce enmity and perm-anent and bitter personal 
hatred, will grow from such a dispute. 

A very curious instance, showing both the difficulty in the 
subject matter, the fierceness of strifes arising from such sources, 
and the need of accurate knowledge and superior practical skill 
in execution, as also the advantage, nay, the absolute necessity 
of possessing the confidence of the contending parties, occurred 
many years ago ; and, as the case has never been in print, so far 
as we are aware, it may be well to preserve a statement of the 
case for the advantage of posterity. 

A certain large landed estate with many heirs was to bo 
divided. The attempt was made by different surveyors, but no 
two came out alike, and none was satisfactory. At last a survey- 
or was sent for a hundred miles away. He came, knowing noth- 
ing beforehand of the trouble in the matter. He found, perhaps, 
a hundred men on hand, and saw that he had a doubly-difficult 
task to perform — to make a survey diflBcult in its.elf, and to satisfy 
the parties concerned of the correctness of his work. He soon 
found that the chief trouble grew from the fact that a line had to 
be ascertained that extended through an impassable swamp. He 
felt that the essential thing to be done was, to satisfy that crowd 
of men that he could measure a line exactly without going 
near it ; so, ordering two stakes to be set at an unknown distance 
apart, he, without himself going near either one of them or up- 
on the line between them, by measurements and calculations 
of triangles, found the distance between those stakes, and an- 
nounced it to an inch. " Now," said he, " go measure it." They did, 
and to their amazement found that he was right, " to a shaving." 
" There," said he, " are you satisfied that I can tell the exact 
length of aline without passing over it or being upon it't" " We 
are," was the universal reply. " Well then, don't you see that I 
can tell how far it is across that swamp without crossing it?" 
" Yes, we do," was the answer. He then went on with his work, 
and completed the survey ; and, though his results were unlike all 
the rest (which was natural enough), all were satisfied, and the 
bitter controversy was forever at an end. They felt that he was 
"master of his business," and that if the survey could be made 
at all, he could do it, and that he had done it. The other sur- 
veyors might have been near enough correct, but they had not 
secured the confidence of the parties concerned in advance. 

Another actual case equally curious, though of another sort, 
we state, both of the instances showing, among other things, how 
matters that occur in actual life are more difficult than any prob- 
lems found in textbooks. 

A man died leaving a widow with ten children, all minors, and 
also a considerable estate. A final division could not be made 
till the youngest came of age. Before that time, seven of the 
children had died, one by one, so that the final distribution of 
the estate had to be made to the widow and the three surviving 
children. The law was this : The widow was entitled by statute 


to one- third, and the children, collectively, to the other two-thirds. 
If a- child died, half its portion went to the mother, and the 
other lialf in equal shares to the surviving children. How much 
is the final share of the widow, and of each surviving child? 
This problem in fractions the court had to solve, and "seas of 
figures " were made by experts in attempts to make the calcula- 
tion and to determine the result. 


There are no mountains noreven high bills in Randolph County. 
The center between the Mississinewa and White Rivera is largely 
low and mostly level, much of the land needing draining. Far- 
ther from the sources of the streams the surface becomes more 
rolling. And in the southern part of the county it is still more 
so. On Nolan's and Green's Forks, Martindale's Creek, West 
River and Little White River, the gentle hills and sloping val- 
, leys present a very picturesque appearance. In early times much 
of the level portions were difficult of occupation, but, of late years, 
extensive ditching has been done and the low portions make the 
very best farms. 


Occasionally, when the settlers first came, a low, wet prairie 
would be found ; but, for the most part, a thick, heavy woods 
covered the soil, and they were filled mostly with an abundant 
underbrush. Jere Smith, in his " Reminiscences," says : 

" The country was thickly timbered with a tall, heavy forest, 
having a wonderful undergrowth of shrubs and wild grass and 
weeds. The trees were beech, sugar tree, ash (gray, blue and 
swamp), oak (white, red, burr, pin and river), poplar, walnut 
(white and black), elm (red or slippery, and white or hickory), 
hickory (black or pignut, and shell bark), buckeye, linn, wild 
maple, hackberry, coifeenut, honey locust, cottonwood. The 
undergrowth was spice-bush, ironwood, water-beech and horn- 
beam, prickly-ash, dogwood, kunnekanic (Indian name, now ex- 
tinct), red-bud, paw-paw, wild plum, red and black haw, sassa- 
fras ; in swamps, black alder, willow, thorn, crab-apple, young 


" Nettles, peavines, may apple, ginseng, ferns (two kinds), 
snake-root (black and seneca), silkweed, ramps (soon extinct), 
bear-grass, file-grass, skunk-cabbage, cat's tail. In clearings, 
butter-weed, thistles, mullein, dog-fennel (may-weed) ; in tilled 
lands, Spanish needles and touch-me-nots." 


The same authority says: "The game were deer, squirrels 
(gray, black and red), turkeys, pheasants and bears. Other wild 
animals were wolves, raccoons, ground-hogs, possums, porcupines, 
wild-cats, foxes, panthers, otter, minks and pole cats." 

There were, in many parts, especially after the country had 
been partially settled, great numbers of wild hngs, the offspring 
of animals which had been tame, but that were grown wild by rang- 
ing in the woods. These wild hogs were often very fierce and 
savage, and considerably dangerous. And it is curious how 
quickly the tame swine themselves would become wild by running 
in the forest. These droves of hogs would sometimes remain 
unmolested for two or three years, since they would fatten only 
in the "mast years," and the mast would occasionally fail for a 
year or two, or even more, and the herrls of swine would greatly 
increase during those years, and become vastly formidable to 
persons passing through the forest. In some places autumnal 
fires had killed the undergrowth and left the forest beautifully 
open. In a few cases, also, hurricanes had passed and prostrated 
the timber, leaving the ground covered with trunks of trees 
lying in every direction. One such tract existed near Spartan- 
burg. Another was caused a few years later by a terrific storm 
that tore through the southern part of the county. A history of it 
will be found in " Reminiscences by Jere. Smith," in another 

L terrified witness of t 

part of this work, 
fearful scene. 

The surface of Randolph County rises to a considerable height. 
The land on which Union City stands, is said to be, with one ex- 
ception, the highest land in the State, being not far from 1,000 feet 
above the level of the Gulf of Mexico. Of the State itself, the 
northeastern part slopes to the northeast, the water passing through 
the Maumee to Lake Erie. The center slopes to the west and 
southwest, being drained by the White, the Wabash, etc., into 
the Ohio. The southeast and south portions slope directly to the 
Ohio, and the regions of the northwest and north are drained 
into Lake Michigan. A small portion of the east drains eastward 
to the Miami. The chief valleys in the State are the Maumee 
(and its affluents) in the northeast, the Wabash in the center, the 
Whitewater in the east and southeast, the Kankakee in the north- 
west, the St. Joseph in the north, the Ohio in the south, the 
Miami in the east. The county itself embraces parts of the 
Wabash, the Whitewater and the Miami Valleys, as will be more 
fully seen hereafter. There were originally a few swamps or 
marshes, mostly at the head of the streams, as the swamp be- 
tween Nolan's Fork and Greenville Creek, in Greensfork Town- 
ship, and some others. These two creeks run in opposite direc- 
tions from the same marsh. Nolan's Fork flows south into White- 
water, and Greenville north and then east toward the Miami. 
But these old-time swamps, by the clearing of the forests and the 
draining of their surface, are mostly changed to dry land. 

During late years, and especially at the present time, an 
immense amount of ditching has been, and is being done by the 
farmers of the county. It is considered that the high and rolling 
ground, even, is vastly improved by thorough draining ; and, 
while the low marshy land, utterly useless otherwise, has been, 
by a thorough system of ditching, transformed into excellent 
farms, the more rolling land has in many cases been ditched 
also and greatly improved thereby. Many of the artificial 
drains are immense ditches, deep and wide, and extending for 
miles through scores and hundreds of farms. Their construction 
is regulated by law, and, though costly, they are of immense 
benefit, and, in fact, indispensable to the prosperity of the farming 
interest. Though it is regretted by many, that the legal regulations 
require so great an amount of attending cost, causing the ditching 
of the country to be exceedingly expensive ; still, the owners of 
low lands cannot do without the ditches. Yet, a system is greatly 
to be desired that shall result in the construction of the largest 
and most serviceable ditches at the lowest practicable cost. 


Gravel is somewhat abundant, being found in drift heaps like 
knolls, covered in most cases with surface earth several feet deep. 
Often these gravel deposits are very large. Some of them are in 
the bluffs of the creeks, but many also are at a distance from any 
stream. Sand is found in many places but is not so plentiful as 
gravel. Lime is burned on the banks of the Mississinewa River 
near Ridgeville, and on the White River near Macksville, and 
also near Farmland. There are two kilns near Maxville and one 
near Farmland. The proprietors of the two kilns near Maxville 
burn, on an average, twelve times a year, 400 bushels at a time. 
The demand is large and rapid, the whole of a kiln being sold 
often as fast as it can be loaded. The lime is said to be of an 
excellent quality. These quarries furnish aljo rock for founda- 
tions, etc., and experts say that, by digging deeper, excellent 
building stone might be obtained in abundance. In some places 
within the county, rock-boulders are found quite plentifully. 
Across the southern part of Randolph occurs a remarkable deposit 
of loose rocks on the surface. The tract is, perhaps, a mile wide, 
and is supposed to extend eastward over most of the county. In 
some parts of the tract the stones lie so thick as nearly to cover 
the ground. Sometimes immense rocks weighing many tons are 
met with, boulders also, some of them very large, are found in 


various parts of the county. In some cases farmers take pains 
to gather the rocks from their lands, and utilize them by walling 
a well or, by laying them into the foundations of a barn. In 
some places also the huge rocks have been blasted by powder, so 
as to become available for walling purposes. 


The following sketch contains some facts furnished by I. M. 
Branson, Esq., of Maxville, Randolph County. His article has 
been somewhat condensed to correspond to the narrow limits of 
the space available for its insertion : A tract of land containing 
eighty to one hundred acres lying north of Maxville, and extend- 
ing both eastward and westward from that town, constituting at 
the present time a portion of the valley of White River, seems to 
present striking evidences of the action thereon of the forces of 
the Glacial Epoch, during which, after the prevalence for un- 
known ages of fire and water, ice became for a season monarch of 
the world-wide waste, producing, as the result of its power, a con- 
dition of things described as the Drift Period, such as loose, un- 
stratified deposits of clay, sand, gravel, and stones or rocks famil- 
iar to the sight of every man in the Northern States, which, by 
the way; are said not to be found much south of forty degrees 
north latitude. In some places, the drift deposits form oidy a 
slight covering above the solid rock while elsewhere the deposits 
are piled up in hills and ridges. This latter state of things 
exists in the locality mentioned. Apparently the drift or ava- 
lanche came southwest, leveling by its mighty power hills and 
ridges, filling ravines and hollows in its onward course. The 
melting of the ice has left these vast deposits of boulders, gravel, 
fossils, etc., scattered everywhere. 

The whole region was previously a surface of limestone. In 
some places the lime rock is still uncovered, though lying mostly 
from a few inches to several feet below the surface. Over the 
whole ground are scattered many kinds of material — stone, clay, 
soil, sand, loam and alluvium in a mass together. The boulders 
are of all sizes, from small rubble stones to rocks weighing several 
tons. The masses are rounded as if water-worn, and possess a 
structure entirely different from the layers of rock upon which 
they rest. These boulder rocks have evidently been transported 
to their present location by some wonderful force, presenting as 
they do marks of parallel grooves or strije, so-called, caused, as 
supposed, by the scraping of the boulder masses upon the solid 
stone-layers lying below. The bedrock at the surface is polished 
and grooved in the same manner. The locality in question might 
seem to have been the spot at which the huge glacier stopped its 
motion and melted away, thus leaving its entire burden of drift. 
There have been found petrified fish, beech nuts, hickory nuts, 
wood, worms, etc., all transformed into solid stone. The chief 
evidences of the approach and resting-place of a glacier are mo- 
raines, erratic blocks, polished surfaces, stria, etc. 

The river flows west and northwest througli this tract. The 
hills are low and gradual in ascent. The ravines extend north 
and south with the ends running into the river " filled up." In 
excavating for limestone, different strata of earth and soil, sand, 
gravel, loam and clay are discovered in a conglomerate mass. In 
the river valley, below this region, none of the features named are 
noticed. Some of the bouhiers are monsters. The surface of 
the limestone is level ; extending from the river, toward the high- 
lands on each side upon this ground, are siluateil the Maxville 
lime-quarries. The bottom of the river is a solid bed of lime- 
stone. Many fossils have been found, such as the imprint of 
leaves, twigs and plants, shells, nuts and small grades of animal 
life upon the surface of the lime rock. This whole tract possesses 
great interest for a geologist and would bear a far more careful 
and extensive exploration. 


There are no lakes, nor even ponds of any size in Randolph 
County. The rivers are the Mississinewa and its branches in the 

north (flowing, i. e., the main stream, nearly west); the White 
River and its branches in the center, the main stream flowing 
west; the branches of the Whitewater (but not the Whitewater 
itself), in the south, flowing southward; and one or two branches 
of the Miami in the east, tending eastward. 


This valley embraces the entire northern part of the 
county. It rises in the State of Ohio and enters Ran- 
dolph County in the northeastern part of Jackson Township, 
flowing nearly west, veering, however, slightly north through the 
northern parts of the northern tier of townships, Jackson, Ward, 
Franklin and Green; it enters Delaware County near the north- 
west corner of Green Township. It is a considerable stream, 
flowing into the Wabash, through Randolph, Delaware, Grant and 
Miami Counties, a little above Peru. The towns near it (in Ran- 
dolph County) are AUensville, Deerfiold, Ridgeville, Steubenville 
and Fairview, and (out of Randolph) Albany (Delaware County), 
Jonesboro and Marion (Grant County). AUensville, Steuben- 
ville and Deerfield are south of the River, and Ridgeville is north 
of it. None of these towns except Ridgeville are of much im- 
portance, though it is a thriving little town. AUensville is in Jack- 
son Township, nearly north of Union City. Deerfield is in Ward 
Township, north of Winchester; Ridgeville is in Franklin Town- 
ship, northwest of Winchester. Steubenville and Fairview are 
in Green Township, the most northwestern part of the county. 
The chief branches of the Mississinewa arc on the south side, 
Bush, Bear, Mad, Hickory and Massie's Creeks, and Little Mis- 
sissinewa River. On the north side, Goshen, Dinner and Day's 
Creeks. Bush Creek rises in White River, and flows through 
Franklin, Monroe and Green, entering the Mississinewa a little 
east of Steubenville. Bear Creek heads in White River, flows 
through White River and Franklin, emptying three miles below 
Ridgeville. Mud Creek (there are several) rises in White River, 
flows through White River and Ward, emptying just west of 
Deerfield. Hickory Creek heads in White River, flows through 
White River and Ward, and reaches the Mississinewa, east of 
Deerfield. Massie's Creek rises in Ward and empties between 
AUensville and Deerfield. Little Mississinewa River heads in 
Wayne Township west of Salem, flows nearly north and just 
west of Union City, through Wayne and Jackson, and meets the 
Big Mississinewa a little east of AUensville. Goshen (north 
side) flows from Jay County into Ward Township, emptying near 
Deerfield. Day's Creek is mostly in Franklin Township, empty- 
ing east of the mouth of Bear Creek. Dinner Creek flows south- 
west through Green Township and empties west of the mouth of 
Bush Creek. Some of these streams are of considerable size, 
and themselves have aflluents; Bush Creek hasElkhorn and sev- 
eral others, Bear Creek has Tiger Branch. The towns in this 
region (not yet mentioned) are, or have been, New Lisbon, Jack- 
son Township cast of Little Mississinewa; Mount Holly, west of 
New Lisbon in Jackson; New Pitt.sburg, in Jackson, north of 
the Mississinewa near the Jay County line; New Midiiletown, 
Jackson, between Union and Deerfield on the Deerfield State 
road: Saratoga, on the railroad between Union City and Ridge- 
ville, in Ward Township; Harrisville, on the "Bee Line," 
between Union and Winchester in Wayne; Randolph, on the 
railroad south of Deerfield, Ward Township, Salem, Wayne 
Township, near the head of Little Mississinewa; Union City, near 
the Little Mississinewa, at the junction of several railroads. 


Is in the center of the county, extending from east to west. 

Wliite River is the largest stream in the county. It rises in 
the east part of Washington Township, flows northeast several 
miles through Washington, White River and Wayne, then turn- 
ing westerly (in Wayne) it passes out of Wayne and through 
White River and Stony Creek, across a very small corner of Mon- 
roe, leaving Randolph near Windsor ; thence through Delaware, 



Madison, Hamilton, Marion, Johnson, Morgan, Owen, Greene, 
between Daviess and Knox, and between Knox and Pike, and 
Gibson Counties, with a general southwesterly course, it enters 
Wabash opposite Mount Carmel (a town in Illinois) a long distance 
below Vincennes. 

The towns near White River (in Randolph) are : Snow 
Hill, Washington Township ; Harrisville, Wayne Township ; 
Winchester, White River Township ; Maxville, White River 
Township ; Farmland, Monroe Township ; Windsor, Stony Creek 
Township. Those towns are all south of the river but Snow Hill, 
Harrisville and Farmland. Snow Hill and Farmland are north, 
and Harrisville east, of White River. White River takes its 
westerly course near Harrisville in Wayne. 

Winchester is a considerable town, and a railroad center ; the 
others, except Farmland, are small and of little importance. 
Harrisville is on a railroad and so are Farmland and Winchester. 
The towns (out of Randolph) on White River are : Muncie, 
county seat of Delaware ; Anderson, county seat of Madison ; 
Noblesville, county seat of Hamilton : Indianapolis, county seat 
of Marion and capital of the State; Martinsville, county seat 
of Morgan ; Spencer, county seat of Owen; Bloomfield, county 
seat of Greene. 

These towns are railroad towns also, and more or less active 
and flourishing. They are important centers of business and 
trade for the region around them. 

Indianapolis is one of the greatest railroad centers in the 
world, is by far the largest town in the State, and rapidly reach- 
ing its older rivals throughout the country. 

The chief branches of the White River are on the south side, 
the water on the north draining mostly into the Mississinewa. 

The affluents are: Stony, Cabin, Eight Mile, Sparrow, 
Spring Branch, Sugar and Salt Creeks. 

Stony Creek is mostly in Delaware County, entering Ran- 
dolph south of Windsor, and emptying not fiir from that town. 

Cabin Creek rises west of Huntsville in West River, flows 
northwest through West River, White River and Stony Creek, 
emptying midway between Maxville and Windsor. 

Eight-Mile Creek begins in Washington, flows through 
Washington, West River and White River, and empties into 
White River (stream) in the northeast corner of Stony Creek, a 
little west of Maxville. 

Spring Branch is wholly in White River, between Sparrow 
and Sugar Creeks. 

Sparrow Creek licads in West River, flows through White 
River, and empties a mile east of Maxville. 

Sugar Creek rises in Crane Pond in Washington ; flows 
through Washington and White River, and empties a little north- 
west of Winchester. 

Salt Creek begins in Washington, flows north through Wash- 
ington, White River (and the town of Winchester), and empties 
a short distance north of Winchester. 

Stony Creek has a large branch, Little White River. It 
rises in Nettle Creek, flows through Nettle Creek and Stony 
Creek, and enters Stony Creek (stream) in the west part of the 

The towns in this region are: Losantville, Huntsville, 
Pleasant View, Unionsport and Buena Vista. 

Losantville is in Nettle Creek at the head of Little White 

Unionsport is in West River and White River on Cabin 

Huntsville is in West River at the head of Cabin Creek. 

Buena Vista is east of Unionsport in West River and White 

Pleasant View is in Stony Creek and Nettle Creek, north- 
east of Losantville. 


Embraces most of the southern portion of Randolph County, 
though no part of the river itself is found therein. Its chief 

branches in Randolph are : Nolan's Fork, Greensfork, Mar- 
tindale Creek and West River. 

Nolan's Fork drains the southern part of Greensfork Town- 

Greensfork drains the west part of Greensfork and the 
south part of Washington Township. 

Martindale Creek and West River drain the south part of 
West River Township. 

Arba is on the west side of Nolan's Fork in Greensfork 

Lynn is on the west side of Greensfork in Washington 

Bloomingsport is near one of the western branches of Greens- 
fork in Washington Township. 

These branches of White River, in Randolph County, flow 
chiefly southward. 


The only affluents of the Miami in Randolph County are 
Greenville and Dismal Creeks. Greenville Creek rises in Greens- 
fork Township, southeast of Spartansburg, flows north and north- 
east through Greensfork and Wayne, near and east of Spar- 
tansburg and Bartonia, and enters Ohio in the northeastern part 
of Wayne ; Dismal heads in the north part of Greensfork, 
flows northeast through Wayne, and enters Ohio a mile south of 
Union City. Spartansburg is on the west side of Greenville Creek 
in Greensfork Township. Bartonia is also west of Greenville 
Creek and in Wayne Township. 


The streams are crossed by the numerous highways extending 
in all directions. Large bridges are required over the White and 
Mississinewa in several places. The chief crossings of the 
Mississinewa are: 1. North of Allensville, a pike. 2. 
South of New Pittsburg, a pike. 3. North of Deerfield, a 
pike. 4. South of Ridgeville, an iron bridge. 5. Midway 
between Ridgeville and Deerfield, a ford. 6. South of Fair- 

The main crossings of White River are : 1. Near Mount 
Zion Meeting-house, southeast of Winchester. 2. East of Win- 
chester on the Greenville State Road. 3. Two or three crossings 
in the region of Harrisville. 4. East of Winchester, near White 
River Friends' Meeting-house. 5. Not very far from Winchester, 
northwest of the fair grounds. 6. Not far from Stephen Moor- 
man's in the region where Sampletown used to be. 7. Near 
Maxville. 8. Just south of Farmland. 9. South of Morris- 
town. There is a large bridge over Stony Creek just east of 


The Mississinewa Valley embraces the northern part of the 
county, chiefly Jackson, Ward, Franklin and Green Townships. 
White River Vallev is in the center, taking -(parts of) Wayne and 
White River, Stony Creek, Nettle Creek, and (parts of) Wash- 
ington and West Rivers. 

The Whitewater Valley includes most of Greensfork, Wash- 
ington ami West River. Miami Valley takes (parts of) Greens- 
fork and Wayne. There are three " divides," mostly low and 
marshy — (1) between Mississinewa and White Rivers ; (2) between 
White and Whitewater Rivers ; (3) between White and White 
River and Miami. The " divide " between Mississinewa and 
White begins near the center of Wayne southwest of Salem, and 
passing near Harrisville, extends on the north side of, and not 
very far from White River stream, through White River and 
Monroe Townships. 

The "divide" between White and Whitewater begins in the 
west part of Greensfork, and, passing into the north part of 
Washington and bending southward, it extends near the center of 
West River Township, and through the south part of Nettle 
Creek. The "divide," setting ofi" the Miami waters from 
those of the White and the Whitewater, commences in Wayne 

., / J 

<^-ii-Tji<f e^^-^CMi^lt 


south of Union City, extends southwest through Wayne into 
Greensfork, and thence south and southeast to the southeast 
part of Greensfork. 


Many of these streams were in early times used for water- 
power for grist-mills, saw-mills and other machinery. 

The most important in these respects were Mississinewa 
River, White River and Cabin Creek, the last being in some 
respects the best of the three for water power. 

In the latter days the amount of water is much more vari- 
able and uncertain than of old in all the streams. The clearing 
of the timber and the drainage of the low lands seem to have 
greatly lessened the quantity of water in the rivers and creeks. 
And for these, and perhaps other reasons, steam has almost 
wholly superseded the use of water as a power for the propelling 
of machinery in this county. 

There is still a water mill on White River at Maxville and 
one at Windsor, one on Mississinewa at Ridgeville, one on 
Cabin Creek near its mouth, and perhaps one or two others. 
The slope of the streams is very slight, and water has to be 
conveyed a long distance to secure sufficient fall for the requisite 

In earlier times many more mills, both for sawing and grind- 
ing, carding machines, etc., were to be found, most of which are 
now discontinued. 

Mississinewa and White were at first (especially the former) 
used during the spring floods for boating, rafting, etc. 

Wayne and Randolph were settled before the main portions 
of the White River, the Mississinewa and the Wabash valleys ; 
and, when these latter named regions began to be settled, about 
the only way to reach them with supplies of fruit, potatoes, flour, 
pork, etc., was to haul the merchandise to the Mississinewa at 
Ridgeville, build or buy a flatboat, load it, and guide the awk- 
ward, unwieldy thing down the current of the river to the set- 
tlers below. Sometimes a number of boats would be taken down 

Mr. Joab Ward, of Ridgeville (see Thomas Ward's remin- 
iscences), built many boats and sold them to parties who wished 
to convey their produce down the stream. Generally the man 
who owned the commodities would purchase a boat and do his 
own boating, or hire some person for that special trip. 

Mr. Ward would furnish a boat, all complete, forty feet long, 
for $25. Many stories are told by the early settlers of the in- 
cidents of boating life, and of the dangers and the losses in- 
curred during the voyage down the stream. Sometimes the 
owners of the "crafts" would have to "run the mill-dams," and 
the boats would be broken and wrecked, and some men were 
drowned. In a few instances the owners of the mills would for- 
bid the passage of the dams by the boats, and one mill-owner 
drew his rifle to his shoulder and threatened to shoot the boat- 
man. The boat passed the dam, however, and the man did not 

Once a man from Deerfield, Mr. Searl, gathered several boat- 
loads of charcoal and started down, but near Fairview the car- 
goes were wrecked and lost. 

This business of boating continued for several years ; but, 
before very long, those valleys became settled and raised their 
own supplies and, of course, that put a stop to the flat-boating 
on the Mississinewa. 

This kind of craft could only "float," and of course could 
not be brought back up stream ; and therefore a boat never went 
but one voyage, and frequently (as already stated) did not even 
accomplish that. When the boatmen had made their downward 
trip, the boats were disposed of in some way, and the gallant 
fellows came on shore and went home by land, and, of course, on 
foot. A group of jolly chaps would frequently have a merry 
time (and sometimes a hard one) in " footing" it in company, 
from Marion or the mouth of the Mississinewa or somewhere 

else in that region, to their homes near Ridgeville. It was not 
uncommon for persons who were expert boatmen to hire out to 
take a boat down the stream to the Wabash and then walk back. 

It seems hard now, but the brave, stalwart fellows thought it no 
special hardship then. In fact, the flatboatmen on the Ohio and 
Mississippi to New Orleans had to come home from that far distant 
market on foot. One thing sometimes gave special trouble to the 
footmen on the Mississinewa. The boating could be done only 
in time of the spring floods, and the creeks and bottoms would 
be flooded too, and the footmen in returning were in danger of 
of having to wade and almost to swim. One o'd boatman stated 
that he was obliged on coming home from one of his trips to 
wade up to his neck. But dear me ! What did they care 'i It 
all went in a life time, and life was dull without adventures and 

It would seem a wonder that no town grew up at Ridgeville. 
Lewellyn's mill and Ward's " boat-buildery" (to coin a word) 
both were there, and surely less than that would start a town now- 
a-days. But the " boating'' would only last for a single trip — and 
not every year at that. And a mill alone will not make a town 
even now. It will help somewhat but cannot make one, and much 
less could it do so then. And Lewellyn's was not very much of 
a mill. So Ridgeville had to wait fifteen or twenty years for its 
first laying out, and sixteen or seventeen years more for another 
start, and then some twelve years longer before it really took to 
growing in earnest. 

It was first platted in 1837, twenty years after Meshach 
Lewellyn first settled on the tract. But the town was a failure 
and the lots were never sold. " Newtown" was laid out in 1853, 
when the railroad from Union City was in process of construc- 
tion. The place- made a beginning, but the road " flatted out," 
and the town hardly "got out of the shell." But in 1867 the 
Logansport road became a fact and Ridgeville began to become 
a reality. Not very long afterward the north and south 
road was built, giving the embryo town a crossing, and Ridge- 
ville seems at last to be making a somewhat important center of 
trade. But its real and certain growth as a permanent thing 
only began to be on the completion of the Grand Rapids track, 
full fifty years from its original settlement and the budding of 
its first mill. 

About fourteen years ago the Free Will Baptists founded 
Ridgeville College, which has been' struggling on with more or 
less efficiency and success ever since. 

[It is a curious fact as to the name of the new town at 
Ridgeville, that a soldier who died there during the war, is 
said, upon the " Company Roll," to have died at "Newtown," 
Ind., showing that by some the town was still called by the name 
given at the now laying out, which name, however, seems 
at the present time to have entirely disappeared.] 




Genisral-Settlkment-Fikst Things— Manner of Life 
:ng, Ci.EAniNo, Lands, Fuunituue, Food, Cookinu 
Clotiiino, Money, A5iusement.s, Relioion, Etc. 


WHEN Indiana was made a State, in ISlti, Wayne County 
embraced all the territory north of her south line and 
east and south of the outer boundary of the " twelve-mile strip," 

All west of the " twelve-mile strip " to Vigo, Knox and Sulli- 
van, was Indian land. There had been no white inhabitants in 
Indiana north of the settlers in (what was then) Wayne County, 
except a few soldiers and some two or three white families on the 



present site of the city of Fort Wayne, and the soldiers had been 
removed from that post the year before (1816). There was 
nothing anywhere else north but forts at Green Bay, Detroit, 
Fort Dearborn (Chicago), and Mackinaw (the last named on the 
Straits of Michilimackinac, and a far northern region with a bleak 
and inhospitable climate). In this respect, indeed, the present town 
of Mackinaw is a worthy successor of the old village and fort. 
Not many years ago, perhaps in the spring of 1871, ice was 
still found solid and unbroken in the Straits of Mackinaw to 
the depth of four feet. That cool and breezy region makes, how- 
ever, a delightful summer resort, and many from the country in 
general, and from Randolph County as well, find health and 
pleasure combined amid the picturesque scenery of that rugged 

The two Indian boundaries cut off from the territory occu- 
pied by the savage tribes, only a small portion of the east side, 
widest at the south, and running to a point at Fort Recovery, 

It will be seen that almost the whole State was at that time a 
dense wilderness. The settled portions comprised a small, nar- 
row tract in the southeast part, and " patches " along the Ohio 
and Wabash Rivers, at Vevay, Corydon, Evansvillo, Vincennes 
and Terre Haute. The French had settled Vincennes more than 
a century before, and the Swiss had colonized Vevay in 1803. 

Other emigrants were flocking in and pushing settlements 
forward, and numbers of Carolinians, Virginians, Tennesseeans, 
Kentuckians, etc., had located in the State (or Territory, rather) 
in Dearborn, Franklin and Wayne Counties, before the purchase 
of the twelve-mile strip (1809), and the settlers' wave had reached 
Randolph in 1814. The State was admitted to the Union in 1816, 
and in 1818 emigrants enough had entered the region to entitle 
the people thereof to form a county. The settlers had occupied 
Nolan's Fork, Greensfork, Martindale Creek, West River and 
White River with some of its creeks east of the " boundary." 

The new county was named Randolph from old Randolph 
County in North Carolina, because many of the residents within 
its limits had come from that county in the " Old North State ;" 
and because a member of the Legislature, living within its bounds, 
was also a native of the same. 

Its boundaries at first were only from the present north line 
of Wayne County, and east of the twelve-mile boundary. 

In 1824, the State capital was permanently located at Indian- 
apolis, then a mere hamlet in the woods. The Indian title to the 
lands in the central and northern parts of the State was mostly 
extinguished in 1818. 

Winchester was located as the county seat of Randolph in 
1818 (the same year that the county was established, and some 
years before Indianapolis was founded), in the unbroken forest, 
and for a considerable time Winchester was the sent of justice for 
all the white people north, including those who were making 
their homes at Fort Wayne. 

The counties now comprising the territory which had been, at 
some previous time, included in either Wayne or Randolph Coun- 
ties, are as follows, with the date of their respective creation : 

Wayne, 1810 ; Randolph, 1818 ; Allen, 1823 ; Delaware, 1827; 
Grant, 18-31; Henry, — ; Huntington. 1834; Adams, Wells, 
Jay, 1836 ; Blackford, Whitley, 1839. 

[Note. Other northern counties are not here mentioned. 
Theoretically, Randolph extended northward to the northern line 
of Indiana ; practically it is not known that she exercised any 
jurisdiction beyond the vicinity of Fort Wayne]. 


The first settlement in Randolph County was made in April, 
1814, by Thomas W. Parker, with his wife and three children, a 
Quaker family from North Carolina. He selected his land, 
brought his family to the place he had chosen, built a " camp " 
and lived in it four weeks, till his cabin was raised and covered, 
and then they crawled in, the first night, under the end logs of 

the cabin, dragging their scanty furniture inside after them. 
The cabin was like ten thousand others built before and since, 
made of poles or small trees, and covered with clap boards, 
i. e., short boards split from a straight, smooth-grained oak, ancl 
about four feet long, to be used in place of shingles. How long 
the cabin remained without door or floor is not known. Probably 
the door hole was cut out the next day. But as to floor, the 
cases are numerous, where settlers have lived for years without 
floors or windows either ; and some have been with neither fire- 
place nor chimney, the fire being built on the ground in the 
middle of the house, and the smoke spreading all through the 
room like a .omoke-house. Instances have been known where 
families have lived through the winter with not even chinking 
between the logs. Indeed, the fifth settler in Randolph County, 
as we shall presently see, lived from November till the next fall 
in a "camp." How or why human beings in a civilized land 
should do such things is hard for us to understand, but some of 
the settlers did it. Yet, it is to be recollected that every thing 
had to be made by hand. There were no saw mills, no boards, 
no plank, no anything, and very little money to buy anything 
from elsewhere. And there were very few wagons, and no 
roads at all to travel from place to place. 

Thomas Parker had comefrora Carolina with five other families, 
and in the course of the summer two of them had come and settled in 
his neighborhood, viz.: John W. Thomas and Clarkson Willcutts. 
Thomas Parker entered a part of the fractional section, on the 
east side of Wayne's boundary where it crosses the Wayne 
County line, and the other two settled farther north. John W. 
Thomas located on the same section with Parker, a large frac- 
tional quarter, 168 acres, (since owned by Mr. Lewis). Clarkson 
Willcutts lived on the south half, quarter. Section 28, 
Town 16, Range 1 west, (land since owned by P. Heiner). 

October 22, 1814, Ephraim Bqwen came from Pennsylvania, 
and settled still farther north, (northeast quarter, Section 18, 
Town 16, Range 1 west), entering the farm so long occupied 
since by his son Squire, and now by Squire's son, James D. 
Bowen, northwest of Arba. Mr. Bowen had a considerable 
family, six children, and was pretty well off for those times. He 
lived long in the county, dying in 1858, aged eighty-nine years. 
His wife died in 1849. 

The fifth family was that of Ephraim Overman, who took the 
land where Joshua Thomas now resides in Section 27. He is 
thought to have come in November, 1814. What seems to be 
very remarkable, he is stated to have kept his family in a " camp " 
from November, 1814. to the fall of 1815. What need there 
could be for such a thing we cannot tell. One would think that 
with a lot of boys, some of them large enough to work, Mr. 
Overman need not have been so careless as it would seem that he 
was. It may not be safe to judge so harshly, however, for he 
would appear to have been amanof sense and judgment, as Wayne 
County sent him to the Legislature in two years from that time, 
1817. Mr. Overman had five children, all boys. [The father 
of Joseph Hawkins of Jay County, who emigrated thither in 
1829, dwelt in a " camp " all summer]. 

Thus far the record is clear. From this point, however, we 
cannot be certain as to the exact times of settlement. 

Squire Bowen (who was a boy nine years old when his father 
moved here) gives the list of settlers as follows: " The other set- 
tlers who came in 1814 were these — James Cammack, west of 
Arba; Eli Overman, where Henry Horn now lives, west part of 
the village of Arba ; Jesse Small, near where Isaac Jordan now 
lives, Section 22." He does not remember any others, though 
there may have been some, but could not have been many. 
Squire Bowen says: "David Bowles, Jesse Johnson, James 
Frazier and Hodgson, came in 1815. They settled near Lynn. 
John Peale took the land south of Ephraim Bowen. Several 
Smalls came in 1815. Obadiah Small occupied the site of the 
present town of Spartansburg. John Small had the Hough 
place just north of that village." 


Mr. Bowen cannot tell exactly who came in 1815, but he 
thinks not very many. He says that he believes the tide of emi- 
gration did not get under full headway till 1816. John Fisher 
thinks that when he came to Wayne County, just south of Ran- 
dolph (December, 1816), there were no settlers in Ran- 
dolph, except those on and near Nolan's Fork ; and that 
William Wright was the first settler on White River, and that he 
came from Ohio, on his way to White River, two or three weeks 
after that, say December 15, 1816. 

Mr. Fisher was then twenty-four years old, and his memory 
now seems quite strong and clear, yet he is, perhaps, in error. 
[He has died since the writing of the above paragraph]. 

Solomon Wright says he came here in March, 1816, and that 
the Ways and Diggses had come the year previous, as also two or 
three Wrights and a Haworth. 

If Solomon Wright is correct, White River was begun in 
1815. But the tradition is firmly held among the Ways and 
the Diggses, that their advent to this country for settlement was 
in March, 1817, which would seem to set Solomon Wright's 
coming in 1818. He may have come in 1817 ; but there are 
points about the whole matter of early dates which seem hard to 
understand or to reconcile. 


So far as land-entries are concerned, a considerable amount 
of it was done in both 1814 and 1815. Land was often entered 
months and even years before the owners occupied it, and not 
seldom the patentee never personally took possession. And often 
on the other hand, persons would live in the new country months, 
or even years, before they could succeed in entering land. 

Many came with no money, and had to work and rent or 
live out, or do some other way to earn the money to pay for 
what they bought. The records of the land ofiice show that the 
entries in the county, during 1814, were as follows in order of date: 

Clarkson Willcutts, Greensfork, southeast quarter of Section 
28, Town 16, Range 1, 160 acres, January 19, 1814. 

James Cammack, Greensfork, east half of Section — , 
Town 16, Range 1, 323.16 acres, January 22, 1814. 

Ephraim Bowen, Greensfork, northeast quarter of Section 
28, Town 16, Range 1, 160 acres, April 13, 1814. 

Travis Adcock, Washington, northwest quarter of Section 14, 
Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres, May 14, 1814. 

John Thomas, Greensfork, northwest quarter of Section 33, 
Town 16, Range 1, 156.58 acres, July 21, 1814 (fractional). 

Thomas Parker, Greensfork, northwest quarter of Section 
32, Town 16, Range 1, 156.88 acres, August 16, 1814. 

Ephraim Overman, Greensfork, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 27, Town 16, Range 1, 160 acres, October, 1814. 

Travis Adcock, Washington, southeast quarter of Section 10, 
Town 18, Range 14, 160 acres, October 19, 1814. 

Shubael Ellis, White River, northeast quarter of Section 18, 
Town 20, Range 14, 160 acres, November 30, 1814. 

Eli Overman, Greensfork, southeast quarter of Section 33, 
Town 16, Range 1, 156.58 acres, December 13, 1814. 

Thus there were in 1814 ten entries by nine persons, com- 
prising about 1,750 acres. Seven were in Greensfork, with 
about 1,273 acres, two in Washington with 320 acres, and one 
in White River with 160 acres. 

In 1816, there was in Greensfork only one entry, Nathan 
Overman, southwest quarter of Section 27, Town 16, Range 1, 
159.50 acres, September 13, 1815. 

There was but one in White River, to wit, George W. Ken- 
non, southeast quarter of Section 26, Town 20, Range 13, 160 
acres, September 10, 1815. 

In 1815, there were in West River seven entries, as follows: 

William Blount, southwest quarter of Section 8, Town 18, 
Range 13, 160 acres, April 10, 1815. 

• Lot Huddleston, northwest quarter of Section 17, Town 18, 
Range 13, 160 acres, May 3, 1815. 

John Jones. Town 18, Range 13, 325.68 acres. May 3, 1815. 

John E. Hodges, northwest quarter of Section 8, Town 18, 
Range 13, 160 acres, July 6, 1815. 

Isaac Barnes, Section 7, Town 18, Range 13, 186 acres, July 
6, 1815. 

Arny Hall, east half southeast quarter of Section 17, Town 
18, Range 13, 80 acres, October 12, 1815, 

Cornelius Shane, northeast quarter of Section 8, Town 18, 
Range 13, 160 acres, July 6, 1815. 

Seven entries, about 1,230 acres. 

In 1815, there were, in Washington, entries as follows : 

Curtis Cleny, southwest quarter of Section 11, Town 18, 
Range 14, 160 acres, January 7, 1815. 

Obadiah Harris, southwest quarter of Section 10, Town 18, 
Range 14, 160 acres. May 8, 1815. 

John Ozbun, southeast quarter of Section 8, Town 18, Range 
14, 160 acres, August 9, 1815. 

Paul Beard, northeast quarter of Section 10, Town 18, 
Range 14, 160 acres, August 9, 1815. 

Paul Beard, northwest quarter of Section 11, Town 18, 
Range 14, 160 acres, August 9, 1815. 

Obadiah Harris, northeast quarter of Section 15, Town 18, 
Range 14, 160 acres, October 14, 1815. 

George Frazier, northwest quarter of Section 9, Town 18, 
Range 14, 160 acres, October 17, 1815. 

Seven entries, equaling 1,120 acres. 
The total entries in Randolph County for 1815, were sixteen 
entries, and 2669.50 acres, all but two being in Washington and 
West River Townships. 

The entries in Washington were in Sections 8, 9, 10 and 
11, of Township 18, Range 14. 

The entries in West River were in Sections 7, 8, 17 and 18, 
Township 18, Range 13. 

The total entries to the close of 1815 (1814, 1815) were 
twenty-six entries, with 4,420 acres, in four townships, Greens- 
fork, Washington, White River and West River. 

The year 1816 saw a great increase of entries, and of settle- 
ments also. 

The total for 1816 was 6,109 acres, in the following town- 
ships : 

Greensfork, four entries, 830 acres; Washington, thirteen 
entries, 2,080 acres; White River, eighteen entries, 2,880 acres; 
Ward, one entry, 640 acres; West River, three entries, 400 

The great rush that year seemed to be to Washington and 
White River; 1,600 acres were entered in the latter township in 
three days, December 4, 5 and 7 ; and in Washington six entries 
were made in October and four in November, or 1,600 acres in 
the two months. 

The years 1817 and 1818 saw a greatly stronger movement, 
in so much that the entries for the two years amounted to 25,200 
acres, those for each year being somewhat nearly the same. 

The entries in 1817 were in Greensfork, Washington, 
White River, West River, Franklin, Ward and Wayne. 

Washington, eighteen entries, 3,439 acres; White River, 
thirty-five entries, 5,337 acres; Greensfork, seven entries, 1,- 
178 acres; Ward, eight entries, 1,280 acres; West River, twelve 
entries, 1,832 acres; Wayne, five entries, 800 acres; Franklin, 
two entries, 360 acres. Entries, 87 ; 14,226 acres. 

The entries in 1818 were in the same townships. 

Washington, twenty-four entries, 3,060 acres; White River, 
forty one entries, 8,437 acres; Greensfork, five entries, 437 
acres; Ward, one entry, 160 acres; West River, nine entries, 1,- 
440 acres: Wayne, seven entries, 1,280 acres; Franklin, one 
entry, 154 acres. Entries, 88; acres, 11,968. 

Total entries up to the close of 1818, were, in Washington, 
64; White River, 96; Greensfork, 24; Ward, 10; West River, 
31; Wayne. 12; Franklin, 3. 240 entries, with 36,729 acres. 

Emigration to Randolph after 1818 fell off greatly, so much 


80 that during the nine years fr«ra 1820 to 1828 inclusive, a 
smaller quantity of land was entered than in 1817 alone. 

The Ibllowing statement will show the amounts of land entered 
year by year to 1840 : 

1812, 160 acres; 1814, 1,744; 1815, 2,512; 1816, 6,10ft; 
1817, 14,226; 1818, 11,968; 1819, 3,623; 1820, 1.779; 1821, 
1,654; 1822,2,084; 1823,1,496; 1824,530; 1825, 789; 1826, 
2,047; 1827, 882; 1828, 1,445; 1829. 2,477; 1830, 4,320; 
1831, 10,890; 1832, 8,225; 1833, 16,833; 1834, 10,430; 1835, 
10,909; 1836, 77,368; 1837, 48,308; 1838, 7,293; 1839, 894; 
1840, 700. 

Thus it appears that the rush of settlers to Randolph was at 
first in 1817 and 1818, and then again from 1833 to 1837 inclu- 
sive, especially the two years 1836 and 1837. The amount of 
land entered in these two years last named, reached the amazing 
quantity of 125,676 acres, and, including 1833, 142,509, which 
is almost exactly half the area of the entire county. The land 
entered in 1836 and 1837 exceeded all the previous entries dur- 
ing thirty-five years from 1812 to 1836, by some 8,000 acres. 

By the close of 1838, almost all the land had been "taken 
up." Except the " school sections," little remained for original 
entry, and what was yet unentered lay in scattered parcels here 
and there throughout the county. By that time, therefore, 
Randolph had been bought of '• Uncle Sam," and the public title 
was transferred to private hands. 

"Speculators," however, here, as elsewhere, had extensively 
"got in their work," and in various localities, vast tracts lay 
unoccupied for years because the speculator's title covered it. 

It has been said by some of tlie early pioneers, that most of 
the land on both sides of the road between Winchester and Dccr- 
field was owned by one man, and after his death that vast body of 
land remained stdl vacant for many years. 

As a specimen of the evil work of entering land for " specula- 
tion," a single person, residing at Cincinnati, appears to have 
" entered " many tracts in several different townships comprising 
we know not how many acres. Another, from Cincinnati, also 
engaged largely in the same speculative work. Still a third in- 
dividual, yet living, and now a resident of the county, appears as 
having entered tract after tract, scattered here and there. 

Thus the curse of the ownership of land in vast amounts began 
in the county in its early history, and the same evil has contin- 
ued among us, still increasing its huge proportions, eating up the 
substance of the body politic, and sapping the very vitals of the 

A people who do not own the land they live on, must be, in 
the very nature of things, a subject class, dependent not alone for 
the means of livelihood, but for a domicil (not to say a home) it- 
self, upon the mere whim of another. Whether any practicable 
method exists to prevent the permanent accumulation of lands in 
the hands of a few "lords of the soil," is hard to say. The 
" Law of Moses " in the old Jewish commonwealth, undertook to 
fight the old demon of " land monopoly " in those ancient times, 
by forbidding the soil ever to be sold in fee, requiring it to revert, 
every seventh, or at most, every fiftieth year, to the original own- 
ership. But this is not history, but a bit of a treatise on land 
ownership, and may be considered to be, in the midst of a his- 
tory of Randolph County, out of its place. Perhaps so. How- 
ever, facts are facts and cannot bo ignored. Whether present 
evils can be remedied in coming time, those future years and ages 
must determine for themselves. 


Squire Bowen says the first religious meeting was held i 


father's cabin (probably in 1815), and that Stephen Williams 
(local preacher) exhorted at that meeting. 

The first sermon was preached also in Ephraim Bowen's cab- 
in by Rev. Mr. Holman, of Louisville. Text from Isaiah, " Is 
there no balm in Gilead? Is there no physician there? Why 
then is the hurt of the daughter of my people not recovered? ' 

James G. Bowen, who was at the meeting, says it was an ex- 
cellent discourse, and that it greatly edified the assembly. 


The first person born in the county was Robert Thomaa, son 
of John W. Thomas. His birthday was December 18, 1814. 
He now resides in Huntington Countv, Indiana. 

The second was Thomsis WiUcutts', son of Clarkson Willcutts, 
born February 14, 1815 (St. Valentine's day). He now resides 
in Grant County, Ind. 

The oldest person born in this county, and now residing there- 
in, is thought to be Elihu Cammack, son of John Cammack, and 
born near Arba (in Greensfork Township) April 15, 1817, and 
residing (mostly since 1846) on the State road east of Bartonia. 
[Elihu Cammack married his second wife in Iowa in 1881, and 
removed thence in the fall of that year. Who is now the oldest 
native living in the county we do not know.] 

Lewis Cox, son of Jesse Cox, of West River Township, claims 
to have been born in August, 1817. 

Fanny (Diggs) Hill was the first child born on White River, 
and her birth was September 11, 1817. 

Lydia (Wright) Jones, sister of Solomon Wright now (1881) 
residing in Stony Creek Township near the mouth of Cabin 
Creek, and wife of Endsley Jones, was born October 5, 1817, a 
few days after her parents came from Ohio to the settlement 
upon White River. 

Matilda Hunt, daughter of Rev. William Hunt (familiarly 
called " Old Billy Hunt"), and sister of William S. Hunt, Esq., 
was born in June, 1819. 

John W. Botkin, son of Hugh Botkin of West River Town- 
ship, was born southeast of Huntsville, September 1, 1819. 


J. C. Bowen says that the " Friends " built a cabin for school 
and meetings at Arba in 1815, and that a school was kept in 
that house during the winter of 1815-16 by Eli Overman ; and 
Jesse Parker says that he was at that school the first day with 
his " primer," and that he attended during the whole term. 

Th;it school, taught by Eli Overman, was the first in the 
county, and, moreover, in 1818. this same Eli Overman was 
elected a member of the first Commissioners' Board. 

A much larger number of settlers came in 1816. Settle- 
ments were probably planted in this year (1816) on Martinsdale 
Creek, West River and White River, and additions were made 
to those on Nolan's and Green's Forks. On Green's Fork, about 

1816 or 1817, came several families. Silas Johnson, now liv- 
ing, who was fifteen years old at the time, states that his father, 
Jesse Johnson, moved to Randolph County in the fall of 1817, 
that Paul Beard came in the spring (1817), and John Moor- 
man, Francis Frazier (uncle to the " bellmaker"), and John 
Barnes, came perhaps the year before (1816). Curtis Cleny 
says that he entered his land February 13, 1817. [The Land 
Office record says his patent is dated January 7, 1815.] Travis 
Adeock entered his land May and October, 1814. 

Obadiah Harris entered his land May, 1815; Paul Beard's 
entry is dated August 9, 1815 ; Jesse Johnson's patent is dated 
November 28, 1816 ; John Baxter entered his land January 9, 

1817 ; Isaac and Stephen Hockett's patents bear date February 
8,1817; Daniel Shoemaker and David Kenworthy were very 
early settlers, perhaps in 1817 ; Francis Frazier, the bellmaker 
(fifteen years old at the time), says his father, James Frazier, 
also a bellmaker, came in 1817, and settled one mile east of 


Early in 1816, Paul W. Way, Henry H. Way, William Way, 
Jr., Robert Way (a lad sixteen years old), and William Diggs, 
came from South Carolina and located land four miles west of 
Winchester. Paul Way returned for his parents and his family. 



and, coming back with them and several families besides in the 
spring, arrived in March, 1817. 

The same fall, John B. Wright, David Wright, William 
Wright, and Judge John Wright, settled from Salt Creek west. 

In the summer of 1817, William Way returned on horse- 
back alone, to South Carolina, to bring his father, William Way, 
Sr., to the new country, which purpose he successfully accom- 
plished. With them came, among others, Mrs. Beverly, mother 
of Dr. Beverly, now of Winchester, and Moorman Way, then a 
lad of a few years old, but for many years a shrewd, active and 
successful lawyer, well known to the bar and the courts of the 
surrounding region for nearly half a century [died 1881.] 

The emigration of that period would now be a sight to be- 
hold. Many came on horseback ; not a few made their weary 
way on foot, having a single pack-horse to carry their few house- 
hold goods. One man, long a prominent resident of Randolph, 
says that his father came with two one-horse carts, and that he, 
a boy of seven years old, rode one of the horses all the way from 

Some could boast a two-horse wagon, while few, very few, 
possibly one in a hundred, came through with a huge old fashioned 
Carolina wagon, drawn by four horses. But even when the 
settlers had wagons, the men and the larger boys were obliged 
to walk, since the women and the girls, together with the house- 
hold stuff, were even too much for the awful roads over which 
they must pass. People who should travel now as those old 
pioneers came to this country, would be the town talk and the 
laughing stock of the whole region round. Yet it is a fact that 
in this very way, rough and uncouth as it may seem to the exquis- 
ites of the present day, came into these western wilds the " cream 
and substance" of the Southern land, and of this western world. 
A prophet's eye could have descried in those motley groups and 
cavalcades of men and boys, or even of women and girls, on foot, 
of pack-horses piled up with all sorts of goods, and surmounted 
with the woman and the baby, of carts drawn by little " plugs ' 
of ponies or by mules, and loaded to the utmost capacity ; of 
men on horseback with their wives or mothers on a pillion behind 
them ; of capacious wagons of the ancient style, almost as roomy 
as Noah's ark, and nearly illimitable in capabilities of contain- 
ing children and goods and furniture ; that in these various 
methods, now regarded as so uncouth and .so outlandish as to be 
impossible and unimaginable for any but the very scum and out- 
casts of humanity, came to this land the men and the women 
who should be, and the children who should grow up to become 
the strength and the glory of the land. Many of the proud 
and haughty dames and maidens of the present luxurious days, 
were they to behold, filing past their palatial mansions, the pro- 
cession in which their own ancestors made (though not proud 
yet) successful entry into the woods of the great northwest, 
would well-nigh faint with mortification and almost die with 
chagrin at the barest hint that they could by any possibility be 
connected by even the remotest tie of relationship or consanguin- 
ity to such a group. Yet such were our fathers and our grand- 
fathers. These stalwart old pioneers were our progenitors, and 
we have no occasion to blush to acknowledge the fact. Those 
noble sons and daughters of hardship and toil have more cause 
to feel ashamed of us, their posterity, than we of them. They 
heroically performed their part, and grandly hewed their way from 
poverty and want to comfort, and even to opulence. God grant 
that their descendants may as patiently, as worthily and as suc- 
cessfully accomplish the labor assigned to their lot in life ! God 
grant that the generation now upon the stage of action may 
leave to their children a heritage as nobly enlarged and as greatly 
increased in all that is useful and excellent and of good report, 
as did those strong-limbed and bold-hearted (and gentle souled 
as well) men and women who, amid difficulties and obstacles 
insurmountable to any but the hardiest and the sturdiest, pressed 
their resistless way into the forests of Randolph and made her 
wilds to bud and blossom as the rose. 

As to settlements up to the close of 1818. Jere Smith savs, 
in his "Civil History:" '-In the year 1818, when Randolph 
County was erected, there were fifty or sixty families on White 
River and Salt and Sugar Creeks, fifty or sixty families on 
Green's Fork and Mud Creek ; thirty families on Nolan's Fork, 
including Joshua Foster on the Griffis farm, near the State line; 
eight or ten families on Martindale's Creek, and twelve or fifteen 
families on West River, above the Wayne County lino." So 
that, by Mr. Smith's estimation, there were, at the time of the 
election in 1818, about 180 families in the present boundaries of 
Randolph County. Of course, at that time, the population was 
wholly east of the western boundary of the " twelve-mile strip," 
since the land west of that line was still Indian Territory, on which 
white men were bound by treaty not to settle. In 1818, the 
tribes ceded those lands, and in eight or ten years the county 
west as well .is east of the boundary was settled. In fact, that 
territory began settlement in 1821, but emigration was slow to 
push in for several years. 

It would be interesting to find the " election returns " for 
August, 1818, the first in Randolph County, to learn how many 
and who were, at that time, the free and independent electors 
here. Those returns, however, have not been discovered. 

On West River, in August, 1817, there were eleven settlers, 
all living east of the boundary and on Sections 7, 8, 17 
and 18, the first and the last being fractional sections 
against the boundary. William Blount (and his two sons- 
in-law) on Section 7 ; James Malcom, Section 17 : Henry Shoe- 
maker, Section 17 ; Samuel Sales, Section 17 ; Amy Hall, Sec- 
tion 17 ; David Jones, Section 17 ; Evan Shoemaker, Section 
18 ; Griffin Davis, Section 18 ; William Smith, Sections 5 and 
6 ; Isaac Barnes, Section 7, came in 1818 ; John E. Hodge, 
Section 8, came in 1818. The sections lie on both sides of West 
River but on the east side of the boundary, and William Smith 
(father of Hon. Jure Smith) went highest of the river, taking 
land in Sections 5 and 6, the latter section having but a small 
fraction east of the boundary. 


The Mississinewa had a few settlers, but how many Mr. 
Smith does not know. Meahach Lewallyn (an old man with a 
large family) came near Ridgeville in 1817, and Joab Ward in 1819. 
He says also, (in substance), that in 1819 there was a large emi- 

West River settlement received four new families, and many 
came to the other settlements ; 1820 also witnessed a good 
growth. But from and after 1820, the population began to fiow 
into the " new purchase," which movement took many settlers 
from Randolph. Still the continual net increase was consider- 
able. Henry Kizer, father of Elias Kizer and grandfather of 
Thomas W. Kizer, settled near Stone Station in 1820. The 
settlement on that river was, in fact, but sparse. Meshach 
Lewallyn entered land [parts of Sections 1 and 12, Town 21, 
Range 13], July 19,1817. 

Benjamin Lewallyn, son of Meshach Lewallyn, entered south- 
east quarter of Section 7, Town 21, Range 14 [in Ward Township], 
June 10, 1817, and on the same day five more quarter sections 
in Ward Township were entered by Messrs. Kite, Jacobs, Cana- 
dy. Reed and David Connor. Several Masseys came at about 
that time, as one of them, James Massey, was juryman in 1818, 
and Hon. Jere Smith says of him : " James Massey was an old 
man, and died soon after. He lived in (Jackson, or) Ward Town- 
ship. His son-in-law, James Smith, was Commissioner two or 
three terms, and one of his sons waa Associate Judge of Grant 
County a term or two." It appears that they left that region 
early. When Daniel B. Miller came [in 1822] the Masseys had 

Two of the petit jurors also were from the Mississinewa, 
Meshach Lewallyn from Ridgeville, and James Jacobs from the 
settlement east of Deerfield. 


The names of the M;isseys appear among the patentees of the 
Land Office. They entered land and lived there a while, but 
seem to have moved away before 1823. Another entry had been 
made in that region several miles east of Deerfield and south of the 
Mississinewa River. Mr. Strain entered a whole section in 1816, 
which was by months the earliest entry on the Mississinewa. lie 
does not appear, however, ever to have lived there. He entered it 
probably for speculation. The section lay just west of the west 
line of Jackson Township. Joab Ward, and Joel Ward his 
brother, settled at Ridgeville in April, 1819. Joab Ward did 
not enter land at that time, but bought a small tract (forty acres) 
of Meshach Lewallyn. Elias Kizer moved into that region in 
1820, and was one of the prominent citizens of that part of the 
county for a considerable time, changing his residence to near 
Winchester, and dying there some years ago. Joab Ward stood 
as a bulwark of society during more than the average duration of 
human life. 

The settlers of course endured great hardships, such as per- 
sons without any experience of the kind can neither comprehend 
nor believe. In fact, brought up as they have been to buy every 
thing they need, the present generation can hardly conceive how 
it would be possible for a family to move into a gigantic forest, 
with nothing but an axe, an auger, a frow, and a drawing knife; 
a few kettles, some pewter plates, a log-chain or two, etc., and 
with these scant materials and a little corn to make into bread, 
and a gun to shoot game for meat ; and yet that they could, in 
a comparatively short time, come to be good livers. And yet it 
was so. Scarcely anything was bought except iron and salt, and 
powder and lead. Capw and hats were made of deer skins, or 
coon skins, or straw ; cloth was spun and woven out of linen, or 
linen and wool combined, or clothes were made of deer skins. 
Shoes also were made from buckskin. Buildings were construct- 
ed from the logs of trees, with no outlay but labor ; clapboards 
were in the place of shingles, and pins or weight poles for nails ; 
puncheons for floors, and doors, and benches, and chimney backs, 
and tables ; two auger holes in the wall and a post at the corner, 
driven into the ground, to receive the ends of the rails, with elm 
bark would be just the thing for a bedstead ; puncheon stools 
would hold a man up more firmly than the nicest chair that ever 
waa made. Chimneys were built of sticks and clay, and fire- 
places and hearths of puddled clay: even the "lug pole" and 
trammel and hooks were made of iron-wood, and when any of 
them burnt down, another could be put in its place, just as easy 
as anything. The truth is that a dextrous, active family, in a 
very few years would make around them an amount of conven- 
iences that many households of high pretensions would find it difli- 
cult to match at the present day. If anything was needed, from a 
doorlatch or a hoe-handle to a new house or barn, all that was to 
be done was to take hold and make it. And it is true, moreover, 
that families who were moral and religious, and who were free 
from vices, enjoyed more true, heartfelt comfort, and more solid 
happiness than they have ever done since ; or than their chil- 
dren or their grandchildren, pampered with all the luxuries that 
were ever invented to make people helpless and shiftless, are able 
to compass for themselves in these days. 

But small space will be given in this place for either their 
pleasures or their sorrows. It is believed the story of the old 
pioneer himself, as told by his own lips, will give a more pleasing, 
as well as a more vivid picture ; and hence the feature has been 
adopted to introduce the persona! statements of the ancient sojourn- 
ers, taken from their own mouths, if living, or from some cherished 
friend of the dear departed one, if the age.l veteran breathes no 
longer the health-giving vital air. The description of the trials 
of those times will be left to be given chiefly in the " Reminis- 
cences," which are a peculiar feature of this work, and which 
will be of surpassing richness, to refresh the memory of the old, 
and to inform the minds of the young as to what their fathers and 
mothers, and their parents, did to open this county to sight and 
labor and enjoyment for the sons of men. 


The first settler was Thomas W. Parker, on Nolan's Fork, in 
Greensfork Township, west of Arba, in April, 1814. 

The first boy in the county was Jesse Parker, son of Thomas 
Parker above, eight years old. He lived long at Bethel, Wayne 
County, Ind., a jovial, hearty old man, honestly earning his 
living by the constant " rap, rap, rap of his well worn hammer." 
(Died near Lynn, fall of 1881.) 

The first girls were Celia and Sarah Parker, daughters of 
Thomas and (Anna) Parker above ; Saiah was burned to death 
when a girl ; Celia was married to Benjamin Arnold, and now re- 
sides, an aged widow, at Arba." 

The first woman was Anna Parker, wife of Thomas Parker 
above. Thomas and Anna Parker died more than fifty years 

The first county formed in what is now Indiana, was Knox 
County, created in 1790, under Governor St. Clair, with Vin- 
cennes as the county seat, and including all Indiana and Michi- 
gan. The settlements were few : Vincennes, possibly a few set- 
tlers along the Ohio, a fort and garrison at Fort Wayne, and one 
at Detroit. 

The first settlement in Indiana was at Vincennes, by the 
French (perhaps) in 1702. A post was establislied by Siour 
Juchereau and Missionary Meret at that date. 

When General Gage, a British officer, demanded of the 
French settlers at Vincennes that they should leave their homes 
and their lands, the French protested that they had held them 
by charter from the French King for seventy years, and 
that to drive them away now would be unjust and cruel, and they 
were allowed to remain. 

The first county east of the " Old Boundary " (Wayne's), 
agreed on in 1795), was Dearborn, erected by Indiana Territory 
in 180-3, settled in 1796, before any surreys had been made ex- 
cept the "gore" between the Ohio line and the " Old Boundary" 
line, which was surveyed in 1800, three years before, and em- 
bracing the whole region west of the Ohio line and east of 
Wayne's boundary. 

Wayne County was organized in 1810, embracing all the ter- 
ritory east of the " New Boundary," and north of the southern 
boundary of the county. 

Randolph County was organized in 1818. at first extending 
westward only to the west boundary of the twelve mile stop. It 
was first settled in 1814. 

The first organization of the Northwest Territory was by the 
(old) Congress of the Confederation in 1787. 

The first Governor was Gen. Arthur St. Clair, October 5, 

The first capital of the Northwest Territory was Marietta, es- 
tablished by Gov. St. Clair shortly after his appointment. 

The first capital of the State of Indiana was Corydon in 
Harrison County, in the southern part of the 'State, almost ex- 
actly south of Indianapolis. 

The first Governor of Indiana was Jonathan Jennings, elected 
in 1816. 

The first Representative for Randolph County is not known. 

The first Senator was Patrick Baird, of Wayne County. 

The first two townships in Randolph County were Greensfork 
and White River, established in 1818 by David Wright, Sheriff, 
and embracing the entire county. 

The first road opened through the county was the " Quaker 
Trace," from Richmond to Fort Wayne, in 1817. 

The first " public road " established was from Winchester to 
Lynn in 1819, at the May session of Commissioner's Court. 

The first Justice of the Peace may have been John Wright. 
At any rate he officiated at the first wedding in February, 1819. 

The first marriage license was issued by Charles Conway, 
Clerk, to Jacob Wright and Sally Wright, February 2, 1819. 

The first licensed store was opened by William Connor, No- 
vember, 1818, on Sections 10, 18, 14, two or three miles north- 


west of (Old) Snow Hill, in Washington Township. (Jesse Con- 
non, son of John Connor, and nephew of this William Connor, 
sajs that he was born in that first store, and that the place was 
where Lynn now is, and not as above stated. Mr. Jesse Connor 
was born, however, not before 1831, thirteen years after this 
store was licensed. This William Connor was a bachelor, and 
unsettled in residence and business); 

The first town laid out was Winchester in November, 1818. 

The first house in Winchester was built in the spring of 
1819. It was a round log-cabin, one-Ftory, "scutched down" 
with clapboard roof and stick and clay chimney. It stood on 
Inlot No. 9, North Front, and was owned and occupied for many 
years by Martin Comer. 

The first steammill was built at Winchester by Elias Kizer, 
in about 1835. 

The first steam engine brought to the county was for that 

The first dwelling in the county was erected by Thomas 
Parker, in the spring of 1814, on Nolan's Fork, west of 

The first meeting house was built by the Friends, at Arba, 
in the fall of 1815. 

The first school was taught in Friend's meeting house at Arba, 
during the winter of 1815-16, by Eli Overman. 

The first Methodist meeting was held at the dwelling of 
Ephraim Bowen, northwest of Arba, in 1815. 

The first Methodist sermon was preached by the Rev. 
Holman, of Louisville, Ky., at the cabin of Ephraim Bowen, 
in the year 1815. 

The first white child born in the county was Robert Thomas, 
son of John W. Thomas, the second settler in the county. 
The child was born near Arba, December 18, 1814. 

The second child was a son of Clarkson Willcutts, who was 
the third settler, and it was born February 13, 1815. 

The oldest person born in the county, and now living 
therein, is supposed to be Elihu Cammack, son of John 
Caramack, near Arba, born April 15, 1817. [Elihu Cammack 
moved to Iowa, fall of 1881]. 

The first child born in White P'ver is thought to be Fanny 
(Diggs) Hill, daughter of William Diggs, Jr. (now "Old Billy 
Diggs," living in Iowa), wife of Matthew Hill, of Jericho; she 
was born September 11, 1817. 

Lydia (Wright) Jones, sister of Solomon Wright now living 
near the mouth of Cabin Creek, was born October 5, 1817, three 
weeks after the arrival of her parents from Clinton County, 

The first sheriff was David Wright, appointed by Governor 
Jennings to organize the county in 1818. 

The first county election was held in August, 1818. 

The first officers elected were Wm. Edwards, John Wright, 
Associate Judges; Charles Conway, Clerk and Recorder; David 
Wright, Sheriff; Solomon Wright, Coroner; Eli Ov.erman, Ben- 
jamin Cox, John James, Commissioners. 

The first Commissioners' Court was held in August, 1818. 

The first Circuit.Court was held at the house of William Way, 
October 12, 1818, by Associate Judges Edwards and Wright. 

The first attorney admitted to practice law in Randolph 
County Circuit Court was James Rariden, who was also appoint- 
ed first Prosecuting Attorney. 

The building of the first court house was let to Abner Over- 
man, for $254.60, December 6, 1818. 
V The building of the first jail was undertaken by Albert Banta, 
for $125.00, December 6, 1818. 

They were both accepted by the Commissioners October 6, 

The first bill by the grand jury was John P.. Huddleston 
versus James Fruzier, for an affray, found June, 1820. 

The first trial in the Circuit Court was Conway versus Conner. 

The first judgment rendered by the court was in the same 

case. The judgment was for the plaintiff, and the amount 
$135.00. Time of rendering judgment April, 1820. 

The first criminal case was State versus James Frazier. Ac- 

The first divorce granted was in favor of Huldah Way from 
her husband, Nathan Way, August, 1823. 

The first settler in Greensfork Township was Thomas Par- 
ker, west of Arba, April, 1814. 

The first settler on White River was William Diggs, Jr., who 
came during the summer of 1816, with Paul, Henry H., William 
and Robert Way. He married during the winter of 1816 or 1817, 
and settled, perhaps, February, 1817. 

The first settler in West River may have been William 
Blount. He first entered land, and may have been the first set- 
tler. His entry is dated April 10, 1815. It was afterward the 
Zimmerman (Retz)farra, on West River. 

The first settler in Ward Township is not now known. James 
Strain entered a section of land in 1816, but he is said never to 
have lived on the land. Fifteen entries were made in 1817, the 
first being Daniel Richardson, May 21, 1817, southwest quarter 
of 12, 21, 14, on Mississinewa River, northeast of John Key's. 

The first settler in Nettle Creek was probably John Bur- 
roughs, southwest of Losantville, in 1822. His widow is living 
there still. 

The first settler in Stony Creek may have been Isaac Bran- 
son. "Aunt Patsy " Branson, now living at Muncie, says that 
she came with her husband to Stony Creek Township in 1819. 
She is perhaps mistaken. He entered his land November 28, 
1822. Yet, he may have resided in the county some years, and 
he entered land in that township November 28, 1822. 

However, David Vestal made the first entry October 31, 
1822, four weeks before Isaac Branson did his. Yet Mr. Bran- 
son is said to have come in February, 1819, and "Aunt Patsy " 
thinks they were first, and perhaps they were so. 

The first settler in Green Township may have been Martin 
Boots. His entry was made August 18, 1832, six entries being 
made in that year. 

The first settler in Monroe Township was perhaps John Rody. 
At least, he entered the first land April 10, 1833, one mile south 

The first settlers in Wayne Township were probably Benoni 
and Henry Hill and Amos Peacock, in the spring of 1818. 

The first resident of Jackson Township is thought to have 
been Philip Storms. He lived at a very early day at the Allens- 
ville crossing of the Mississinewa, and still before that in the 
southern part of the township. He was poor and not- able to 
purchase land, and once or twice had land entered from under 
him, which greatly provoked him, as well it might, since that 
was justly enough reckoned a very serious breach of "squatter 
unwritten law." He resided in the region in 1830. 

The first settler in Washington Township may have been 
Travis Adcock. At any rate, he made the first land entry in 
that township, 1814, and he was residing there at a very early 

The first settler in Franklin Township was Meshach Lewallyn, 
during the summer of 1817. 

The first framed bridge (probably) was made over White 
River north, toward Deerfield. 

The first railroad through the county was the Indianapolis & 
Bellefontaine (now Bee Line) Railroad, completed in 1852-3. 

The first wagon-shop, so far as now known, was owned by 
Thomas Butterworth, before 1840, now living two and a half 
miles southeast of Winchester. 

The first blacksmith shop may have been John Way's, at 
Winchester, (not known). James Frazier, father of Francis Fra- 
zier, the bellmaker, was a bellraaker and blacksmith. He came 
in 1817 (in the spring). Jere Smith's father came in August, 
1817, and ho was a blacksmith and worked at his trade. 

The first brick may have been burned by David Wysong, 


south of Winchester. He burned the brick for the <"ourt houpe, 
built in 1826. 

The first lime kiln was probably at Maxville. 

The first orchard is thought to have been set out by Henry 
H. Way, near Sampletown, about 1817 or 1818. Some of the 
trees are still standing, two to two and a half feet through, and 
in a bearing condition. 

The first reaping machine was owned (owner unknown). 

The first brick house in Winchester, and perhaps in the 
county, was built by Martin Comer, where the National Bank 
now stands [year not now known]. 

One of the oldest brick dwellings in tie county now stands 
on the Brickley farm, one mile southwest of Dunkirk meeting 
house. The brick were burnt on the farm for the purpose. 

The persons who have been longest in the county now resid- 
ing in it are James C. Bowen and Squire Bowen of Greensfork 
Township, who came with their father to Randolph County, Oc- 
tober 22, 1814, nearly sixty-eight years ago. 

The person who has lived longest in White River Township 
is probably Jesse Way, who came to White River in the early 
spring of 1817. Moorman Way perhaps is the next, having come 
later in the same year. [See below]. 

The persons who have lived longest in Winchester are Hon. 
Martin A. Reeder and his aged mother, Mrs. Mary A. Reeder, 
the latter now eighty one years old. They came to Winchester in 
1822, and have been residents of the town during sixty years. 
The next is Moorman Way, Esq., who came in 1831, and the 
next is Jesse Way, who came in 1832 [Mr. Way died in the fall 
of 1881]. 

The first frame house in the county was built in Winchester, 
by Judge John Sample, in 1820. 

The first penitentiary sentence was rendered in the August 
term. 1824, against David Banta, for hog stealing. The prisoner 
escaped into Ohio and was never captured, and so the sentence 
remains not carried out to this day. 

The first conviction was David Banta's. 

The first slander case was tried August, 1826. 

The first slander conviction was February, 1828. 

The first water-mill in Greensfork Township may have been 
Jcssup's on Greenville Creek, east of James Rubey's, on land 
now owned by Rubey. It was built as early as 1820, and per- 
haps earlier. 

The first mill in the county may perhaps have been Lewallyn's, 
near Ridgeville, as early as 1819, and probably sooner than 

The first mill on White River was probably Sample's mill, 
west of town, or Jeremiah Cox's mill near Jericho. Cox's mill 
was built in 1825, five or six miles east of Winchester. No 
mill is found there now. 

The first carding machine in the county was owned by Daniel 
Petty, east of Wincnester, very early, exact date not known. 

The first carding machine in Winchester is supposed to have 
been built by Moorman Way, Esq. It was run by ox-power, 
and was built about 1832. 

The first grist mill in Jackson Township is thought to have 
been a corn-cracker, built soon after 1833 by Jacob Johnson. 

The first water mill in Jackson Township is thought to 
have been built on the Mississinewa by Hinchey. The exact 
date is not known. 

The first school in Jackson Township was taught by Mrs. 
Beach in 1838, in her own house. 

The first pike in Randolph County is thought to have been 
the Greenville and Winchester pike, still unfinished (or a pike 
near Bloomingsport). 

The first two-story hewed log cabin in Winchester was built 
in the fall of 1819, on Inlot No. 1, west front, by James Mc- 
Cool, a blind man. It was good and substantial, and was occu- 
pied by him as a hotel in 1819, and stood until not long ago. 

The first cook stove brought to Randolph County was by 

Edward Edger, of Deerfield, about 1838 or 1839. It cost $-50 
in silver at 10 per cent premium, equal to ^55 in currency, besides 
the cost of hauling it from Cincinnati. 

Another cook-stove was brought to the county at the same 
time for Mrs. Kinnear, south of Deerfield. It was just like Mr. 
Edger's and cost the same amount. 

The first entry in Randolph County was by Jeremiah Moffatt, 
in Wayne Township, northwest of Harrisville, December 1, 
1812, northwest quarter Section 18, Town 20, Range 15. He 
never occupied the tract. 

The first entry in Greensfork Township was by Clarkson 
Willcutts, January 9, 1814, southeast quarter Section 28, Town 

16, Range 1. 

The first entry in Washington Township was by Travis 
Adcock, May 14, 1814, northwest quarter Section 14, Town 
18, Range 14. 

The first entry in West River Township was by William 
Blount, April 10, 1814, southwest quarter Section 8, Town 18, 
Range 13. 

The first entry in White River Township was by Shuball 
Ellis, November 30, 1814, northeast quarter Section 18, Town 

20, Range 14. 

The first entry in Ward Township was by James Strain, 
October 16, 1816, Section 13, Town 21, Range 14. He never 
lived on it. 

The first entry in Jackson Township was by John Aber- 
crombie, October 16, 1816, southwest quarter Section 7, Town 

21, Range 15. Jackson Township was not settled till long after- 

The first entry in Stony Creek was by David Vestal, Octo- 
ber 31, 1822, southwest quarter Section 8, Town 19, Range 12. 
Two more entries were made the same day by John Connor, and 
five more in the month of November following, or 880 in all in 
less than a month. 

The first entry in Nettle Creek Township was by John 
Burroughs, October 21, 1822, southwest quarter Section 15, 
Town 18, Range 12. Within less than a month 760 acres were 
entered in that township. 

The first entrv in Franklin Township was by Meshach 
Lewallyn, July igj'lSn, Sections 1 and 12, Town 21, Range 

The first entry in Monroe Township was by John Rody, 
April 10, 1833, southeast quarter of southeast quarter Section 

17, Town 21, Range 12. 

The first entries in Green Township were made by John 
Michael and Martin Boots, August 18, 1832, northwest quarter 
Section 8, Town 21, Range 12, and northeast quarter Section 9, 
Town 21, Range 12. 

The first carding machine in Randolph County was on Salt 
Creek, east of Winchester, owned by Daniel Petty, date not 

The first tan-yard wasprobably set up by Hugh Botkin south- 
east of Iluntsville. Mr. B. came very early. The first one 
may have been at Sampletown. 

The first death is not known. 

The first burying ground was probably at Arba. Arba, 
Lynn, Cherry Grove, Jericho, White River and Dunkirk meet- 
ings were all established shortly after the settlement of the county' 
Arba being almost certainly first. 

The first drain-tile made in the county, as also in the State, 
were manufactured by hand by John K. Martin in a machine 
made by himself in 1856. He made 200 rods and burned them 
in a brick-kiln in his father's yard. 

The first woolen factory in Randolph County is thought to 
have been at Unionsport by Hiram Mendenhall. The date can- 
not be stated. 

The first teacher's institute was held at Winchester under the 
direction of Prof. E. P. Cole, Principal of Randolph County 
Seminary, about 1850. Those early in-stitutes were full of in- 


'//// c 1/ "//rit^ 



terest and profit, and would compare very favorably with many 
held in later times. 

The first session of the Union Literary Institute commenced 
June 15, 1846, with Rev. Ebenezor Tucker as Principal, in a 
two-story hewed log house, upon ground cleared from the heavy 
green woods for the purpose. A huge tree-trunk, four feet 
through, lay for years not twenty feet from the door, that 
had just been felled " in the green," and the boarding house 
erected the next year had several green stumps under the 

The first hotel in Winchester was kept by James McCool, a 
blind man. It was set up in 1819. 

The first hotel in the county may have been kept by Joseph 
Gass, between Economy and Winchester. At least it was there 
in the spring of 1817, when the " Way Company" came through 
from Carolina to White River. 

The first store in Winchester would seem to have been kept 
by Esquire Odle, at what date is not now known. 

The first hatter's shop was owned by James Oldham, which 
was begun perhaps in 1819. 

The first County Treasurer was perhaps Jesse Johnson, ap- 
pointed by the Commissioners, November, 1818. 

The first assessor (lister) was George Bowles, appointed Feb- 
ruary, 1819. He made his report in May and was allowed $10 
for assessing. the county. 

The first Treasurer's report was made May, 1819 ; sum re- 
ceived 810 ; expenditures, $20. 

The first grist-mill on the Mississinewa, above Lewallyn's, 
was built by Mr. Parsons, who came there in 1829, and built it 
soon after. 

The first murder in the eastern part of the State was done in 
Wayne County, in 1816. A man by the name of Criss killed 
his son-in-law, Mr. Chambers. He was tried, convicted and 
hung at Salisbury, then the county seat of Wayne County. 

The first post ofiices in the various townships were probably 
as follows: White. River (and in the county), Winchester, 
Ward, Deerfield ; Greensfork, Spartanburg ; Washington, 
Bloomingsport ; Franklin, Ridgeville ; Wayne (old) Randolph; 
Stony Creek, Windsor ; West River, Trenton ; Nettle Creek, 
Losantville; Jackson, New Lisbon; Green, Fairview ; Monroe, 


Some articles have been furnished by Hon. Martin A. Reed- 
er, who has been a resident of the county for about sixty years, 
the substance of which is given below, with also some additions 
from other sources : 


Many would put up a "camp," and live in that for some 
weeks or months, and wait to build a cabin until the large trees 
had been cleared from a place extensive enough to prevent dan- 
ger from the tree trunks falling on the house. Others woulil put 
up their cabins in the dense woods, with perhaps a dozen trees 
near, any of which might, in a storm of wind, have crushed the 
dwelling and all its inmates. And yet, though scores of cabins 
were erected thus, it is not known that a solitary tree ever threw 
its huge trunk upon the roof of a single settler's dwelling. 


Cabins were built of round logs from eight to ten inches 
through, and covered with clapboards. They were of all sizes ; — 
some perhaps twelve by fourteen feet, and some eighteen by 
twenty-five feet, with one seven or eight feet story and a loft 
above in the roof. 

A small cabin would have one door and one window. A large 
one might, perhaps, possess two of each. The chimney and fire- 
place would be wholly outside, opening of course into the house. 

At the "raising," the neighbors for miles around were ex- 
pected to come and lend their aid (who at first, were not many). 

and they went. No " shirks " were there. " Help me and I. 
will help you," was their motto, and the rule was faithfully prac- 

On the " raising day," the body of the house would be com- 
pleted and the roof put on. Cutting out the door and window 
holes, and the opening for the fire-place, putting in the doors and 
windows, building the fire-place and chimney, laying the punch- 
eon floors, chinking and daubing the cracks between the logs, 
laying the loft, etc., were done by the owner at his pleasure as 
he had opportunity. Barns and outhouses were raised from time 
to time, so as not to tax the settlers too heavily. 

These cabins, though not elegant, were, when properly com- 
pleted, solid and substantial, and warm to boot ; and many, many 
years of happy, contented, prosperous life have been spent with- 
in their lowly walls. And many who lived all their youthful 
years in such a humble domicile but who have since become able 
to abide in stately mansions, can now truthfully declare that their 
happiest days were spent nevertheless beneath the shelter of those 
mighty, overshadowing forest tre^, under the lowly roof of that 
old- time log-cabin. How true the words of the poet : 

'■'TisnotiuUIIea, nor in rank, 
'Tis not in wealth like London bank, 
To make us truly bleei." 

Note. — Many of the early-built cabins had no windows at 
all. The door and the big open-mouthed fire-place were the 
only avenues for light. It is within the knowledge of the writer 
of this sketch that families who emigrated from Carolina to Ran- 
dolph County in 1847, had never seen any glass windows, and 
had no idea what they were for. Some houses dwelt in in 1846 
had no windows. 

The ideas of convenience then were not just like our own. In 
about 1850, the daughter of one of the earliest settlers said of a 
certain new house that she occupied (with her large family), "the 
room is so convenient [the house had but one room] we can set 
up six beds in it." 


" Have a big log, cut notches up and down the log fourteen feet 
apart, set double stakes fourteen feet out from the log, cut small 
logs six to eight inches thick, ' scafe ' off the ends so as to fit the 
notches in the log, put one end in the notch and the other be- 
tween the stakes ; in the notch let the ends touch, but put blocks 
between the other ends, so as to make the upper one slant enough 
fur the roof, put some logs atop of the big log and some across 
the front above ; put on the roof, and stuft" the cracks with moss. 

Moss was plenty on the old logs, as thick as a cushion and 
as soft as a sheepskin ; you could tear off a sheet as long as a 
bed-quilt if you wished. We often used sheets of moss for blank- 
ets to ride on instead of a saddle. The front of the camp 
was open six feet high, and logs were across above. A log 
heap fire was built in front on the ground. At first we left 
it unprotected, but the smoke would sweep into the camp and 
choke us so that we could not stay. Then we took puncheons 
and set them upright in a semi-circle around (outside of) the 
fire, leaving passages next the camp to go in and out at. This 
mended matters greatly. We lived in this camp from March un- 
til November, 1829. We cleared that summer nine acres — five for 
early corn and four for late corn, potatoes, turnips, etc. 

The men had built three camps side by side against the same 
log, expecting to have three families. Only two came, and that 
left two camps for us. There were eight in our family, and the 
two older boys fixed a bed in the extra camp, and the rest of us 
slept (in three beds) in our own proper camp." 

Candles were made by taking a wooden rod ten or twelve inch- 
es long, wrapping a linen or cotton cloth around it, and cover- ' 
ing it with tallow pressed around the stick with the hand. 


Lamps were made by digging the inside from a large turnip, 
sticking up a stick in the center, about three inches long, with a 
strip of cloth around the stick, and turning melted lard, or deer's 
tallow, in until the rind was full. 

Often the great blazing fire-place gave light enough, and many 
an evening's work has been done with no other means of vision. 


The houses were made strong in this way. The loft was con- 
structed of split logs, and the doors of split timbers three or four 
inches thick, with battens fastened across and hung on strong 
wooden hiijgeS, having also a strong wooden bar across the door 
inside, fastened at each end by the fork of a tree put into the door 
casing by a hole bored with a large auger. 

To break into such a house as that would be by no means 
easy, yet the dwellings were seldom locked Such a thing as en- 
tering a house unlawfully, was well-nigh unknown. 


After the cabin-building or along with it or even before it, 
for great numbers lived in camps all summer, would come the 

One piece would be cleared entirely, for an orchard, and the 
fruit trees would be planted as soon as they could be procured. 
And some (though few) of those orchards thus planted in the fresh 
clearing are still standing after the lapse of more than half a 
century. But where are the hands that set their tiny infant 
trunks and straightened their branching roots within the opened 
earth? Alas ! alas ! They will be seen on earth no more ! Ask 
of the memorial stones that stand in melancholy sadness to tell 
the inquiring person — by the names, the ages, mayhaps the vir- 
tues, but never the vices, nor the failings of those whose ashes 
lie beneath the sward ! Besides the orchard was opened an ad- 
ditional clearing for a corn field. The undergrowth and small 
trees were cut down and piled and burned, the larger trees were 
deadened, tlie "grubs" were taken out, and the ground planted 
in corn, etc. Then ten to twenty acres or more would be deadened 
"in the green," and year by year the process of clearing up this 
"deadening" would go on, till, in the lapse of time, every old 
tree-trunk would have fallen and been consumed; the stumps 
themselves would bo burned out by the roots, and the result would 
be, after untold hard work, night and day, winter and summer 
a clean, bright, beautiful field. 


The manner of clearing up a deadened field was somewhat 
tedious and quite curious. The girdled trees were left to dry 
standing, and to fill at their leisure. Every spring and autumn 
several trees would be found prostrate upon the earth. Men in 
those days loved to make wind, water and fire work as well as 
they do now, and some of their ways of doing so were quite in- 

These huge trees lying on the ground were not choppeil up 
by the axr — that would be too hard work. But limbs and broken 
frngments would be laid crosswise on the trees at proper lengths, 
and a fire built upon the body of the trunks, which would be kept 
up till the trunk was burnt completely through. The fires had 
to be tended and replenished for days and sometimes for weeks. 
This work was black and dirty but it saved untold labor, and 
the ashes produced by the burning greatly enriched the land 
where they lay. This method of cleaning was called "nigger- 
ing," and taking care of the fires was said to bo " tending the 
niggers." It was no small pleasure and amusement for a lot 
of jolly lads to take a round over a clearing at night, and " right" 
up the waning fires across the massive tree-trunks, shouting, 
hallooing, laughing and singing, making the echoes ring through 
the surrounding woods as they went running and dancing from 
fire to fire in mutual rivalry as to who should fix up the greatest 

The shadows of the night made bright and splendid by the 
blazing piles as the flames burst forth afresh under the process of 
replenishment, the flying sparks from the brands as they were 
broken and thrown anew into the fires, and all the hurry and ex- 
citement of the scene, made the work of "tending the niggers," at 
night, a time o*^ jolly and boisterous merriment hardly to be sur- 

Sometimes after a deadening had stood for several years, a 
heavy storm of wind would sweep over the field and bring down 
immense numbers of those decaying trunks to the ground in a 
single night. Then would come work indeed. Hundreds and 
hundreds of smoking, blazing fires would cover the whole area, 
and the process would go on for days and weeks, till at length the 
huge logs would all have disappeared, the last pile of "brands" 
would be consumed, and the field would be found — like Solomon's 
beloved in the Canticles — "black but comely ;" covered with coals 
and ashes, but the delight of the settler's heart, and waiting for 
the upturning plow, the springing seed, and the laughing crop. 


There were no pre-emption laws at that day. A considerable 
time passed after the treaty with the Indians ceding the public 
lands before the survey was completed and they were thrown 
into market. During this intermediate time, many persons 
"squatted," as it was termed, i. e., moved upon the unsurveyed 
land and made greater or less improvement. And. also, after 
the lands were thrown into market and became subject to entry, 
many persons came to the county who, though unable to enter 
land, would select a tract, move upon it and intend it for their 

The settlers would respect the presumptive right of the 
" squatter," for, while there was no public law, the pioneers " were 
a law unto themselves ;" and, if any heartless speculator should 
venture to "enter " a tract thus occupied, neither he nor any other 
man under his authority dared take possession ; but if any such ven- 
tured to show themselves, they were hunted from the land like a 
wolf or a panther, and might feel thankful if they kept their 
heads safe on their shoulders. 

It was " squatter law" — and that law was most sternly obeyed 
and enforced — that he who had built and begun an improvement, 
should have the right to buy at first hands as long as he might 
choose to claim it. And many a poor follow, penniless at first, 
and utterly unable to buy a foot of land, made a location never- 
theless, opened out a "clearing," built a cabin, and contrived, 
" by hook and by crook," to raise money to enable him to 
become the proud possessor of a homestead, monarch (not indeed 
of all he could survey, but) of one little piece of earth's genial 
surface, enough to constitute that dearest of all places, a home. 
And not a few who now have spread themselves like a green bay 
tree, began life in the woods, or their fathers before them or 
along with them did, in exactly that humble and lowly way. 
Not seldom the poor emigrant would accept the offer of one who 
had made an " entry," to purchase " on time," giving, sometimes, 
50 per cent in advance, or maybe more, hoping to make the 
money for payment out of the land by the time his notes fell due. 

This living by sufferance, the state of uncertainty, the danger 
that one's cabin and clearing would be " entered " over his head, 
was decidedly unpleasant, however, and no one did so except by 
the force of sheer necessity. Those who could possibly do so, 
made an " entry," so as to put their homestead beyond contin- 
gency. And it could not be expected that a " squatter " would 
" improve " much beyond what was absolutely needful to enable 
him to live, and certainly not more than enough to furnish him 
the means of raising the funds for the purchase of his coveted 
spot. Yet, still improvement went on, and, where the settler, as 
was mostly the case, had actually entered his land and obtained 
his " patent" under .the broad seal of the nation, he went to work 
with a will ; and the amount of clearing, of cabin building, of 
deadening, of burning, of fencing, of planting and of harvesting, 


which was accomplished from year to year, was something won- 
derful to behold. The statistics of the quantity of land entered 
during each respective year, from the time of the first patent till 
the last tract of land had been hunted out, show how steady, and 
in some years how rapid, was the current of emigration flowing 
over these lands, and filling all the region with a thoroughly 
active and intensely earnest population. Of one family composed 
of stalwart and enterprising boys, some of whom are still living 
to enjoy the fruits of their labor, it is said that they surpassed all 
others in the county for the amount of " clearing " which, for 
themselves and for others, they accomplished during the years in 
which these giant forest trees were being prostrated to the earth, 
and the fruitful soil was being opened to the genial sunshine. 
Hundreds and hundreds of acres did that single heroic group 
subdue by their conquering prowess ; and the tokens of their 
valor still remain in the fruitful fields, yielding, ever since that 
triumphant hour, their abundant harvests for the comfort and the 
sustenance of man and beast. 

There were few in those early times but actual settlers. Some 
there had been in various places, the advance guard of pioneer- 
ism, who would "squat" down for a brief period till permanent 
settlers would commence to take possession, and who would 
almost instantly "pull up stakes," and "shove ahead " to some 
still unsettled region. 

But the body of settlers had " come to stay," at least to make 
an actual and bonafide commencement, and intended substantial 
business. These felt all on an equality with each other, and 
each and all stood ready with might and main, with hand and 
heart, to uphold the right of every other, and to render every 
possible assistance in the struggle for establishment and pros- 
perity. Hospitality and sociability were everywhere. The 
latch-string was always out, and every neighbor bade every other 
freely welcome. And great comfort and much enjoyment was 
experienced by these rude settlers. And almost perfect security 
existed, moreover, locks and bars and bolts were things wellnigh 
unknown. Stores were fastened with a pin outside the door, 
like an old-fashioned stable ; the dwellings were left open, or at 
least unlocked through the watches of the night, or, if fastened at 
all, it was through fear, not of man, but of the prowling wild beasts. 

It is an interesting reminiscence of those pioneer days thut, 
as late as 1837-40, John Connor, the veteran mail carrier for 
nearly thirty years on the route northward from Winchester, used 
to take, upon a horse led by his side, a heavy sack of silver 
money, sometimes to the amount of $5,000 or $6,000 at a time, 
for payment at the Fort Wayne land office, for land entries at 
that point. He would " camp out" one night as he went, yet 
he was never molested ; and, to the honor of the old veteran be 
it said, no man ever lost a cent by rr.faithfulness of his. Night 
and day, summer and winter, th ' I'gh mud, snow and rain, 
whether sweltering in a July sun or shivering beneath a Decem- 
ber snow storm, swimming the swollen streams booming during 
the freshets of the spring months ; faithfully, untiringly, heroic- 
ally, did that conservator of the United States mail press onward 
from south to north and from north to south alternately, grow- 
ing old but not rich, in his country's service; and only leaving 
that department of work to enlist in the army at the commence- 
ment of the war of 1861. 

May the day be long deferred when such integrity, though 
found among the poor and lowly, shall fail to receive its due 
meed of honor in the hearty approbation and esteem of the public, 
in whose behalf such untiring faithfulness has been exerted. 

All honor to him who thus, through many long years of weari- 
ness and privation and toil, faltered not in the path of public duty, 
heroically performing what was then so indispensable to the public 
welfare, and, for accomplishing which needed result, no Letter 
and easier method had then been discovered. 


This country lies far interior, away from all water-courses, 

those old time channels of intercommunication. Emigrants 
could reach this county only by a long and tedious stretch of wagon 
road and forest trail. Hence the settlers brought with them 
commonly only the most necessary tilings, and especially those 
for which no substitute could be found in the new land ; kettles, 
ironware, etc., must be brought, since nothing could be found in 
the West to take their place. Bedsteads, chairs and tables were 
useful, but they were also heavy and bulky, and awkward to 
move, and substitutes could be found, and they were, in many 
cases, left behind. 

Feather beds, bedding, pewter ware, cooking utensils, etc., 
were brought. But for bedsteads, the settlers made something 
which answered the purpose. Two rails with one end inserted 
in the side and end logs of the cabin, meeting in a post at the 
inner corner driven into the ground, with clapboards laid across 
from the side rail to a strip pinned upon the log, would do for a 
bedstead. One active young wife made one for herself by 
boring holes in some poles and making two benches, and 
laying eight, large, thick clap-boards upon them, and lo ! she 
had a bedstead; and on went her straw bed, all the bed she had 
and her sheets and bed quilts ; and she was never prouder of 
anything in her life than she was of her bedstead and her bed, 
nice and good and brand new. 

Sometimes, for an extra nice " fixing," men would split out 
pieces from a straight-grained oak, and make bed rails, and pre- 
pare other pieces for the slats, boring auger holes in the side rail 
and in the side house log, and putting the slats in these, and that 
was good and solid. Four high posts would stand at the corners, 
and rods or wires be strung from top to top of the four posts, 
and curtains would be hung on the rods ; and who could wish a 
neater curtained bed than that ? Often two of these would be 
made for a single cabin, one in each farthest corner ; one for 
the father and mother, and the other for company ; and the chil- 
dren — why, they had to go into the loft, and sleep under the 
rafters to the music of the rain falling on the roof, or of the 
snow rattling on the clapboards. And that was a jolly place to 
sleep. And instead of chairs were made puncheon stools, and 
puncheon benches, which last were better than chairs or stools 
either, since half a dozen urchins could sit upon one. And as 
for chairs or stools at the table, they were not needed, inasmuch 
as all the half grown boys and girls had feet, and they stood up 
at the table, like folks at a modern Sunday-school celebration 
picnic dinner ; and almost every article of convenience that set 
tiers had they made for themselves. Door hinges and latches 
were made of wood, and a string sufficed to raise the latch ; and 
to pull the string inside was better than a lock, because no 
false key could pick the lock or unbolt the door. A poking 
stick answered for tongs, and some stones on the hearth did in- 
stead of andirons; and, as for stoves, those articles had not been 
invented yet, or, if they had, it would cost so much to haul the 
bulky things of the sort which were called stoves in those days 
into these Western wilds, that when here, the cost would be more 
than that of a forty-acre lot. 


The people of the present time will doubtless be glad to learn 
how the pioneers managed (not merely to raise or earn, but) to 
make their bread in those days when stoves and ranges, and all 
the modern paraphernalia of baking and cooking were not. 

Bread was made mostly of cornmeal, and in three forms, viz. : 
"Dodgers," " Pone," and "Johnny Cake." 

To the people now all these three are reckoned as one ; but 
to the pioneer, th-y were entirely distinct, yet all excellent of 
their kind, and ^''her or all good enough to make " a pretty dish 
to set before the ;■ ..ig." 

" Dodgers" were made of meal with pure water and a little 
salt, mixed into a stiff dough, and molded with the hand into a 
kind of oval cake, and baked in a "bake-pan" or "Dutch- 
oven," viz., a round iron vessel as wide across as a half-bushel 


or less, and six or eight inches deep, with legs, of course, and a 
lid with a raised rim to hold coals on the top. 

The coals were put in abundance underneath the '• oven," 
and on the top as well ; and when the bread was done there came 
out the "dodgers," as moist, as sweet, as nice as epicure ever 

" Pone" was made with meal, water and salt, with the addi- 
tion of milk or cream and yeast, thinner than dodgers, and was 
baked in the same way. 

" Johnny Cake" was made with lard and butter, water 
and salt of course, and baked in a loaf or cake, say six inches 
wide and an inch thick, upon a board perhaps two feet long set 
up before the fire. When one side was baked enough the other 
side of the cake was turned to the fire till it was done, and then 
you would have perhaps the sweetest and best corn bread ever 
made. Besides these there were grated corn, pounded hominy, 
lye hominy, green corn (roasting ears), etc. Corn has been well 
said to be the poor man's grain, and on account, among other things, 
of the ease with which it can be made into food, the variety of 
which it is capable, and the general excellence of the different 
kinds. Lye hominy and green corn, the two simplest forms of its 
preparation, are at the same time well-nigh the best and most 
delicious food that ever passed the lips of man. 

After wheat had been raised, of course, some flour was used, 
but still for a long time corn was the chief source of bread. 
The mills were but poor, many of the first for grinding wheat 
having only hand bolts, and the flour would be none of the best. 

But you are not to think that the settlers were destitute of 
meat. On the contrary, they had abundance, and that of the 
best and rarest kinds. Deer, turkeys, pheasants and what not 
were plenty ; and a good rifle would bring some of them down 
at almost any hour. To shoot turkeys standing in his cabin 
door was no uncommon exploit for the pioneer ; and to bring 
down on an average, one deer a day, besides a full day's work, 
was what many a backwoods man succeeded in doing. 

Almost every settler (and settler's son) was a hunter as well, 
and those who did not care themselves to shoot deer could readily 
get all the venison they wished of their sportsman neighbors, 
and that almost for a song. 

Then there were hogs, at first or very soon afterward. There 
were many " wild hogs," that were the offspring of such as had 
strayed from older settlements, or from the Indians, some of 
whom kept swine. These hogs were called " elmpeelers," and 
were long-legged, long-bodied, long-headed, sharp-snouted, with 
short, straight, pointed ears, and as nimble nearly as a wolf ; and, 
when very wild, more saviige than the bears themselves. They 
would make but a poor show (except as a curiosity) at one of our 
modern fairs, but at that time they wore highly valued, even 
above the fat, unwieldly, helpless things called improved stock. 

When a "Yankee man" was trying to sell some improved 
breed to the western " hoosier " (or " sucker " it may be) and men- 
tioned as an advantage that they could not run, " Can't run ?" said 
the settler. "No," said the Yankee. "Don't want 'em," replied 
the " sucker." " My hogs have to get their own living and look 
out for themselve-s, and I would not give a snap for a hog that 
can't outrun a dog." 

So " improved stock" was then and there at a discount. 

These woods-hogs would get fat only during " mast years," 
and somettmes the herds of hogs would get to be three or four 
years old and would become thoroughly wild and very savage, 
fleet of foot and almost as fierce as a tiger, so that hunters would 
be obliged to take to a tree to get beyond their reach. 

Duriiig the non-mast years these troops of swine would sub- 
sist upon roots, etc., such as hickory roots, sweet elm roots, slip- 
pery elm bark and such like. There was no hog-cholera then. 
Swine even now peel elm trees, eating the bark as high as they 
can get at it, and in such cases they seem clear of cholera. This 
habit of eating the bark from elm trees is what probably gave 
hogs in those days the name of "elmpeelers." When fatted on 

hickory and beech mast the meat was very sweet but oily, and 
would not make good bacon. Hunting wild hogs was grand 
sport, though somewhat dangerous withal. 

Besides pork, as above described, and wild game, the streams 
abounded in fish; bass, salmon, pike, buff'alo, red horse, white and 
black suckers, silver sides, catfish, etc., were plentiful in the 
streams, and men could have all they pleased to catch. Besides 
bread and meat, potatoes were soon raised, so as to furnish a full 
supply; as also pumpkins, squashes, cabbages, and other garden 
vegetables. But wheat, for several years, proved nearly a failure, 
so that flour, if used, had to be brought from the Miami or some 
other older settlement ; and only a few could afford to take the 
trouble to get it, or cared to obtain it if they could. 

But how was cooking (other than baking bread) done? This 
way: A stiff bar of iron-wood (or of iron itself) was fastened in 
the chimney lengthwise the fire-place, about midway from front 
to rear, and perhaps eight feet high, called the "lug-pole." On 
this bar were suspended several hooks of different lengths, made 
of small iron rods (or sometimes of wood). These hooks extend- 
ed far enough downward so that the pots and kettles of various 
sizes would hang above the fire and close enough to it to receive 
the needful amount of heat. Thus, boiling of all kinds was done. 
For roasting (or basting), a wooden pin was fastened over the 
fire-place, and from this pin the turkey, venison saddle, or what 
not, was hung by a string or a wire in front of the blazing fire- 
place. The side next the fire would soon be cooked, and, by 
turning it round and round, the whole would be done "to a turn," 
the gravy dripping out into a dish set below upon the hearth. 
Thus, with milk and butter in abundance after the first two or 
three years, with tree-sugar and molasses in profusion, with wild 
berries and plums, etc., with which the woods abounded, the 
settlers, after they once got started, had no lack. In fact, many 
things of which they had a plentiful supply, would now be 
reckoned (if they could be obtained at all) a wonderful luxury. 

As to the supply of game and the readiness with which it 
could be gotten, it may be stated that one man has been known 
to kill nine deer in a single day, another has killed six. These 
are of course extreme cases, yet to kill a deer or two, half a dozen 
turkeys, and fifteen or twenty pheasants in a day was nothing 
uncommon for a single person. 

To light the house, no gas nor kerosene, nor even tallow 
candles were needed. The huge fire-place would, for any ordin- 
ary purpose, give light enough. Some had a kind of contrivance 
consisting of a sort of dish or bowl with a nose or spout for the 
rag-wick to lie in. In the dish was melted tallow or lard, and 
the wick lay with one end in the melted lard, and the other up 
along the spout. This lamp would hang by a string in the 
middle of the room and well supplied the place of chandelier or 
astral. Sometimes a still simpler arrangement was employed, 
a broken saucer with some tallow or lard in it would have a piece 
of rag laid in as a wick, and your lamp was all complete. And 
for outdoor uses, the boys used to light themselves and their 
company to meetings or spelling schools, or to hunting sprees or 
"hoe down" parties, with torches, consisting of a handful of 
hickory bark. All that had done was to peel some bark as 
you went along, light the ends in the fire-place when about to 
start for home, and keep it whisking about as you went on. The 
more wind the better, though wind in those forest paths gave 
little trouble. A group of torches scattered along among 
the trees, flaring and dancine and flashing as they were waved 
hither and thither by their bearers, presented so picturesque a 
sight as in these artificial days can seldom be witnessed. A good 
torch-light was worth half a dozen lanterns any day (or any night 


The methods and means of work were simple enough. 
Trees were girdled and felled, and cut into lengths with the ax. 
In fact the ax was, to the settler, the tool of all work. With- 
out it he was helpless. With it he was a crowned king. 


With an ax and an auger and an old hand-saw, he could 
make wellnigh anything. 

Rail-splitting was done with maul and wedge. 

Moving logs was was done with a lever, or hand-spike, while 
one in a hundred or a thousand would boast a crow-bar. 

Clapboards were split out with a frow. 

Puncheons were split with maul and wedge, and shaped and 
smoothed with the ax, or with a large, long irow, suited to the 

Flax was threshed by whipping the bundles on a barrel-head, 
or a block set endwise. It was spread and rotted, and dried and 
" broke," and swingled (scutched), and hatcheled (hackled), the 
tow carded, and the flax or the tow spun and reeled, and spooled 
or quilled, and warped, and woven, and colored, and made up 
into garments. 

Grain was hand-reaped, or cradled, and threshed with a flail, 
or tramped on the ground with horses, and cleaned with a sheet 
or a basket fan. 

Hauling was done on a sled, made out of " crooks " split from 
a tree-root. 

Plowing was done with a bar-share plow, which had only a 
wooden mold board. 

Iloes were huge, ungainly things, large enough to cut and dig 
" grubs " with. 

Men traveled mostly on foot, or on horseback. Many a man 
went on foot to Fort Wayne or to Cincinnati to enter his land. 
One man entered three different forty-acre tracts, and went on 
foot to Cincinnati for the purpose, each several time, except that 
one of the trips was made partly on horseback. The old man is 
still living to enjoy the fruits of his labor. Boys, sixteen years 
old, have tied up their money in a rag, and gone on " Shank's 
mares " alone through the woods, to make entry of land for father, 
or mother, or possibly for themselves. 

Many a farm was tilled for years with a single horse, or even 
an ox. Not seldom a poor fellow's only horse would lie down and 
die, and leave him in a " fix " indeed. However, people were 
accommodating, and a person could get help from his neighbors 
to the extent of their ability. 

Wagons were very scarce. To become the owner of a wagon 
was an event to reckon from as the beginning of a new era. 

One early settler says, that in a space of two miles square, 
where resided perhaps thirty families, only two wagons were to be 

He says moreover, that the neighbors got up a milling 
expedition, taking a wagon with six horses, and twelve bushels of 
grain. The horses were restive and wild and would not pull 
together, and the wagon became fast in the mud ; and six men 
took a horse and a sack of grain apiece and " put out " for the 
mill, leaving the wagon in the mud hole to be got out at some 
other time. 

Thus our ancestors plodded on ; slow and tedious and awk- 
ward their methods would now be reckoned, but honest, faith- 
ful, industrious, frugal, simple-hearted, sincere, hospitable and 
generous. They heroically accomplished the herculean tasks ap- 
pointed to their lot, and bore patiently and successfully 
the burdens which providence laid upon their shoulders- Let 
their posterity beware how they contemn the humble condi- 
tion of their forefathers. Let this generation look back to those 
old-time scenes, and to the worthy actors in them, not with 
a feeling of shame nor a sense of disgrace, but let them reckon it 
an honor to have sprung from a line of ancestry so noble, so ex- 
cellent, so hardy and energetic, so worthy of sincere respect, 
nay, almost of reverence; and let them see to it that in met!'- 
ods of energetic labor and in heroic success in the employment of 
larger and better means of accomplishment, they prove them- 
selves before the world to be worthy successors of their venerable 


Most of the settlers brought with them into the wilderness 

all they could afford, to last them until more could be raised, at 
least to last for one year, and often for more than that. 

After a corn field and a truck patch must come a flax patch. 
When the flax became ripe it was pulled, threshed, spread, rot- 
ted, gathered up, broken, scutched, hackled, spun, woven and put 
on the back to wear. All the machinery needed for this work 
was a flax-brake, a scntching-board, a hackle, a spinning-wheel, 
a quill-wheel and. winding blades, warping bars and loom, all of 
which were very simple and inexpensive, and most of them could 
be made in the vicinity or even at home. And all the work, 
from sowing the seed to taking the last stitch upon the garment, 
was done upon the premises, and much of it was performed as 
easily by the lads and the lasses as by the men and women them- 

The hackling of the flax produced tow. This tow was carded 
and spun, the flax was spun into "chain," and the tow into fill- 
ing, and both were woven into "tow linen;" and out of this 
strong and not unsightly fabric, many garments for summer 
wear were made ; dresses for females being colored according to the 
taste, and the males wearing theirs uncolored. For winter, 
people had sheep, and took the wool, carding it by hand, spin- 
ning it on a " big wheel," and weaving it with linen or cotton 
warp (or chain) into " linsey-woolsey " or "jeans." The " lin- 
sey " was worn mostly by the women, and the jeans by the men ; 
sometimes the fabric was colored "butternut," and sometimes 

Cambrics, muslins, etc., were scarce and costly, and rarely 
used. For outer garments men soon began to use deer-skins, 
making pantaloons and " hunting shirts." The latter was 
much like a modern sack coat, and a very comfortable, though 
not especially handsome garment it proved itself. At first the 
buckskin was obtained, ready dressed, of the Indians ; but the 
settlers soon learned to prepare it themselves. The men had 
commenced to make and sew their own buckskin garments, the 
work being too hard for female fingers. The sewing was done 
with the sinews from the deer's legs, or with a " whang," i. e., a 
thong or string cut from the deer hide, a shoemaker's awl, and a 
very large needle. These buckskin clothes were just the thing. 
They were within the reach of all. costing nothing but labor; 
they were very durable, lasting for years ; they were warm, and 
as to looks, each man looked as well as his neighbor, and what more 
is needed ? And they were an almost perfect protection. The sting 
of the nettle, the scratch of the briers, and even the bite of the 
rattlesnakes was harmless. The cockle-burs and the Spanish 
needles would not stick to them, they kept out the cold " like a 
charm," and, moreover, whei; properly dressed, and neatly made, 
they presented by no means an unsightly appearance. 

The garments were commonly made and worn large and free, 
which of course greatly added to their comfort and convenience. 
Sometimes, however, in standing near the fire, a man would get 
his "breeches" hot, and another in mischief would clap the hot 
buckskin to the flesh, and the luckless wearer would jump, with 
a yell and a bound, clear across the room, as though the great 
log fire were tumbling on him. Sometimes too they would get 
wet, and if allowed to dry, the skin would become very hard and 
stiff, and could not be used again till it had been softened by 
dampening and rubbing. 

The Indians made moccasins, and the settlers bought and 
wore them, being excellent for dry weather, winter or summer, 
but not for wet. For the wet season, strong leather shoes were 
used, though many, especially the younger class, went much 

Upon the head the men wore in the winter chiefly a strong, 
well-made, low crowned, broad-brimmed wool hat, somewhat like 
that which the older Quakers now wear. Sometimes a warm 
head-gear was made from a coon-skin. It was comfortable, but 
looked wolfish. In summer, home-made hats, braided from whole 
rye-straw, grown for that purpose, were in extensive use. 

Women also made their bonnets out of straw, only each par- 


ticular straw was split into five or six pieces by a "splitting ma- 

This machine may be thus described : Narrow strips of tin 
were firmly set in a piece of wood an inch square and six inches 
long. The straw was spread open and drawn through these tin 
" teeth" and made into strips of equal width. Five of these 
strips (sometimes seven) were plaited into a braid, and the braid 
made long enough for a whole bonnet. The braid was ironed 
smooth (having been bleached if thought necessary), and nicely 
sewed into bonnets ; and they looked equal in neatness (not to 
Siky taste) to the fashions of the present day. 

Sun-bonnets were made much as at the present day, of calico 
and pasteboard. The great object of a bonnet was at that time 
supposed 10 be to protect the face, head and neck from the sun, 
and the wind and the cold ; and they were made accordingly. 
What a bonnet is for now is best known, perhaps, to the wearers ; 
or, if they do not, how should anybody else be expected to know ? 

The fashions of that primitive time, doubtless, would seem 
awkward and uncouth at the present day ; but the clothing 
answered the prime ends for which clothing is worn, decency and 
comfort, even better perhaps than the garments of the present 
day. And as to looks, folks were better satisfied with what they 
had then than people are now ; and. if they were suited who had 
them to wear and to look at, surely we who are so far removed 
by two generations of time have no occasion to complain. 

It can be truly affirmed that underneath those coats and hunt- 
ing shirts, uncouth in looks and awkward in fit, dwelt souls brave 
and generous, and hearts tender and kind, loyal, affectionate and 
true. God grant that the same may ever be truly declared of 
their children and their children's children while the ages roll. 
Fashions may come and fashions may go, but what matter, so 
the deep fountain of love and truth and faithfulness in the hu- 
man soul remains pure, untarnished and perennial. 


Money was scarce, little, indeed, was needed, for, as has been 
shown, almost every necessity and luxury was produced at home. 
Some money, however, was necessary, chiefly to pay taxes, and 
to buy iron and salt, powder and lead. Taxes indeed, for many 
years, were low. The first county tax levied in Randolph was 
*'twenty-five cents upon each horse-beast." The first settlement 
of the treasurer showed as follows : 

ReoeipU $20.00 

Expenditures 20.00 

Balance 00.00 

That was in May, 1819. 

In November, |260.00 were the receipts, and $259.75 the 

In 1820, the county treasury boasted of $462.63, $309.63 of 
which were realized from the sale of lots, and $1 from a fine, 
leaving $152.00 as the avails of county taxation in a single county 
for a whole year. And up to 1829 the annual county taxes still 
fell short of $900.00. So "taxes" required but a small amount 
of the "needful." 

But iron and salt and powder and lead were indispensable, and 
heavy and costly. They took money, and abundance of it, or its 

As a specimen of the costliness of articles in those times, the 
statement is made that Benjamin Bond, who came to Wayne 
County in 1811, gave for nails twenty-five cents a pound, and 
paid for them in cordwood cut apon his land just west of New 
Garden meeting-house in Wayne County, at twenty-five cents a 
cord upon the ground, a cord of wood for a pound of nails ! 

Once in Western Pennsylvania in the long, lung ago, a horse 
was given for a barrel of salt, and at another time (in this region) 
eighteen dollars was given for a bushel. Money could be ob- 
tained, indeed, though not largely. Deer skins would bring fifty 
cents; raccoon skins thirty-seven and a half cents, and muskrats 
twenty-five cents. The fur buyer, when he came his annual 

round, would pay cash; but the merchants paid only in trade. If 
the settler would wait for the fur buyer, he could have the cash, 
if not, he must "dicker" it out, and let the merchant finger the 
cash himself. 

Deer must be killed from May till November, and raccoons 
and muskrats from December till April. So the hunter had his 
harvest all the year round; only, if he wanted money, he must 
store up till the fur-dealer came. But necessaries could begotten 
at any time. And these were comparatively few, though some- 
what expensive. A side of sole leather and of upper leather, a 
barrel of salt, powder and shot for hunting, some fish hooks, and 
perhaps an ax, would suffice for a whole year. For land buying, 
some money was required, of course, and after the "specie-circu- 
lar" in the spring of 1837, only silver (for gold was not then 
in circulation, being, before the days of California, dear, and 
of course scarce, or, more properly speaking, not in ordinary use 
as money at all) was available, and hard work indeed it often was 
to obtain the needful. 

One (now old) man tells of the strait he was put to at the time 
when that famous "Specie Circular" came in force. He was a 
lad of eighteen years. Having had his eye for along time upon a fine 
sugar camp near his father's dwelling, but without money enough 
for his purpose, he heard that another man intended to "enter" 
the tract. Hurrying to gather up funds for that and for some 
more land desired by his father, he set out, on foot and alone, 
carrying his money, tied in a knot in his pocket handkerchief, 
most of the way in his hand, bound for the land office at Fort 
Wayne. The money was largely in paper, and in just three days 
the "specie circular" was to come in force. He hoped to reach 
Fort Wayne by that time and struggled on. But he could not 
"make it." The third night found him at St. Mary's, a few 
miles short. The next day he entered the Land Office, not 
knowing what he could do, fearing the worst yet hoping the 
best. The Receiver happened to be an acquaintance of his 
father's, and agreed to take his "paper money." And so he 
made his point and got his land. And then, afoot and alone, he 
wended his way homeward again, without money only as he 
borrowed two dollars of his friend, the Receiver, but happy in 
possession of the certificate which would in due time bring for 
him a patent under the "Broad Seal" of the United States of 
America. The reason why he was found thus with no money to 
go home on, was this: He supposed that the tract of land he 
wished to enter was an "80 acre" piece. It was 84, which would 
take exactly $5.00 extra, so the question came up, "Will you 
take all your money and, get your land, or will you save your 
money and not purchase?" He had come too far to go back 
with his object all unaccomplished, and the young hero decided 
that he would have the land and get home as he could. And 
have it he did, and, under the generous offer of his friend, the 
Receiver, he accepted the loan of two dollars to pay his expenses 
homeward. It is a pleasant thing to note that, though this boy 
(and his father) were ardent Whigs of that olden time, and the 
Receiver was a Van Buren Democrat, he befriended the boy 
nevertheless, like the frank and genial man that he was. 


Wherever there are human beings, there will be amusements. 
Thousands of years ago a prophet foretold that Jerusalem should 
be rebuilt, and that the streets " should be full of boys und girls 
playing in the midst thereof." Wherever there are boys and girls 
there will be playing, and men and women are only grown-up 

The Indians of the western continent, the Africans of the 
eastern, all tribes and and all nations of men, have their sports. 

Even the various tribes ofanimals are not without their games, 
in which they engage with rollicking glee. And the human 
tribes, savage and civilized, barbarous and cultivated, rich and 
poor, in the torrid heats and amid northern snows, in the sands 
of Arabia, in the valleys of India, on the plains of China, amid the 


snows of Norway and of Lapland ; on the stormy steppes of Rus- 
sia, amid the glaciers of Greenland, and in the North American 
wastes, where wander the wild Esquimaux ; in every spot where 
human foot has trod, jollity has found a resting place, and fun 
has set up his throne. 

When the woods were full of Indians, as at first, the white 
boys played and romped with the copper-colored children ; and 
the men would pitch quoits, and heave stones, and run races, and 
jump with the savage braves. 

The Indians indeed were wonderfully susceptible of the ridic- 
ulous. Solemn as they seemed, they were full to the brim of 
native fun and enjoyed a joke hugely. When the son of the first 
settler, a lad seven or eight years old, was passing near an In- 
dian wigwam, driving a calf up to his pen, a squaw standing be- 
hind a bush jumped out with what the frightened boy thought to 
be a gun, and started for him. He sprang like a deer, and wild 
calf, and scared boy, and yelling squaw, went thrashing through 
the woods together. The boy ran to his father's cabin and the 
squaw after him. She had no gun, but only a stick ; but she was 
so "tickled" at the boy's fright, that she just fell down on the cab- 
in floor and laughed, and laughed, and rolled ovei' and laughed, 
as if she never would have done. She laughed and jabbered over 
her broken English as she lay there thinking of the chase and 
the fright she had given the little white boy, until the lad grew 
madder and still madder at the wild creature, and wished her 
anywhere but there, laughing and making fun of him. 

The sports of the settlers were generally of the more active kind 
as, jumping, wrestling, running races, with frequently a " hoe- 
down " ai an evening inerry-making, after a raising, or a log-roll- 
ing, or a spinning bee, or some other gathering for work and as- 

An invitation would be given to the men and boys to come 
and help roll logs, or to raise a building, or something like that, 
aud to the women to come and bring their spinning wheels. Both 
classes would go. The men would roll logs or what not, and the 
women would spin. At nightfall supper would be served, and 
then for a frolic by such as pleased to take part in it, which 
would doubtless be fast and furious, since those who participated 
were stalwart lads and buxom lasses, and, in sober truth, " all 
went merry as a marriage bell." 

And not seldom the women would carry their spinning wheels 
as they went and returned, on foot. 

There have been indeed more harmful sports than these back- 
woods-balls, especially if they were kept free from the mischievous 
presence of and disturbing power of intoxicating drinks (which 
was not always the case), since they were for the most part simply 
lively methods of working off a superabundance of animal spirits, 
wliich mere hard work outdoors or indoors could not subdue. 

Then for the boys, hunting served the purpose both of hard 
work and high sport as well, for to chase the bounding deer 
through the leafy woods, or to wait and watch for his forest lord- 
ship, as his kingly horns would come tossing proudly among the 
waving boughs, and to bring his active form to the earth with the 
unerring shot of the faithful rifle amid the wild baying of the 
eager hounds as they gathered to be " in at the death," — these, 
wild and fiery hunts were, for these rollicking boys, the keenest 
of sports. And thus it was — 

" Mid earnest work and furious play 
The youngsters passed tlieir lives away". " 


But not all even of the young spent their leisure hours in 
sport. For many, very many, the religious exercises of those 
earliest days of primitive simplicity were more satisfying, as they 
were certainly more profitable, than any form of mere worldly 
pleasure could possibly be. Great numbers of the first settlers of 
Randolph were men and women of a strong and earnest religious 
faith and, of a hearty, loving spirit, fearing God, and delighting 
to do good to men. 

The earliest religious meetings were probably of the Friends 
or the Methodists, possibly the former, though whichever may 
have been first, the other was not far behind. 

The Friends built a house for divine worship, either the first 
or the second summer of their residence here, and the humble 
edifice served the double purpose both of church and school- ^ 

The Methodists began their meetings in the house of Ephraira 
Bowen, Sr., not very long after his removal to this county, and 
the first Methodist sermon ever preached in the county was de- 
livered in that unpretentious abode; and the great body of those 
who belonged to that people, which in truth was not a large 
crowd, gathered there to listen to its cheering words. The min- 
ister officiating was Rev. Mr. Holman. of Louisville, Ky., and his 
text was an appropriate one for the introduction of the gospel mes- 
sage into the new land: " Is there no balm in Gilead ? Is 
there no physician there ? Why then is the hurt of the daugh- 
ter of my people not recovered ?" 

Some who heard that sermon are still among us, and they 
speak highly of that first efi"ort by that gifted servant of Christ. 
Mr. Bowen's dwelling was long a place for the Methodist meet- 
ings of that region. 

Perhaps the earliest houses of worship through the county 
were built by the Friends, the one at Arba being the first, those 
at Lynn, Jericho, White River, Dunkirk, Cherry Grove and per- 
haps some others, following not long after in point of time. The 
Methodist meetings were held mostly at first in private houses, 
as Mr. Bowen's in Greensfork near Arba, Mr, McKim's at 
Spartanburg, Mr, Marshall's in Ward Township, Mr, Hubbard's 
and Mr, Godwin's in Green Township, and so on. Other de- 
nominations also gathered congregations in various parts, as : 
The Disciples, the United Brethren, the Christians, the Protes- 
tant Methodists, the Baptists, the Presbyterians, and in latter 
days the Anti-Slavery Friends, the Wesleyans, as also the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church, and perhaps others. 

There are now also Lutherans, Catholics, Universalists, Dunk- 
ards, etc. Just when each of these arose, it is at present difficult 
to tell. 

Several of these branches of Christians have but few churches 
in the county. The number of each is supposed to be as follows : 

Friends, about ten or twelve; Methodist Episcopal, a large 
number ; Disciples, six or seven ; United Brethren, a consider- 
able number; Christians, a considerable number; African Metho- 
dist Episcopal, three or four ; Baptists, two or three ; Lutheran, 
three or four ; Universalist, one ; Catholic, two ; Protestant 
Methodists, one or two; Wesleyans have died out. 

Some of the Methodist churches were built very early, as : 
the Chapel west of Deerfield, the Prospect Meeting House east of 
Deerfield, etc. 

In e;irly times many protracted meetings wero held, and sev- 
eral camp-meetings, at some of which remarkable seasons of relig- 
ious awakening were witnessed, and many souls were brought to re- 
pentance and forgiveness. Many preachers too have been promi- 
nent and successful in their labors for Christ. Protracted meet- 
ings are still employed, (in addition to regular Sabbath and other 
stated work), as a powerful and efficient means for the spread of 
religious knowledge, and the impression of the public mind with 
religious truth. Camp-meetings are also (though more rarely) 
held, since the altered condition of society renders them less a 
matter of necessity or convenience than formerly. Almost every 
neighborhood now has commodious churches, large enough to hold 
the congregations who desire to gather for Divine worship. There 
are indeed, in various places in the county, groves which have 
been furnished with seats, etc., for the convenience of meetings ; 
and, during the pleasant Sabbaths of summer, out-door meetings 
are occasionally held in them. But immense crowds now are 
rarely seen, except upon very unusual occasions such as county 
fairs, political " rallies," traveling menageries, or such like. 
One religious gathering is still very large, the Richmond Yearly 


Meeting of Friends. That is not held in this county but in 
Wayne, while yet the Randolph "Orthodox Friends" all be- 
long to that wondrous "body." That far-famed "meeting" is 
not what it once was, since within twenty years past it has been 
divided, and now three "yearly meetings" exist upon the terri- 
tory once occupied by the "Richmond Yearly Meeting " alone. 

In the simple-heartedness of those early times, the people 
are thought, by the aged veterans who can remember what took 
place forty, fifty or sixty years ago, to have been more warm- 
hearted and whole-souled in their religious feelings and convic- 
tions than they are to-day. However that may be, religion, to 
those who then professed it, was a serious business, and they made 
thorough work of it. Women would take a babe in their arms 
and the husband a three-year-old child in his, while together 
they would go cheerfully on foot for miles to the place appointed 
for divine service. The daughter of the first settler of the 
county, who, by the way, is living still near where they first 
pitched their " camp," states that she often, when a " girl in her 
teens," walked from near Arba to Newport to Friends' Meetings, 
(at least six miles), and was not aware of having done anything 
worthy of especial mention. A young Friend at Cherry Grove 
would rise at 3 A. M. and work several hours in his field, and then 
ride on horseback sixteen miles to week-day Friends' Meeting. 
A Methodist circuit rider would go his round once a month, rid 
ing frequently hundreds of miles during the time, and having an 
appointment every day, and not seldom one at night besides. 
The preacher honored his calling then, and to be a Methodist 
circuit rider, meant to go to work at preaching and to have plenty 
of it to do ; and to their honor it should be said that, as a rule, 
they performed a great amount of ministerial labor, and that, ac- 
cording to the fall measure of their ability, they served the gra- 
cious Lord in His vineyard in their appointed lot. And those old- 
time ministers of Christ have, one by one, lain down to their final 
rest, and their souls have gone home to receive the gracious wel- 
come, " Well done, good and faithful servant, enter thou into the 
joy of thy Lord." 

And true it is that the simple-hearted worship offered and the 
instruction given in those rude and uncouth cabins, was to the 
full as acceptable to the Great Father of all our mercies as is any 
nowa-days to be met with in the grand and magnificent piles of 
brick and stone that pass for houses of worship in these later 
days. Linsey woolsey home-spun, and deer-skin hunting shirts, 
calico sun bonnets and coon-skin head-gear were as pleasing to 
the eye of the Omniscient as can any rich and costly methods and 
fashions be which the descendants of that honest, sturdy, faithful 
race of sterling men and loving women feel themselves called 
upon now to indulge or to practice. 

It is indeed a comfort to the pure and humble soul, in all 
.ages and places, to know and feel the blessed truth, that while 
"man looketh upon the outward appearance, God looketh on the 
heart ;" that the Good Shepherd knoweth His sheep, and leadeth 
them in peace into the green pastures of His love. 

To show that many of the early settlers were religious, we 
append a few names of families who, in days long gone by, belonged 
to some one of the various churches of the time. It is not to be 
understood that none besides the families named were included 
among the active workers for Christ, but only that these have 
been mentioned as prominent among the early Christian believers 
by some one or other of the pioneers who still remain in the land 
of the living, and whose memory reaches backward into those 
"beginnings of things" in a religious point of view among the 
forests of Randolph. 


Alexanders, Addingtons, Akers, Beach, Botkins, Beards, 
Bowens, Barneses, Ballinger, Burroughs, Brown, Bealses, 
Bonds, Buttses, Brumfields, Coateses, Croppers, Carters, Cot- 
toms, Cadwalladers, Chenoweths, Clenny, Grouses, Canadas, 
Chandler, Clevengers, Diggses, Devor, Debolts, Engles, Elliots, 
Edgers, Floods, Goodricbe8,Grubb8,Gorsuch, Hunts, Hills, Horns, 

Hunnicutts, Hinshaws, Hoffman, Harbour, Hammer, Hiatt, 
Hewitts, Hart, Johnsons, Jacksons, Jordans, Kennedy, Kizer, 
Lanks, Locke, Moorraans, Masons, Murphy, Miller, Marshall, 
Macys, Middletons, McKew, Monks, Maulsbie, Mclntyre, 
Mendcnhall, McProud, Neffs, Nicholses. Overmans, Os- 
borns, Pucketts, Pollys, Parkers, Phillipses, Peacocks, Reeders, 
Rubys, Ritenour, Reynolds, Rogers, Recce, Reynards, Shoe- 
makers, Sumwalt, Stone, Scotts, Starbucks, Sumption, Swain, 
Smiths, Thornburgs, Thomases, Ways. Wrights, Wickersham, 
Worths, Wiley, Wiggins, Willmore, Wards, Willcutts, Wiggses. 


Ancestry of John Jenkins : John Allen and Esther (Wool- 
man) Allen were the great-grandparents of John Jenkins, now 
resident between Buena Vista and Huntsville, Randolph Co., 
Ind. He was born June 16, 1708, and she (being the daughter 
of John and Elizabeth Woolman in England), was born in East 
Nottingham, Old England, July 3, 1706. 

Patience Allen, the youngest child of John and Esther Allen, 
was born November 3, 1746. She was the grandmother of 
John Jenkins. She married James Gawthrop about 1770, and 
died in Frederick County, Va., in 1828, in her eighty-second 
year. Her husband, James Gawthrop, was born at Stenton, near 
Kendall, in Westmoreland, May 4, 1742. 

Hannah Gawthrop, daughter of James and Patience Gaw- 
throp and mother of John Jenkins, was born December 12, 1788, 
being one of ten children. She died Sunday, May 23, 1847, in 
her fifty-ninth year, three miles north of Wilmington, Clinton 
Co., Ohio, and her husband, Jacob Jenkins, died May 23, 1849, 
in his sixty-eighth year, at his old residence near Wilmington, 

Mr. John Jenkins has the family Bible that was purchased 
by his great-grandmother, Esther Allen, upon her marriage, 
about 1725. The book was printed at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 
1721, by Samuel Watson, printer for the King. 

The Bible is now 160 years old, and is in good repair. The 
print and spelling are like ours, except that the long s's are used. 

He has several antiquities, such as old tools, etc. Among 
them are two chairs, made in 1795. They are stout and firm. 
One of them has never lost a slat nor a round, and is as solid 
now as when new. The other is sound also, except that one of 
the slats in the back is loose. The chairs have been for most of 
the time in constant use, as kitchen chairs. 

The bottoms of the posts have been worn off nearly two 
inches. Of course they have been re-bottomed one or more 
times. He has also a mattock sixty years old, nearly as good as 

Rev. Greenman, of Union City, Ind., has a book about 250 
years old, picked up at a second-hand book-stall in Cincinnati. 


One of the chief mail routes in " auld lang syne," and per- 
haps the most difficult and severe as well, was the one from Win- 
chester to Fort Wayne. 

That route was established before 1829. It was then the 
main link that the northern settlers had to civilization and to the 
great world "outside the woods." 

Elias Kizer carried the mail on that obscure and well-nigh 
impassable track for several years before 1830. The Hawkins 
boys, sons of John J. Hawkins, Esq., almost the earliest settler 
in the forests of Jay, carried the mail for about eighteen months, 
about 1833. They went sometimes by the solitary Hawkins 
cabin near what has since been the village of Antioch in the 
county of Jay, and the "Quaker Trace;" and sometimes by 
Joab Ward's, and the Godfrey farm west of Camden, and 
thence to Fort Wayne by the " Godfrey Trail." It was a lonely, 
wearisome, burdensome task, and was too much for the boys; 
and ere long they were full fain to relinquish the labor to 
some more hardy pioneer. And such a one was found in the per- 

y^/-:^- //V7^^^ 


son of John Connor, who in the spring of 1835 laid hold of the 
work, and who kept it, through rain and mud, and frost and 
snow and floods, year in and year out, for twenty-six or twenty- 
seven years, till 1861 ; and then he went into the array, old and 
wavworn as be was, and laid him down to die in the enemy's 

Many a struggle had he with the hostile forces of nature, 
many a mud-hole, sometimes seventy-five miles long, undertook 
to bury him out of sight ; many a flood rose across his pathway, 
many a fierce and bitter storm frowned and howled in his face, 
but ever in vain. The old hero came out of the contest a 
conqueror every time. 

Sometimes his horses, one or both, would lie down and die, 
under the terrible service ; but he would simply get more and 
try it again. 

It was almost a thing of necessity that his farm near Port- 
land should come to be what some rather cruelly nicknamed it 
"Connor's bone-yard." The fault lay not so much in Con- 
nor, as in the inexorable and relentless nature of the service to 
which he had devoted his life. 

Those old horseback or hack mail routes (and the latter were 
perhaps worse than the former), were truly serious realities in 
the days of "auld lang syne." When that route was opened, 
not one post office was to be found along the entire distance. 

After some years, Deerfield was established, and still later a 
post office in Jay (then Randolph) County, June 11, 1835, at 
the house of Daniel Farber, near College Corner. John Con- 
ner then had two post offices to serve with mail instead of one. 
And gradually settlers found their way into the northern woods, 
till that whole region became filled with dwellings and dotted with 
towns and schoolhouses and churches and post offices. And still 
John Connor kept on carrying the mail, till people on the route 
got to think that Uncle John Connor and "Uncle Sam " must be 
one and the same. 


They were a very numerous family. As mentioned already, 
three of the first officers were Wrights, and there were more 
Wrights than anything else. Two of the three officers, John and 
Solomon, were brothers, and the other was their cousin, and in 
particular there were many John Wrights. 

John Wright, blacksmith, who donated land for the county seat, 
was brother to David Wright, Sheriff, and went to the Legislature 
three or four times ; moved to Illinois in 1830, and died long ago. 
When he left, William M. Way, his son-in-law, became the owner 
of his land, who sold it to John Mumma, who laid it out as Mumraa's 
addition (the tract long known as the "goose pasture"). 

John Wright, Judge. He served as judge twenty-eight years 
(four terms), up to 1846. He then moved over the Wabash, 
where he died some years ago. His oldest son, Edward, who 
lived (1880) on the Huntsville road, two and a half miles from 
Winchester, died in 1881. 

Hominy John Wright, father to Solomon, Wright, who is now 
living near the crossing of Cabin Creek. This John settled two 
and a half miles west of Winchester. He had twelve children, 
three of them triplets, Abram, Isaac and Jacob. He had a 
son John, also called Hominy John. 

Spencer John Wright, son of James Wright who settled the 
Kizer farm north of Winchester. 

Blue-chin John Wright, son of David Wright, Sheriff. 

Thus there were at least six John Wrights. Old Thomas 
Wright, the oldest of all, was father-in-law of John Coats, who died 
since (1871). Thomas Wright's progeny are too many to be 
counted. Mr. Smith says of them, " Whole colonies of them 
have emigrated westward. If they and all the other 
of the Wrights who were here in 1818 had remained i 
county, there would be little room for any one else." 

The above is a specimen of some members of a singli 
nection among the pioneers. Similar accounts might be 
of other families, as the Ways, the Diggses, the Johnsoi 

Hodgsons, etc., etc. The pioneers indeed were remarkable, as a 
rule, for their large faraiiius. The original command to the pro- 
genitor of the human race was, " Be fruitful and multiply and 
replenish the earth, and subdue it ;" and these sturdy emigrants 
considered themselves only in the line of primal human duty (as 
indeed they were thus) in raising flocks of <<hildran to giow up 
and possess the goodly and excellent land. 




IT may be proper at this point to give a brief statement con- 
cerning the counties of Indiana as to the time of their crea- 
tion, that the reader may gain a clear idea of the course and pro- 
gress of settlement in the different sections of the State, and in 
our own section as well. 

Some sketches are given also of governmental matters previ- 
ous to that time. 


The State of Virginia had, before the Revolution, claimed 
the body of the territory lying northwest of the Ohio. Con- 
necticut also had a claim, which was quieted by giving her the 
proceeds of several million acres of land lying on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie, embracing what is now known as the " West- 
ern Reserve," and including Ashtabula, Lake, Geauga, Portage, 
Summit, Medina, Cuyahoga, Lorain, Huron, Erie and parts of 
Ashland and Mahoning Counties, Ohio. Virginia ceded her 
claim to the United States by an act dated January 2, 1781. 
Congress accepted the grant, September 13, 1783, as a national 

Virginia, by an act passed December 20, 1783, directed her 
delegates in Congress, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, Arthur 
Lee and James Monroe, to accomplish the cession. This was 
done by them March 1, 1784. 

On the 13th of July, 1787, the Congress of the Confedera- 
tion passed the now famous " Ordinance of '87" for the gov- 
ernment of the Northwest Territory. And on the 5th of Octo- 
ber, 1787, Arthur St. Clair was appointed Governor thereof. 
He was President of Congress at the passage of the ordinance, 
and retained the Governorship for twelve years (1788-1800). 

In July, 1788, Gov. St. Clair organized tlie Territory, mak- 
ing Ft. Harmar (Marietta) the capital. January 9, 1789, he con- 
cluded a treaty with some of tlie leading men among the Indians, 
at Fort Harmar, but its validity was questioned or absolutely 
denied and hence the treaty was never enforced. 

In 1790, Gov. St. Clair made a journey to Clarksville, Vin- 
cennes and Kaskaskia, to conciliate the Indians. His efforts, 
however, were fruitless. 

September 13, 1790, Gen. Harmar moved from Fort Wash- 
ington (Cincinnati), reaching the vicinity of Fort Wayne, and 
suffering a disastrous defeat October 19. 

May 23 and August 24, 1791, Gens. Scott and Wilkinson led 
expeditions against the Indians on the Wabash (the Wea Prairie), 
eight miles below Lafayette, and at Ke-na-purr-a-qua on Eel 
River, six miles from Logansport. Both e?peditions were suc- 
cessful. In September, 1792, Gov. St, Clair marched from 
Fort Washington, erecting Forts Hamilton and Jefferson on the 
way. On the third day of November, 1792, the army reached 
the Wabash at Recovery, j^nd the next day (November 4) was 
terribly defeated by the Indians under Little Turtle, Blue Jacket 
and other chiefs. 

Early in 1794, Gen. Anthony Wayne, then chief commander, 
having marched into the Indian country, built Fort Recovery on 


the ground of St. Clair's defeat, moved onward July 26, 1794, and 
erected Fort Adams on the St. Mary's, and FortjjS^efiance at the 
junction of the Auglaize and Maumee Rivers. 

August 20, 1794, he defeated the Indians at the rapids of 
the Maumee, and, September 14, he began the erection of Fort 
Wayne. October 28, Gen. Wayne returned to Greenville. 

The treaty of Greenville was framed and ratified at a meeting 
lasting from June 16 to August 10, 1795. The land embraced in 
that treaty included much of Ohio and a small portion of southeast- 
ern Indiana. The line agreed upon extended (with exceptions and 
reservations specified) from the Tuscarawas branch of the Musk- 
ingum River, westward by a varying line to Fort Recovery, Ohio, 
and thence southwest in a straight line to the Ohio opposite the 
month of the Kentucky River. 

This is Wayne's boundary, already suflBciently described. 
Wayne had defeated the Indians so severely, and had so thoroughly 
convinced them of the hopeless folly of resisting the powers of the 
United States, that they sincerely and heartily observed the 
terms of the treaty. Public confidence was restored, and emi- 
gration set in to the region ceded thereby, with a strong and 
steady current. 

Oct. 29, 1798, Gov. St. Clair issued a proclamation for a 
General Assembly for the Northwest Territory, to be held at 
Cincinnati, January 22, 1799. The Assembly met and ad 
journed to September 16, 1799, at which time it convened again 
and continued in session till December 30, of the same year. There 
were then in the whole northwest only seven counties, and but 
one of them (Knox) was within the present State of Indiana. 

May 7, 1800, Congress divided the Northwest Territory 
into two parts, Ohio and Indiana. Ohio Territory embraced 
substantially what is now the State of Ohio, and Indiana Terri- 
tory took in all the Northwest, containing by census that year 
only 4,875 souls. Gen. William II. Harrison was appointed 
Governor of Indiana Territory. 

January 10-26, 1800, the judges metatVincennes, and framed 
needed regulations. Ohio waa made a State in 1802, Michigan 
Territory was set off in 1805, and Illinois Territory in 1809. 

The hrst General Assembly for Indiana Territory convened 
at Vinccnnes July 29, 1805. At this time two more counties 
had been formed, viz. : Clark, in 1801, and Dearborn in 1803. 
Dearborn embraced all the territory in Indiana east of Wayne's 
boundary, and Clark took a large extent of country on the Ohio 

Wayne was made in 1810, and Franklin in 1811. 

By 1816, when Indiana became a State, thirteen counties 
had been formed, in all, to wit: Knox, 1796, (when created), 
all of Indiana and Michigan ; Clark, 1801, on the Ohio River ; 
Dearborn, 1803, east of Wayne's boundary ; Harrison, 1809, on 
the Ohio near Corydon, the first State capital ; Wayne, 
1810, north part of Dearborn ; Jefferson, 1810, cut off from 
Clark; Franklin, 1811, between Dearborn and Wayne, includ- 
ing also Fayette and Union ; Gibson, 1813, south of what is now 
Knox; Warwick, 1813, next east of Gibson; Wasljington, 
1814, north of Harrison and Clark ; Switzerland, 1814, southern 
part of Dearborn, on Ohio River; Posey, 1814, southwestern 
county in the State; Perry, 1815. somewhat west of Harrison 
County; Jackson, 1815, north of Washington. [This last 
county, Jackson, though erected in 1815, would seem not to have 
been represented in the Constitutional Convention of 1816, or it 
may be that, being small in population, it was united with some 
other county]. Thus the settlements at this time (1816) were : 

First — East of the (old) boundary (and perhaps some between 
the two boundaries) Switzerland, Dearborn, Franklin, Wayne. 

Second — On or near the Ohio River, west of the boundaries, 
Clark, Harrison, Perry, Warrick, Posey. 

Third — On the Wabash (northward) Gibson, Knox. 

Fourth — Interior, (north of Harrison and Clark), Washing- 
ton and Jackson. 

A year or two before the Constitutional Convention of 1816, 

the settlement of Wayne had been pufhed northward into the 
south part of what is now Randolph, and the Constitutional Con- 
vention met at Corydon June 10-19, 1816. 

The first election of State officers took place on the first Mon- 
day in August, 1816. 

In the first State Legislature, Jackson County was repre- 
sented, and also one more county, formed in 1816, Orange, west 
of Jackson County. 

One of the Representatives from Wayne County resided in 
the bounds of what became Randolph County, to wit. Ephraim 
Overman. He was the fifth settler in Randolph County, coming 
there in November, 1814. He settled oneand a half miles north of 
Arba, where Joshua Thomas now lives, on the Pike. 

[Note 1. — Counties having the names of Wayne and Ran- 
dolph are mentioned as existing in Northwest Territory, in 1805. 
But Wayne County thus referred to was in Michigan, embrac- 
ing all of Michigan and some of northern Indiana, etc. Ran- 
dolph County was in Illinois]. 

The counties of Indiana were formed with some rapidity. 
Before 1817, sixteen counties ; during 1817, three counties ; 
during 1818, eight counties — Randolph County, being one; 
1818-22, seventeen counties; 1823-1828, fourteen counties', 
1830-37, twenty-one counties ; 1843-71, thirteen counties; mak- 
ing in all ninety two counties. 

Thus the progress of settlement was, in general, from the 
south toward the center, and so toward the north. 

It will be seen that Randolph County was among those that 
were early in settlement. The whole central part, and the vast 
northern and western portions, remained a wilderness for years 
after Randolph began to be settled. Winchester was laid out 
some years before Indianapolis and Fort Wayne. Settlement in 
Randolph began in 1814, but the central and western regions re- 
mained Indian land till 1818, and they were not surveyed till 

Randolph is the sixteenth in population (1880), and the seven- 
teenth in size. This county, at one time, embraced a large por- 
tion of the State northward from her present limits, and Dela- 
ware and Grant besides. At its first formation, however, the 
county included only the country east of the twelve-mile bound- 
ary and north of Wayne County, but the boundary was after- 
ward changed, and other portions were temporarily joined thereto. 
The regions attached were settled more or less rapidly, and new 
counties were organized from time to time, till at length, by the 
erection of Blackford in 1839, Randolph became " herself and 
nothing else." 


During the session of the Legislature of Indiana, held at Cory- 
don, 1817-18, eight new counties was formed, of which Randolph 
was one. 

It embraced, at first, all the territory north of Wayne County, 
and east and south of the twelve mile boundary. It was afterward 
so changed as to include, temporarily and for judicial purposes, an 
area outside of the twelve mile strip, and also an immense indefinite 
territorv north and west, comprising, at one time or other, Dela- 
ware, Grant, Jay, Adams, Blackford, Wells, Allen, and how 
much else we do not know, perhaps even to the north line of the 
state, no county having then been organized in either of those 
directions. And as settlers moved into those regions they were 
reckoned as in Randolph until new counties were erected and 
organized, including them. 

The act creating Randolph County was approved by Gov. Jen- 
nings, January 10, 1818. The law creating the new county ap- 
pointed William Majors, Williamson Dunn, of Dearborn County, 
James Brownlee, of Franklin, members of Constitutional Conven- 
tion, Stephen C. Stevens anil John Bryan, to fix the county seat. 
The boundaries were- described in the act as follows : 

"All that part of the county of Wayne which is inclosed in 
the following bounds shall form and constitute a new county, that 
is to say, beginning at the state of Ohio line, where the line that 


divides the 15th and 16th townships strikes said Ohio line, thence 
westward with said township line until it strikes (ine old boundary, 
thence westward with the centre line of the 18th township in the 
new purchase until it strikes the Indiana boundary, thence north- 
ward with said boundary until it strikes the Ohio line, thence 
south with said line to the place of beginning." Until suitable 
accommodations could be made, the courts were appointed to be 
held at the house of William Way. 

The locating commissioners met in August, 1818. an.d fixed 
the county seat at Winchester. They received and secured to the 
county donations of land as follows: Charles Conway, 60 acres; 
John Wright, 50 acres; David Wright, 10 acres; David Stout, 18 
acres; Daniel Petty, 20 acres. 158 acres in all from five men, a 
splendid donation. Randolph County surely has no right to com- 
plain that her county seat did not get a good "send off." All of 
the land thus donated was in Sections 20 and 21, Township 20 
north, Range 14 east of the second principal meridian. The lo- 
cation is on Salt Creek, and some distance south of White River. 
The town now lies on both sides of Salt Creek, and has extended 
itself northward nearly to White River. 

Some old settlers say that the new county seat would have 
been located at Sampletown, four miles west, but that the settlers 
there were unwilling to "come down" sufficiently with donations. 

Pursuant to the laws then in force. Gov. Jennings appointed 
David Wright, Sherifi", to organize the county. He did so by 
making two precincts, Greensfork and White River, the chief 
settlements being on these two streams. He created two town- 
ships as above, dividing them by an east and west line across the 
county. An election was held in August. 1818, to choose two 
Associate Judges, a Sheriff, Clerk, Recorder, Coroner, and three 
County Commissioners, which oflScers were chosen as follows: 
William Edwards, John Wright, Associate Judges; David Wright, 
Sheriff; Solomon Wright, Coroner; Charles Conway, Clerk and 
Recorder; Eli Overman, Benjamin Cox, John James, Commis- 
sioners. These officers were all commissioned, and the county 
machinery was put duly into motion. The Wright family furnished 
three of the eight above named, and that connection was at that 
time very numerous in the county, some account of which is set 
down elsewhere. 

Thus far the organization of the county, and the election of 
officers therefor. 

The official history at large will be furnished in a separate 


[Much of the following account of Winchester has been taken 
substantially from "Manuscripts" by Honorable Jere Smith, 
who came to Randolph County in August, 1817, and resided 
therein for more than fifty years until his death]. 

Winchester was the first town established in the county. The 
site was fixed by the commissioners to locate the county seat in 
1818. As already stated, they located it on Sections 20 and 21, 
Town 20, Range 14 east of second meridian, by donations from 
five different persons, in all 158 acres. 

Lots were laid out in the fall and winter of 1818. The first 
sale of lots took place February, 1819. The whole plat was an 
unbroken forest, a primitive wilderness, heavily timbered, with a 
thick undergrowth. 

A large oak, three feet through, stood for years on Inlot No. 
9, east front. It was cut down in 1825 or 1826, and the stump 
was standing there in state when Judge Smith built the Frank- 
lin House in 1839. 

The Commissioners, Messrs. Cox, Overman and James, and 
Paul W. Way, Agent, had agreed upon the plan of the town. 
Overman and Way were both surveyors, backwoods fashion. 
Charles Connor, who was also a "half surveyor," had a little stiff- 
armed compass, four-inch face, and an old two-pole chain, tied 
with leather and tow strings. Paul Way did the surveying. As 
the Commissioners were looking over the ground to locate the 
public square, Charles Conway told Judge Smith that Old Eli 

Overman stuck down the Jacob-staff, saying, " Here shall be the 
northeast corner of the public square," and there it was, and there 
it 18, and is to be, unless, indeed, as seems not very unlikely in 
these latter days, some city "engineer" shall take it into his 
overgrown head to plant new corners and turn town, streets and 
all " awry." 

The first house built was a round log cabin, onestory high, 
" scutched down " after it was raised, and before the rafters were 
put up. 

It had a clapboard roof, and a clay and stick chimney. Mr. 
Smith says, " I do not know who built the house, but Martin 
Comer owned it and lived in it a long time. It stood on inlot 
No. 9, north front, and was built in the early spring of 1819. 

The second house was put up by Thomas Wright, father-in- 
law of John Coats, still living in the county (1871), in the spring 
and summer 'of 1819. It was like the other, and stood on inlot 
No. 8, north front. 

In the summer and fall of 1819, James McCool, a blind man, 
put up upon inlot No. 1, west front, a good, two-story, hewed-log 
house. When I first came to Winchester (1819) it was the hotel of 
the town, kept by the blind man, McCool. When next I came, 
James Oldham, hatter, kept tavern in it, and a hatter's shop back 
of it. Old Esquire Odle owned it afterward, and built a little 
frame store at the north end, and a frame shed back for bed- 
rooms, and he ran it as a hotel, store and residence for some 

In the winter of 1819-20, James Oldham, the hatter, built a 
good hewed-log house, story and a half, on inlot No. 11, south- 
east square ; and in the spring of 1820, Alvin C. Graves built a 
round-log cabin on lot No. 14, in the southeast square. 

The hewed-log court house and the Banta jail were built in 

In that year (1820) Judge John >ample built the first frame 
house, a small one-story building, on lot No. 3, east front. He 
set it on the west line of the lot, some distance south of the north- 
west corner of the lot. He sold it the next year to George Burk- 
et, who extended the house north to the corner of the lot, and 
kept store in it for some years. He then sold it to Jesse Way, 
and he also had a store there for awhile." 

It would seem from this account that there were now (1820) 
seven buildings in Winchester (if the Judge has mentioned them 

Mr. Smith goes on, " The next frame house was in 1824-25, 
by David Haworth, which house was standing in 1871. It was 
on inlot No. 10, northeast square, where Jacob Elzroth lived so 
long, and where he died. 

" Andrew Aker, in 1826 or 1827, built a frame house on inlot 
No. 8, north front, two stories, with a one-story store-room at the 

"In 1826-27, Abner Overman built a frame house on the north- 
east corner of lot No. 2, east front. He sold it to John Way in 
the fail of 1829, who moved into it, and started a blacksmith shop, 
and lived there the rest of his days. In 1823, Mrs. Mary Reed- 
er bought inlot No. 2, west front, built a cabin and lived there 
some years. She then traded it off to Nathaniel Coffin, for inlot 
No. 12, southeast square, on which last lot she is still living. 
She (Mrs Mary Reeder) is the "oldest inhabitant" of Winches- 
ter, having lived in it ever since, being (in 1881) fifty-nine years 
old. She was in the town seven years before I was, and ten years 
before Jesse Way. 

" There were, I presume, other cabins and shanties put up in 
the town during this decade, but I cannot now call them to mind." 

Thus far Mr. Smith. 

Winchester would seem to have had an exceedingly slow 
growth, remarkably so, considering it was the seat of justice of 
a county containing at the start 200 voters, and increasing its 
population with considerable rapidity; considering, moreover, 
that for ten years not another town was even attempted within 
its limits. 


Judge Smith appears to think that the dozen or so houses 
which he described were nearly or qaite all that had been 
built up to 1830. And information from several sources indi- 
cates that not more than a dozen families were residents of the 
town at the lapse of twelve years after the town had been platted. 
One jail and two court houses had been built. Court after court 
had been held ; jurors had heard cases in the court house, and 
determined their verdicts seated upon the stumps and logs out- 
side; lawyers and judges and clients had threaded and waded 
and swam their way through the primal woods to that frontier 
town; but lo ! almost no town was there. But in those halcyon 
day* small need was there of towns, people lived at home and 
mae'j wellnigh every thing they used, and had little occasion to 
buy anything which they could not make. The larger portion 
of the settlers had come from the Carolinas, where towns were 
" few and far between," and what more need was here of such 
things ? 


Some facts as to the early business are as follows : 

The first store was kept in Randolph County in November, 
1818, by William Connor, an older brother of John Connor 
(mail-carrier), whose widow lived in Winchester until tf short 
time ago. It was licensed by the Commissioner's Court held in 
November, 1818. and was kept in a log cabin on the north bank 
of the creek, on the southwest quarter of Section 10, Township 
18, Range 14 (a little northwest of Old Snow Hill). 

David Connor's Indian trading-post on the Mississinewa was 
older, but this of William Connor's was the first licensed mercan- 
tile house in the county. He paid ^20 for his license, and had 
perhaps $200 worth of goods. Of David Connor and his trad- 
ing-posts Mr. Smith says : 

" David Connor, of Greenville, Ohio, established a little 
Indian trading-post on the little (?) Mississinewa near the pres- 
ent site of Allensville. When the war broke out he discontinued 
it. At the close of the war, or rather during its continuance, he 
moved farther down the river, and established his post where 
Lewallyn afterward settled and built his mill. Connor did not 
enter the land or make any improvement at either place. Mes- 
hach Lewallyn, then living seven miles north of where Rich- 
mond now is, moved out to Connor's trading-post, and Connor 
moved his post still farther down the river, nearer the Indians, 
to a point two miles below where the town of Wheeling now 
stands (Delaware County). After the treaty of 1818 (some 
years after), he made another move, following the Indians, and 
set his trading house near the boundary of the thirty-mile re- 
serve and about three miles below the present site of Marion, 
where he died." 

[Note. — Burkett Pierce, Arthur McKew, Robert Sumption, 
Thomas Ward, Edward Edger and others, do not agree with the 
above statement. They make his first location at Fort Recov- 
ery, his second two or three miles above Deerfield,; his third 
below Wheeling, and his fourth and last below Marion, where he 
built mills and where he finally died. They say that 'he never 
had a post either at Allensville or Ridgeville, and, moreover, 
that he was at his station above Deerfield up to perhaps 1833, or 

It will be seen that up to 1830, Winchester as a town was 
not much of a success. The business of the place was small, 
the buildings were few and poor, the roads leading to it were 
new and bad, the people needed but little trade, and all went 
thoroughly on the slow order. The court sat and did whatever 
there was for them; Charles Conway, as Clerk and Recorder, had 
all the county writing to do, which was not as much for the whole 
eleven years as has been since recorded in a single year. 
County offices were at a discount then. The Sheriff could not 
have done much, though he was Collector and Sheriff both, as 
the county tax for 1829 amounted to a sum less than $900. 
Jurymen came and returned without any bills to find or cases to 
try, and were paid the miigniOcent sura of .50 cents per day ; and 

the Associate Judges maintained their dignity and satisfied their 
desires for food and lodging to the tune of $2 per day. 

Winchester was a town in the woods, but for a long time 
there was decidedly more woods than town. It vfas an old saying by 
some odd specimen of humanity concerning a certain town, that 
" he could not see the city for the houses." But at Winchester 
he would have found no such difficulty. The houses were not in 
the way, the city was all in full view, the buildings were not 
near enough together to obstruct the vision in any direc- 
tion. The trees, with their huge trunks and far-reaching branches, 
may have hindered the sight somewhat. Doubtless they did. 
But what of that ? They were cut down and felled to the ground 
and reduced to ashes one by one, or else in vast heaps they 
formed a holocaust to the God of Fire, submitting helpless and 
palsy-smitten to his terrible power. 

And gradually, too, but oh ! how exceeding slowly, the town 
increased its fair proportions until, at last, we behold a city, 
goodly in size, bustling and thriving in its business, and success- 
ful in its prosperity. 

Winchester has been hindered in its growth by the fact that 
Union City stands on the one side and Farmland on the other, 
but there is room for her also, and she shall make her 
victorious way through trial and struggle to assured renown dur- 
ing the days to come. There are those who affirm that Winches- 
ter, instead of Union City, might have been the original 
railroad center for the region. Possibly so. Some who are 
quick to find fault insist indeed that one prime cause of 
the slowness of growth of Winchester, is, that the capitalists of 
the place have not been sufficiently enterprising in investmon*- 
for business of various kinds. One thing at least is true of the 
chief citizens of Winchester, which cannot be said of that class 
of persons in every town, that they are genial, estimable, relia- 
ble men, and the form of investment which any man shall adopt 
must be left to his own volition. 

The judicious investment of capital in enterprises affording 
useful, honorable and remunerative employment to large numbers 
of people is, in fact, a great advantage to a town, and a great 
blessing to her people ; and wealthy men who thus furnish such 
means of employment and useful industry are a benefit alike to 
themselves and to the public. 


[Much of this official history is from Hon. Jere Smith'" 

William Edwards, elected Associate Judge in 1818, was a 
younger brother of Jonathan Edwards, who located south of Win- 
chester in 1818. He continued to be Judge some sixteen years ; 
was Representative two or three times, and then moved to Illinois. 

Charles Conway continued to be Clerk and Recorder three 
terms (twenty-one years). In 1832, he was strongly opposed by 
Daniel Worth, who was beaten. In 1839, he moved to Missouri. 
He was born in Penn.sylvania. His father was in the north- 
western army, and was killed in St. Clair's defeat. His mother 
then moved to Tennessee, where Charles was raised. Ho mar- 
ried there, and came here in 1814 or 1815. [Perhaps not so 
soon as that]. Mr. Smith says, " He was truly an honest man, 
which, the poet says, is the ' noblest work of God.' " 

David Wright resigned as Sheriff, and the Coroner filled the 
term. David Wright soon died. He had three brothers — Will- 
iam, James and John B. David was the youngest of the four. 

Solomon Wright, Coroner, was elected Sheriff in 1820 and 
1822. Ten years afterward he moved to Grant County, and died 
long ago. The Solomon Wright now living in the county is 
another member of the Weight family. 

Of the Commissioners, Eli Overman served two years, and 
was succeeded by John Wright (blacksmith). Eli moved to Grant 
County twelve or thirteen years afterward, and died there. 

Benj. Cox served two years. He lived many years in the 
county. Overman and he were Friends. Cox was a preacher. 


John James was Commissioner five or six terms, moved to 
Grant County and died many years ago. He was a Baptist. 

1818, 1819. 

The Commissioners met August, 1818. They accepted the 
Report of the locating Commissioners; appointed Paul W. Way 
Agent, and selected grand and petit jurors for the Circuit Court 
in October. 

The grand jurors were John Ballinger, Jesse Roberts, Will- 
iam Diggs, Arrasbee Diggs, John Way, Jonathan Edwards, Isaac 
Wright, William Wright, William Kennedy, Jesse Johnson, 
James Massey, Travis .\dcock, William Way, Sr., Daniel Petty. 


Paul W. Way, Samuel Lee, James Jacobs, William Way, Jr., 
Jonathan Heath, Jesse Green, Solomon Wright, Meshaoh Lew- 
allyn, David Stout, Joshua Cox, Abraham Wright. 

Some account in detail of these jurors: Jonathan Ballinger, 
foreman, died soon after. He was a resident of West River 

William Diggs (then called old iBilly Diggs) was father of 
Armsbee Diggs, also a juryman. William Diggs has been dead 
a long time. There is now a William Diggs, a very old man — 
not, however, that William Diggs, but his son — who is nearly 
ninety years old. 

William Way, Sr., had also three sons on the same jury — 
Paul W., John and William, Jr. Old William lived to a great 
age, and died at Newport, Wayne County, (Fountain City) some 
years ago. 

John Way lived and died in Winchester. His son, Jesse, 
still resides there. 

Paul W. Way lived and died in Winchester. His children are 
all dead but his oldest son, William M. Way, who lives in Illinois, 
and his oldest daughter, Anna, the wife of Nathan Reed. [Mrs. 
Reed is dead]. Isaac and Jacob Wright, two of three who were 
triplets, emigrated West years ago. 

William Kennedy lived southeast of Winchester and died 
about 1870. 

James Massey was an old man, and died soon after. He 
lived in (Jackson or) Ward Township. His son-in-law, James 
Smith, was Commissioner two or three terms. His sons left the 
county early. One of them was Associate Judge of Grant 
County a term or two. [Note — A James Massey settled in 
Nettle Creek, who may have been the same man]. 

Jesse Roberts we can say nothing of. 

Jonathan Edwards died a few years ago one mile south 
of Winchester. 

Jesse Johnson lived and died a half-mile south of Lynn. He 
came to the county in 1817 (or sooner). 

Travis Adcock lived in the south part of the county. He 
afterward had his name changed to Travis Emery. The resi- 
dents near Lynn say Travis Adcock (Emery) removed to Iowa 
about 1837. 

Daniel Petty lived on the Moorman Way place. In 1826 or 
1827, he moved to Walnut Level, where he was living a few 
years ago. 

Joshua Cox lived and died east of Winchester, where his sons, 
Andrew and Joel, still live (or did a few years ago). 

Samuel Lee was an old man, and died in 1827. 

Jonathan Heath we can give no account of. 

Meshach Lewallyn was an old man, with a large family of 
sons and daughters. He lived at Ridgeville, and built a mill 
there. [Lewallyn seems to have been a resident of Randolph, 
August, 1817]. 

Mr. Smith says : '* The Connor trading post, Lewallyn's 
mill, the building of pirogues and fiatboats, the killing of two 
Indians, and the (somewhat frequent) 'mistakes' in killing hogs 
in the woods, constituted the chief interest in Ridgeville life in 

those days." Mr. Smith would seem to be in error as to the 
location of David Connor at Ridgeville. 

James Jacobs there is no account of. Mr. Jacobs was a set- 
tler on the Mississinewa. 

David Stout moved to Delaware County ; built a mill on 
White River, and laid out Smithfield near his mill. 


The first court was held at the house of William Way, Octo- 
ber 12, 1818, Associate Judges Edwards and Wright. James 
Rariden was admitted to the bar and appointed Prosecuting 
Attorney. The grand jury were impaneled and discharged for 
lack of business with an ajlowance of 75 cents each. 

The petit jury was not impaneled. The court allowed Mr. 
Rariden $12. There were no cases and the grand jury re- 
turned no indictments. Adjourned to the next term. 

The second court was held May 7, 1819, at Charles Conway's 

John A. Daly was admitted to the bar. James Rariden ws,: 
made prosecutor. 

Mr. Daly was the brother of George Daly, and the latter 
was the father of ex-Sheriff W. A. W. Daly, residing near Lynn. 

Mr. Rariden is the same famous " Old Jim Rariden," so 
well known ever since. 


John Wright (Hominy), Isaac Wright, David Stout, Joshua 
Cox. James Wright, William Haworth, John Wright (Bl.), James 
Massey, David Haworth, William Wright, Tence Massey, Armsbee 
Diggs, Jonathan Hiatt. Five of the above are Wrights. They 
found no bills, and were discharged the same day. No cases 
were pending in this court. 

Third court, September 10, 1819. John Watts presiding 
Judge of the Third Circuit, and Associate Judges Edwards and 


Paul Beard, Benjamin Cox, John James, Paul W. Way, 
Meshach Lewallyn, Abram Peacock, William Blount, Travis 
Adcock, David Bowles, Thomas Parker, Bphraira Overman, Jr.. 
John Cammack, Abner Overman, Isaac Wright, Jesse Cox, John 
Thomas, Jesse Ballinger. No bills were found ; jury discharged 
same day. One cai3e in court, an appeal from Esquire Moor- 
man, Greensfork Township. Cause dismissed. 

Up to the third term of court no trial, and but one judicial 
decision, viz., the dismission just named. 

commissioners' COURT — CONTINUED. 

Board of Commissioners held second term at the house of 
Benjamin Cox, November 1818. Appointments: Jesse John- 
son, County Treasurer, one year. 

Overseers of Poor— Francis Frazier, John Thomas, Greens- 
fork; John Way, John Wright, White River. 

Constable — Jonathan Edwards, White River ; Abner Over- 
man, Greensfork. 

Viewers— John Wright, William Diggs, Joshua Cox, White 
River; Joshua Wright, Lsaac Kinley, David Bowles, Greens- 

Superintendents School Section— William Hockett, Towns 18 
and 19, Range 14; James Massey, Town 21, Range 14; John 
Way, Town 20, Range 14. 

Board granted license to William Connor to sell merchandise 
one year — first store in county. Section 10, Town 18, Range 
14 (between Snow Hill and Winchester). Special term held 
December 6, 1818, to let court house and jail (see Public Build- 

Third regular session was held February, 1819. George 
Bowles was made Lister (Assessor) for the county. 

Fourth term Commissioners' Court held May, 1819, George 


Bowles made his report and was allowed $10 for assessing the 

Levy on every horse, beast, etc., 25 cents. And this was all 
in 1819 (for county taxes). 

Jesse Johnson, Treasurer, reported — Received taxes, $20 ; 
paid out, §20. 

It were enough to make the heads of the present tax-ridden 
population whirl to think how different matters are now. 

First road laid out May, 1819 (see Roads). 

August, 1820, Commissioners organized all the territory 
northward, probably to the State line, into a township, calling it 
Wayne (see elsewhere). 

November, 1819, Treasurer reported — Receipts, $260 ; ex- 
penditure, $259.75. 

February, 1820, Abner Overman, Lister. 

May, 1820, Lister reported. 

Levy — Each three year old horse, 37?, cents; each house of en- 
tertainment, $10. 

November 1820, Treasurer reported : 

Revenue $152 00 

Lots sold 309 G-i 

Fine 1 00 $t02.63 

Disbursements 437 08 

On hand 25 55 

As the law then stood, the Commissioners had to fix the rate 
of charges at licensed taverns. They did it thus : 

Dieting (per meal) .-. 25 

Gin (half pint) 28 

Brandy 25 

Whisky (half pint) 12J 

French Brandy 37i 

Rum (half pint) 37| 

First delinquent list had seventeen names ; amount $11.50. 
Up to 1824, Sheriffs were ex-oflScio collectors. The courity busi- 
ness was done by three Commissioners. But in 1825, the Board 
of Justices began, embracing every Justice in the county, service 
gratis. This board had to appoint a Collector each year. 

February, 1825, John Coats, Justice, White River, was made 
President of the Board. 

May, 1825 — Present, Justices John Coats, White River; Geo. 
Ritenour, on Mississinewa River ; David Moore, on West River ; 
Joshua Wright, on Martinsdale Creek ; David Vestal, on Stony 
Creek ; Joseph Hall, on White River (crossing of Lynn road) ; 
David Frazier, Greensfork ; Noah Johnson, S. Sample's Mill. 


Poll, 50 cents ; gold watch, $1 ; horse, 37 J cents ; carriage, 
50 cents ; ox, 12J cents; liquor license, $5 ; brass clock, 50 cents ; 
foreign merchandise, $10 ; silver watch, 25 cents ; town lots 
($100), $1 ; covering horse, price of standing. 


One hundred acres (first quality), 25 cents ; 100 acres (sec- 
ond quality), 20 cents; 100 acres (third quality), 15 cents. 
Treasurer reported : 

Liquor License $10 00 

Estriiys 3 37 J 

Taxes, CoUeotor 502 38} $ 51^ 

DisbursemenU 575 70 

Due Treasurer $ 9 19 

May 1826, rates were charged : Tavern license, $3 ; meal, 
18f cents; whisky, 6J cents; peach brandy, 12h cents; rum 
or French brandy, 18| cents ; horse (onegallon), 6^ cents ; horse, 
all night, 25 cents; lodging, 6^ cents. 

May, 1829. Levy — Covering horse, once-anda-half the 
price; 100 acres of land, first quality, $1.20 ; 100 acres of land, 
second quality, 90 cents; 100 acres of land, third quality, 60 
cents; ferry, $2; licensed store, $10; horse, 75 cents; 
ox, 37J cents; town lot, 3 per cent; watch, silver, 43J cents ; 
watch, gold, $1.50 ; Carriage, $2 ; br,iS3 clock, $1.50. 

Treasurer's Report, 1829— Receipts, $817.49; disburse- 
ments, $826.93; balance due Treasurer, $9.44. 

Thus, after twelve years, the annual county taxes fell shortof 

Now we have, one does not know how much — and in all more 
than $1.50,000. Then only a few things taxed, now everything ! 

Treasurer to 1824, Jesse Johnson ; Treasurer to 182,5-29, 
John B. Wright; Treasurer, 1829-30, James T. Liston. 

The Sheriff was Collector, 1818-24. 

Thomas Wright was Sheriff, 1825-27, and was appointed Col- 
lector also But for 1828 he was not appointed. 

Mr. Smith says (in substance) " I may be allowed to give 
the history of that matter. 

"J came (for some reason) to Winchester, January 7, 1828. 
Board of Justices in session, only three present, Woodworth, 
Nelson, Willson. Esq. Nelson wished me to be collector; I told 
him 'No, I cannot give security;' he said, 'I will fix that.' 
' Well, I will do it then,' said I. 

"The board appointed me, and I was sworn in with David 
Heaston, John Nelson, and Charles Conway for my security. 
In May. 1828, I was elected Teacher at Richmond. I made my 
brother, Carey Smith, Deputy, and he did the collection, and I 
taught school nine months, being my first and last. 

" Revenue collected. $804.38. Commission for collection, 

From 1818 to 1824, Commissioners were elected; 1825-30, 
Boards of Justices did the county business. 

As the Justices got no pay for this service, their attendance 
was very irregular. They would come, for the most part, only 
when their neighborhood wished or needed something special, and 
then they would go home again. On one occasion the Sheriff 
had to go with a subpoena and compel the attendance of two 
Justices to forma quorum. Hence, after seven years, the Legis- 
lature of 1831, restored the Commissioners, and the county busi- 
ness has been done in that way ever since. 

COURTS, 1820-30. 

During this time, there was but one court of record, consist- 
ing of a Presiding Judge and two Associate Judges. The court 
could be held by the Presiding Judge alone, or by the Associate 
Judges alone, or, of course, by the Presiding Judge, with one or 
both Associates. But the Associates could try neither criminal nor 
chancery cases. The Associates did the probate business with a 
separate record. 

Court, April, 1820, Edwards and Wright. One day Charles 
Conway took judgment by default against William Connor 
(store keeper) for $135, with interest at six per cent, from De- 
cember 26, 1818, with costs and charges. The court did not 
compute the interest and add it in, but added this clause, "This 
execution is entitled to a credit of $1.50, from January 30, 1820." 

This was the first judgment ever rendered in the Randolph 
Circuit Court, and it was one by the Associates, without a lawyer 
so far as appears. The judgment might liave been considered 
void for uncertainty of amount. But no advantage was taken of 
the defect ( if it were one). Jesse Johnson "stayed the execu- 
tion" twelve months, and doubtless the amount was duly paid 
sixty-one years ago. 

April, 1820. Solomon Wright, Sheriff. Grand Jurors- 
William Hunt, foreman, Henry Hill, James Massey, Daniel 
Petty, Ephraim Bowen, R. Mclntyre, John Ballinger, Amos 
Peacock, Joshua Wright, Isaac Wright, Albert Banta, John 
Coats, Thomas Wright. No cases, discharged; 75 cents each. 
The next court was held at Charles Conway's, June, 1820. Court 
held two days, and had two cases. Grand Jury found one indict- 
ment, the first in the county., John P. Huddleston vs. William 
Frazier, affray. 

October, 1820. Held in court house, one day, no case — no 

April, 1821. Judges Eggleston, Edwards, Wright. Court 


sat one day. Frazier was tried and acquitted. A chancery, a 
divorce and one appeal case were disposed of. 

July, 1821. Associate Judges — two days, Bethuel F. Morris, 
Cyrus Finch and Isaac M. Johnson were admitted to the bar, and 
Morris was appointed Prosecutor. 

He removed to Indianapolis shortly, and became the first 
Judge of the Indianapolis Circuit Court. He was the Judge at 
the trial at Pendleton (Falls Creek), of the white men convicted 
and hung for the murder of some Indians. And he is the Judge 
also, against whom some scribbler in a Philadelphia paper of that 
day perpetrated the monstrous tale that "went the rounds," to wit : 
" He (the writer) came to a hewed log building with a wood- 
en chimney, raised a little above the mantel, and the hearth not 
filled in. He found a barefooted man sitting on the puncheon 
floor near the fire-place paring his nails. By and by a man 
came riding up with a deer's-skin hunting skirt on. The other 
man (the barefooted man) accosted the 'man on horseback' 
'Well, Mr. Sheriff, have you got a jury?' 'Not quite. Judge, I 
have nine men caught and tied, and I'll soon have three more.' " 
This picture was intended for Pendleton Court House and 
Judge Morris, not so far out of the way for the court house, but 
a vile caricature of an able and upright Judge, by some Philadel- 
phia upstart, prospecting in our far-off Indiana wilderness ! 

But to the court. Two cases, and Philip Hobaugh made proof 
of a pension claim. 

October, 1821. No cases, no indictment. 
April, 1822. One day, little business. 

August, 1822. Judge Eggleston — two days, some business. 
April, 1823. One day, three indictments. Charles H. Test, 
Lot Bloomfield, and Charles W. Ewing, were admitted to the 
bar. Test and Ewing both became Judges afterward. 

August, 1823. Court sat two days. Martin M. Ray and 
William Steele admitted. Divorce (first one) granted. Huldah 
Way from her husband, Nathan Way. 

November, 1823. Full bench, two days, three State cases, 
two civil suits. 

February, 1824, one day, three cases. August 1824, full 
bench. Cyrus Finch was appointed Prosecutor; Josiah F. Polke 
admitted. Mr. Smith says : "I was at this court, and saw and 
heard my first criminal trial and conviction to the penitentiary. 
It was a somewhat peculiar case. David Banta had been in- 
i-called, i. e., tjiking and killing a 
Cyrus Finch prosecuted and James 
3 clearly proved that the hog was 
; that he took the hog home, cleaned, 
and salted it. Judge Eggleston charged the jury that 
when he found by the mark that the hog was not his, the as- 
portation of tlie hog completed the larceny, if he did that with 
the intent of appropriating it to his own use; and that, if the jury 
so found, they must bring him in guilty. The jury brought in 
this verdict : 

" Guilty, as charged in the indictment. We do further find 
that the property has been restored, and do fine the defendant 
$3 and costs, and that he go to the State prison for one year." 
Rariden gave notice of a motion for a new trial and arrest of 
^ment, reasons to be filed next morning. 

Next morning Judge Eggleston asked Rariden, "Where is 
the prisoner ?" 

"I have not seen him." 
"Call the prisoner." 

The bailiff called at the door, "David Banta." three times. 
No answer. Rariden ( sotto voce), "My client probably has 
some business in Ohio which he wants attended to just now." 
Some of the jurors had thought that, as the property had been 
restored, the parties should be quits. But the judge held that 
recovery of the property did not condone the offense, and gave 
indtrment for $3 and costs, and one year in the State prison. 
rint I'avid was not there to pay the money, nor to go to prison, 
und he has not, to this day, come and done it, nor any part of it. 

dieted for 1 
marked hog not his own. 
Rariden defended. It wa 
marked with a mark n 


That was the first conviction for felony in a Randolph court. 
But, though there was a conviction and a sentence, there has 
never been, to this day, an execution of the judgment. " 

August, 1824. Two days, some dozen cases. February, 1825, 
Edwards & Sample, Judges; Oliver H. Smith, Prosecutor. Five 
days, half-a-dozen cases. August, 1825, full bench, 0. H. 
Smith, Prosecuting Attorney. Two days, four State cases, 
two civil cases. February, 1826, full bench. Two days, 
eight or ten cases. August, 1826. Amos T^ane, Prosecutor, 
full bench. Three days, nine pages uf rcoord. Elijah Ain.iM'? 
name appears for tlie first time on the record ( to keep the 
peace ). It appears often after this, for, perhaps, twenty-five 
years. He has been dead some years. Ele was a wild, troub- 
lesome, reckless man. He was reckoned to belong to a gang 
of counterfeiters, thieves, etc., with headquarters in the " fallen 
timber" in the south part of the county. Old residents of that 
region are full of tales of the reckless mischief of Arnold and his 
comrades in daring and crime. The gang was broken up after 
a long time. 

Wilder Potter was also indicted for "mayhem. " The first 
slander case was disposed of, defendant acquitted. 

February, 1827. Two days, seven pages of record. August, 
1827. Full bench. Test, Prosecutor. Wilder tried for mayhem, 
convicted, fine $5 and costs, Rariden, defense. 

February, 1828. Full bench, two days, nine pages. Second 
slander suit, defendant found guilty. August, 1828. Full 
bench, two days, ten pages. February, 1829. Three days, 
fifteen pages ; M. M. Ray, Prosecutor. Jere Smith first acted as 
Deputy Clerk that term, serving thus for ten or eleven years. 

August, 1829. Three days, seventeen pages. John D. 
Vaughn, John S. Newman and Caleb B. Smith were admitted to 
the bar. 

"At this term, my old friend, Conway," says Mr. Smith," was 
tried for assault and battery. He owned the fact. 'I'll be pun- 
ished,' said the old man," 'if I didn't put him out.' Conway, 
however, was acquitted by the jury." 

This brings the history of the courts up to 1830. 

OFFICIALS, 1818-1830. 

It may not be amiss to devote a chapter to the detailed oSicial 
history of the county, up to the limit just named. 

The commissioners were as follows : 

Benj. Cox, 1818-20; Eli Overman, 1818-20; John James, 
1818-24; John Wright, 1820-22; Zachanah Puckett, 1820-22; 
David Bowles, 1822-23; Daniel Blount, 1823-24; David 
Stout, 1823-24. 


John Coats, 1825-26; Samuel D. Woodworth, 1826-29; 
John Odie, 1828-31. 

Justices, attending more or less, 1825-31 : 

George Ritenour, Wm. Hunt, Wm. Rowe, David Frazier, 
Wm. Massey, John Nelson, Noah Johnson, Jesse B. Wright, 
Geo. T. Willson, Isaac Barnes, Samuel Woodworth,- Daniel B. 
Miller. John Odle, Curtis Voris, John Jones, David B. Semans, 
John Coats. 


William Edwards, 1818-34; John Wright, 1818-46. 


David Wright, 1818-19; Solomon Wright 1820-24; Thomas 
Wright, 1825-1827. 

Charles Conway, 1818-39. 


Jesse Johnson, ]818'-24; John B.Wright, 1825-29; James 
T. Listen, 1829-30. 


At a special term of Commissioners' Court, December 6, 1818, 


the building of a court house and jail was let — the first to Abner 
Overman lor $254.50, the second to Albert Banta for ^125— to be 
completed in eighteen months. The court house was to be 18x24, 
hewed log and two stories. The jail was to be 14x18 feet, of 
.-iquare hewed logs, thirteen inches on each face, floored above and 
below, and also a middle floor all of the same timber, two stories, 
each six feet high in the clear. 

In October, 1820, the court house and jail were received by 
'he Commissioners. There was no outer door to the lower story 
of the jail, but its only entrance was a trap-door from the upper 
story, and that was entered by a short flight of stairs and a door 
at the top of the stairs. 

In 1826, the Commissioners thought the county needed anew 
courthouse, which was the truth. In July, 1826, Paul W. Way 
was appointed to let the contract for the new building, which he 
did, and it was finished in 1828. 

The old log court house was sold (with the lot No. 7) in 1829 
or 1830. 

The public square, three and one-half acres, was cleared about 
1820, by David Lasley, a young man who had lately come to the 
county. The" timber was very heavy, sugar-tree, oak, beech, 
lickory, etc. Some of the trees were three or four feet through. 
He says it took him three or four days to get a hole in the woods 
large enough for the sun to shine on the ground. He did the job 
alone and it took him three and one-half months. He got ^35 
for the job, boarding himself and working often far into the 

It was winter when he burned it, and there had come snow, 
and to burn it was almost impossible. He says that Moorman 
Way got $70 for putting new trees in the square, just twice as 
Uiuch as he got for taking the old ones off. 

The original jail was still in use as a jail in 1846, and for 
years afterward (till 1856). That block-house jail was all Ran- 
dolph had for thirty -six years. 

The second court house did not prove a good job, and the 
Commissioners sold it, and from that time till 1877, Randolph 
County had no courthouse. 

Some years before (1856) two buildings had been erected, one 
for a jail and one for county offices, brick, two stories. The 
courts were held in Ward's Hall, on the north side of the public 

However, in 1875, the Commissioners, Thomas Clevinger, F. 
G. Morgan and Philip Barger, let the contract for a new court 
aouse to A. J. Campfield ; architect, J. C. Johnson, Fremont, 
Ohio, for $73,000. The building was completed in 1877 with- 
out the changing of a single dollar in specifications or estimates. 
What may now seem strange, it was yet a fact, that very strong 
opposition was made to the measure and a fierce furor of denun- 
.'iation took .place, in so much that, when two of the Board, 
Messrs. Morgan and Clevinger, were presented as candidates for 
renomination by the Republican party, they were defeated be- 
cause they had been guilty of contracting to build that said court 
house. But the court house was built nevertheless, and there it 
stands to-day, the pride and glory of the county, of its architect, 
and of the Commissioners who had back-bone enough to go for- 
vard and secure its construction. It is, indeed, a gem of beauty, 
r marvel of taste and elegance and of cheapness as well. A man 
might sooner be the architect of that edifice than be President of 
the United States, or King of England. A President may be 
only an ordinary man, and a kiag may be a dunce or a madman ; 
but for such a building as that, only genius the most wonderful 
."ould conceive, and skill the most consummate could design and 
-xecute so beautiful and artistic a structure. It has been justly 
pronounced by good judges to be one of the finest buildings in the 

One of the Commissioners has since said (and doubtless the 
others would say the same), that he is not sorry for the part ho 
ook in the transaction, and that if he had the thing to determine 
ugain he would do just as he did before. 

Say what one will as to the time or manner of construction, 
none can deny that it is one of the most beautiful edifices in the 
whole land, and well worth the money it cost, and now stands an 
honor to the county to which it belongs. 

It has been claimed since its erection, that two very serious 
draw-backs and defects exist — that it is not fire proof, and that 
no sufficient provision was made for heating the building. 

If these things be true, they are indeedserious objections, and 
mistakes that should not have been committed. 

The necessity of fire-proof arrangements for the security of 
the public records is, indeed, the grand, unanswerable, overwhelm- 
ing reason for the construction of costly public buildings, and no 
expense should be spared which is really essential to the attain- 
ment of that end. And careless or defective flues are in a vast 
number of cases, the cause of the conflagrations that so often bring 
dismay, and widespread desolation upon the dwellers of the 

The corner-stone of the new court house was laid in the pres- 
ence of a crowd estimated at 8,000 people. 

The following documents were deposited thereunder, viz.: 

Copy of the Holy Bible. 

Roll of officers and members of Winchester Lodge, No. 56, 
F. A. M. 

Reports of Grand Masonic bodies, 1874-75. 

Masonic Directory for Winchester. 

Copy of each paper published in the county. 

Copy of Winchester Patriot, first paper published in Ran- 
dolph County, dated October, 1843. 

Report of Superintendent of Winchester Schools, 1874. 

Premium list of Randolph County Fair, 1875. 

Names of Judges and officets of the Circuit Court. 

Names of county officers and members of the bar. 

Names of corporation of officers of Winchester. 

Copy of Hon. John E. Neff^s speech on the Civil History of 
Randolph County, delivered at the laying of the corner-atone. 

Coins and medals. 

Copy of contract for first court house. 

Names of members of the Richmond Comraandery and cornet 
band present. 

Among others on the stand were David Wysong, who built the 
first court house ; David Lasley, who cleared the public square 
of the native forest ; and John Coats, who, at that time, was 
thought to be the oldest citizen of the county — eighty-eight years 

Material — Stone, brick and iron. 

Exterior — Stone, pressed brick and galvanized iron. 

Mansard Roof — Slate. 

Rooms — First floor as follows : Auditor's office, two rooms ; 
Clerk's office, two rooms ; Recorder's office, two rooms. Two 
iron stairways — one large, one small. A large hail lengthwise. 
A hall crosswise. Four iron doors at the ends of the halls. The 
halls have tile marble floors, black and white. Second floor as 
follows : A large hall opening into the various rooms. A large 
court room ; several other rooms for various purposes. 

Construction — Rubble stone foundation with various rubble 
stone walls along and across the basement ; entrance, step-stone ; 
wall.i, pressed brick, with cut stone finish ; stairways and outer- 
doors, iron ; cornice, dormer windows, etc., galvanized iron ; 
deck-roofs, etc., tin ; mansard roof, slate ; framing timber, solid 
pine ; floors and inside floor, ash ; inner doors, pine ; court room 
painted in frescoe. 

Cost (without heating) $73,000 ; compensation of architect, 
three per cent ; cost of heating apparatus. $4,900. 


The Commissioners are now (March, 1881) making provi- 
sion an<i arrangements for the construction of a new jail, at a 
cost of between $30,000 and $40,000. They have purchased oi- 
Martin A. Reeder, south of the Franklin House, on the east side 

J^f.,^ mf^'^-^^- 



of Main street, a lot for $1,200, and the intention is to proceed 
to the erection of the building during the present summer, and 
the expectation is, that it will be substantially and thoroughly 
built with modern methods of strength and security for the deten- 
tion and safe keeping of the persons confined within its walls, not 
to the neglect, however, of their health and bodily comfort. The 
following are (in substance) the specifications for its construc- 
tion : 

At the April session, 1881, the building of the jail (and 
SheriflTs dwelling) was let to A. G. Campfield, contractor, ac- 
cording to specifications by Hodson, Architect, to be completed 
by December, 1881. 

Cost of building, $34,600; compensation of architect, three 
per cent ; dimensions of jail, forty-five by fifty-eight feet ; 
sheriff's residence, fifty-four by twenty-nine and a half feet ; 
foundation, rubble work ; prison floors, stone flagging ; mansard 
roof, covered with slate ; prison proper, iron cells with passageway 
seven feet wide all around them inside the outer walls, and a cen- 
tral hall nine feet wide; cornices, chimney-caps, etc., galvanized 
iron ; glass, AA double strength ; windows, grated with heavy 
twisted and riveted iron bars. Upper tier of cells reached by 
corridors, extending from the stair-cases in the hall, between the 
jail and the Sheriff's residence. The hospital is over the jail 
proper, in the second story (in the mansard roofj, the lower 
story being sixteen feet high and including both tiers of prison 
cells. The cells open into the inner h_3,ll, and have grated un- 
glazed openings for light, heat and ventilation. The hospital 
department contains a hospital room and two or three bed-rooms, 
besides some others. 

The sherilTs residence has three stories (with the roof). On 
the first floor are sitting room, kitchen, parlor, office, hall and 
stairway, and two other small rooms for no special purpose. On the 
second floor are two large rooms and two small rooms, the juve- 
nile and the female departments, each of the latter two having two 
cells apiece, and a larger room to each department. The whole 
building is to be heated by steam from the court house engine, 
400 feet away. Great improvements, so reckoned, and great ex- 
pense as well, in jail construction, have been made since the days 
of the hewed log jail built in 1819. 

Then, log jails at a cost of $100 or less were strong enough 
to hold the rogues of that day ; now, whether a jail built wholly 
of iron will hold the villains of the present time remains yet to be 

The old adage is, "The world grows wiser and wickeder," 
and many believe the saying to be the truth. It is, at least, the 
fact that the shrewdness displayed, both in the commission of 
crime and the evasion of its penalty, is perfectly amazing. The 
building is now (July, 1882) completed and in use. The heat- 
ing from the court house proved a failure. A separate engine 
for the jail is now employed. 


Some provision was made in the first days of the state for the 
poor. For many years, however, there was no County Asylum. 
Thirty years probably elapsed before Randolph County did more 
than to give outside aid, or to " hire out " or to "bind out " pau- 
pers or pauper children. One curious fact appears, that for 
some years a man was paid for keeping his own mother as a pauper. 
After that she was " sold out " to another party, who would 
keep her cheaper than her own son would do it. 

Overseers were appointed by law to attend to the poor and 
afford needful help. The law required these ofiBcers to " farm 
out" such as were paupers, on the first Monday in May, allow- 
ing, however, the money to be paid, when judged proper, to the 
pauper himself; and required them, also, to "bind out" all pau- 
pers (females) under eighteen and (males) under twenty-one years 
of age. Some instances occur in the record of "farming out" 
at a very low price, which, however, room for insertion is lack- 


Some time previous to 1851, the Commissioners purchased a 
tract of land two miles southeast of Winchester, on the Lynn 
pike, for a Poor Farm. A dwelling was on the premises, which 
for a time was occupied for a Poor House. In March, 1852, 
William Fitzgerald was as (also he had previously been) em- 
ployed as Superintendent of the Poor House, as follows : $400 a 
year, quarterly, in county orders, including food and lodging for 
himself and family ; the family to give all their services, except 
when "the five younger children" were in school during the 
winter season. Before that date two reports are on file, showing 
the personal property of the county at the Poor House to be 
about $800 and $900 respectively. 

In July, 1852, a County Poor Asylum was put under contract, 
to bo completed by December, 1852 ; contractor, Joseph John- 
son. Dimensions, 65x40 feet, 12 feet high, 16 rooms below, hall 
12 feet wide lengthwise the building, and another hall 7 feet 
wide the other way, with rooms also above. Cost, $1,750. This 
building was burned down in a few years and another one was 
erected not long after, which is now standing. The first was 
built of wood but the second is of brick, having two stories. It 
is lari;e and commodious, being reasonably adapted to its pur- 

The cost of maintaining the poor at the Poor Asylum and 
otherwise during the years 1868, 1877 and 1880, is given below : 
1868 (year ending May 31), $1,369.57 (probablv excluding 
Superintendent's salary); 1877, $4,415.99; 1881, $5,998.22. 
One would suppose there must be sonie error in the statement of 
cost of maintaining the poor for 1868. We give it, however, as 
set down in the annual exhibit for that year, as spread upon the 
Commissioners' record at the time. 

superintendents' poor asylum. 
William H. Fitzgerald, from beginning to 1855 ; Simon Gray, 
from 1855 to 1857; Jeremiah Cox, from 1857 to 1859; 
Thomas McConoohay, from 1859 to 1861 ; Elias Kizer, from 
1861 to 1866; Jonathan Edwards, from 1866 to 1869; Amos 
Hall, from 1869 to 1878; Madison Hill, from 1878 to 1879; 
Amos Hall, from 1879 to 1882. 



was organized in 1818 by David Wright, Sheriff, appointed by 
Gov. Jennings for that purpose. It included the whole south- 
ern half of the county. The north line of the township was a 
line one mile south of the line between Townships 19 and 20. 
The northwest part of Greensfork for one and a half miles 
reaches that line still. The north line of the rest of the town- 
ship is one mile farther south. This division remained during 
1818 and 1819. November, 1819, West River was erected, in- 
cluding " all that part of Greensfork lying west of the west 
line of Section 16, Township 18, Range 14." This line is two 
and one-half miles west of the present west line of Green's Fork 
Township. Washington was afterward formed on the west, tak- 
ing off two and a half miles, and Wayne on the north, taking 
one mile on the north (except for one and a half miles) in the 
northwest quarter of Greensfork, leaving that township as at 


was created in 1818 by David Wright, Sheriff, before the organ- 
ization of the county and preparatory thereto. It included the 
whole of the county north of the line between Greensfork and 
White River as above stated. 

[Note. — The county at that time itself extended only west 
and north to the outer boundary of the twelve-mile strip, com- 
monly called the " new boundary."] 

August, 1820, Ward Township was formed, taking all that 
part of White River nOrth of the line between Townships 20 and 


21, leaving White River on the north line as it is now. About 
this time (1820), the boundaries of the county had been enlarged 
to take in what it includes at present west of the twelve-mile 
boundary and Delaware County, and Grant County and all the 
State northward from Randolph County were attached thereto for 
temporary judicial purposes. Liberty Township (now in Dela- 
ware County), was erected in 1825. Delaware was made a sepa- 
rate county in 1827, and Grant in 1831. 

Stony Creek was set off July, 1826, embracing at first Town- 
ships 19, 20 and 21, Range 12, and perhaps the north half of 
Township 18. Green and Monroe were afterward formed, and 
the boundary of Stony Creek moved one mile eastward, making 
White River stand as it now does. 


was created August, 1820, and included all the county north of 
the line between Sections 20 and 21, to wit: All the present town- 
ships of Jackson, Ward, Franklin and Green (if the boundaries 
of the county had then been extended to its present limits, which 
is probable.) In fact, the general formation of counties in (this 
part of) the purchase of 1818, and the final establishment of the 
bounds of Randolph County were made by the Legislature at the 
session commencing December, 1819. 

The other three townships were cut off subsequently, leaving 
to Ward its present limits. 


was created July, 1826. It embraced Townships 19, 20 and 21, 
Range 12 (and, one would suppose), the north half of Township 
18. Liberty Township, including perhaps Delaware County, had 
been formed on the west side of what is now Randolph, in 1825, 
and Stony Creek embraced the entire west side of Randolph 
County. It then included (probably) all of Nettle Creek Town- 
ship, the most of Stony Creek and the larger western parts of 
Monroe and Green. Nettle Creek, Monroe and Green were in 
due time created with their prescribed limits. The limits of 
Stony Creek were also enlarged on the east by taking a mile 
from White River, and thus Stony Creek became as she stands 
at the present writing. 


Note 1. — In August, 1820 (at the same time that Ward was 
out off from White River), a township was created, extending 
northward indefinitely from (probably) the present north line of 
the county, perhaps to the north end of the State, and named 
Wayne Township. Mr. Smith says : " The Commissioners ap- 
pointed the place of election at the house of Dr. William Turner, 
at Fort Wayne. They made Ezra Taylor Inspector, and 
directed an election to be held for the choice of two Justices and 
one Constable." This territory (as we think), was wholly outside 
what is now Randolph County. 


Note 2. — As to " Liberty Township " Mr. Smith wr'tes : 
"In the May term of 1825, David Rowe was allowed $1.50 
for making return of the election of two Justices of Liberty 
Township. From this and from ray recollection, I can say that 
in January, 1825, either the whole or the east part of Delaware 
County was made into Liberty Township. The township con- 
taining Smithfield is still called Liberty. And as Daniel Stout 
had been County Commissioner in Randolph, and had moved to 
what is now Delaware County, built a mill and laid out Smith- 
field, I presume he had that county erected into Liberty Town- 
ship. There were but few inhabitants in that region, and 
David Rowe, who brought the election returns, lived pretty well 
up on Prairie Creek, at least six miles from Smithfield. Also, 
May, 1826, John J. Deeds, who had settled on White River and 
built a mill above Smithfield, was appointed Supervisor on the 
West Fork of White River from the mouth of Cabin Creek to 

Mont-see-town, as the Indians cafod it. Hence " Mont-see- 
town" was then (May, 18t26) in Li„,rty Township and in Ran- 
dolph County as well." 

John Sample was at the same time made supervisor on West 
Fork of White River from Sampletown to the mouth of Creek. It 
should be. stated that the Legislature had declared the West Fork 
of White River to be a navigable stream, and had ordered it to be 
worked as such. Thus, up to 1830, the townships stood as stated 
below : 

Greensfork, 1818 ; Ward, 1820; White River, 1818; Stony 
Creek, 1826 ; Wayne (outside, north), 1820 ; Liberty (outside, 
west), 1825. 


Was erected at the term in May, 1831, beginning at the 
corner between Sections 14 and 15, Township 18, Range 14 ; 
thence north eight miles ; then west seven miles ; thence south 
eight miles ; thence east seven miles to the place of beginning. 

The line between Washington and West River was then ex- 
actly through Huntsville north and south, and the line between 
Greensfork and Washington was half a mile west of the present 

In September, 1834, half a mile was taken from the west side 
of Greensfork and attached to the east side of Washington. 

West River was created at the same time (1881) and extended 
to the Delaware line. It embraced all west of the west line of 
Washington Township, i. e., the west half of the present town- 
ship of West River, westward from a line north and south through 
Huntsville, all of Nettle Creek Township and two miles at the 
south end of the present Stony Creek Township. 

west river township, 1831. 

Was first formed May, 1881, embracing at that time all west 
of Huntsville, and eight miles from north to south, including 
thus the west part of West River, all of Nettle Creek and two 
miles at the south end of the present Stony Creek Township. 

In January, 1835, West River Township was made to be 
thus: Beginning at the southwest corner of Township 19, Range 
13, and extending northward seven miles, and four miles east- 
ward, the east line being one mile west of the present line of 
West River. 

Afterward one mile was taken from the west side of Wash- 
ington and attached to the east side of West River, making West 
River and Washington as at present. 

JACKSON township, 1833. 
first laid out by the Commissioners at the November 


term, 1833. The bounds of the township at first were all of what 
is now Jackson and Wayne Townships. But in September, 
1838, Wayne Township was cut off from Jackson, leaving Jack- 
son, Greensfork and Wayne as they are at present. 

Before that ( September, 1834) half a mile was taken from 
the west side of Greensfork, and attached to the east side of 

GREEN township, 1834. 

Was created in January, 1834, embracing its present limits 
and two and a half miles of what is now the north part of Mnn- 
roe. Afterward Monroe was formed from parts of Green and 
Stony Creek, leaving Green as it now appears on the map. 


Was created January, 1835, lying in Range 12, and extend- 
ing seven miles north from the Wayne County line, and including 
one mile at the south end of what is now Stony Creek. After- 
ward ( probably when Monroe was formed ) one mile was given 
to Stony Creek from the north end of Nettle Creek, making 
Stony Creek to stand as it now does. 


Was formed September, 1838, being cut off from the south 


end of Jackson Township, and leaving Jackson as it now 


Was in existence in 1851 and must have been created before 
that time. It was formed by taking parts of Stony Creek and 
Green Townships, and Stony Creek was extended southward by 
taking two miles from the north end of Nettle Creek Township. 


Was created with its present limits, in June, 1859, being cut 
from the west side of Ward Township, leaving Ward as it is 
found at the present time, Franklin being the last township formed 
in the county. 


Union Township was created by the Commissioners in March. 
1838, four miles square, at the north end of West River, leaving 
West River four miles square. A remonstrance was afterward 
presented against the formation of Union Township, and it is to 
be presumed that the township was dissolved asi t is not now in 
existence, though no record has been found of such action on the 
books of the Commissioners. 

Union Township included the village of Unionsport. Why 
action was taken for so small a township, and what was to be 
done with the remainder of West River, deponent saith not. 
Both Union and West River were far too small. The name, 
Union, would seem to indicate some connection between the for- 
mation of the new township and the " community " movement 
which established Unionsport Village about that time. 


Salamonie Township (Jay County), was erected by the 
Randolph Commissioners September, 1834, embracing all of Jay 
County (then a part of Randolph). Jay County was formed by 
the Legislature shortly afterward. Allen County had been laid 
off before and Blackford was made a few years later. 


Madison Township (Jay County), was erected in May, 1835, 
embracing five miles on the east side of Jay County. Jay Coun- 
ty was afterward organized, including Salamonie and Madison 


Greensfork, formed 1818, brought to present form, 1834. 

White River, formed 1818. 

Ward, formed 1820, brought to present form 1859. 

Stony Creek, formed 1826. 

Washington, formed 1831. 

West River, formed 1831. 

Jackson, formed 1833, present form 1838. 

Green, formed 1830. 

Nettle Creek, formed 1835. 

Wayne, formed 1838, in its present form. 

Monroe, formed before 1850. 

Franklin, formed 1859, in its present form. 

Union, formed 1838, remonstrance, organization dropped. 

Wayne (northern regions), 1820. 

Liberty (Delaware), 1825. 

Salamonie (Jay), 1834. 

Madison (Jay), 1835. 


On the north side of the County are four townships, making 
a strip across the north side of six miles wide, except Green, 
which is four and one-half miles wide. They are arranged thus, 
reckoning from the west : 

Green, six and one-half miles east and west and four and one- 
half miles north and south. 

Franklin, six miles north and south and four miles east and 

Ward, six miles square. 

Jackson, six miles north and south and about five and one- 
eight miles east and west. 

On the south side of the county are four townships, bounded 
on the north by an irregular line, with location and size as fol- 
lows, beginning at the east side of the county : 

Greensfork, six and one-eighth miles from east to west and 
about seven miles from north to south, with a corner in the north- 
western part, one mile north and south and one-half mile east 
and west. 

Washington, eight miles from north to south and five and 
one-half miles from east to west. 

West River, eight miles from north to south and five miles 
from east to west. 

Nettle Creek, seven miles from north to south and four and 
five-eighths miles from east to west. 

Through the middle of the county are four townships as fol- 
lows, beginning at the east : 

Wayne, five miles from north to south and about five and 
one-eighth miles from east to west. 

White River, seven miles from north to south and ten miles 
from east to west, and also a strip at the southwest four miles 
from north to south and one mile from east to west. 

Monroe, four and one-half miles from north to south and six 
and five-eighths miles from east to west. 

Stony Creek, five miles from north to south and five and five- 
eighths miles from east to west, excepting one square mile in the 
southeast corner. 

Area of townships : Green, 30 square miles, 19,200 acres ; 
Franklin, 24 square miles, 15,360 acres ; Ward, 36 square miles, 
23,040 acres; Jackson, 30| square miles, 19,680 acres; Wayne, 
41 square miles, 26,240 acres : White River, 74 square miles, 
47,360 acres; Monroe, 30 square miles, 19,200 acres; Stony 
Creek, 27 J square miles, 17,360 acres ; Nettle Creek, 32J square 
miles, 20,720 acres ; West River, 40 square miles, 25,600 acres ; 
Washington, 44 square miles, 27,560 acres; Greensfork, 47J 
square miles, 30,160 acres. Total area of county, 457J square 
miles, 292,480 acres (approximation). 


There were, at first, no roads. Every man picked his way 
according to his own fancy, as a hunter roams through the woods. 
The earliest regular track, perhaps, through the Randolph forest 
of any considerable length, was the " Quaker Trace," opened by 
the settlers of Richmond and vicinity, to get an outlet to Fort 
Wayne for trade with the Indians. 

Squire Bowen says : " The ' Quaker Trace ' was begun in 
1817. James Clark and twenty-five or thirty others took three 
wagons with provisions and a surveyor with his compass and chain 
and measured distances and blazed trees and marked mile trees, 
cutting out the road wide enough for a wagon to pass. They wound 
around ponds and big logs and trees, and quagmires, forded the 
Mississinewa and the Wabash, and so on to Fort Wayne. James 
Bowen went as one of the company twenty-five miles to beyond 
the Mississinewa Crossing, till one wagon load had been used"up. 
That team returned, and James came back with them. The 
route passed through Arba, Spartansburg, Bartonia, South Saleja, 
(west of) Union City, through Mount Holly, through Allens- 
ville, crossing the Mississinewa just north of that place, through 
North Salem, and crossing the Wabash at Jay City, Jay County, 
near Corydon. There was but one house between (what is now) 
Dan Comer's, one mile north of Spartansburg and Fort Wayne, 
viz., at Thomson's Prairie, eight miles north of the Wabash." 

This road or trace was, for a long time, a famous thorough- 
fare, being known far and near, and it obtained much travel. 
Most of it came to be at length a public highway, and 
much of it remains so to this day. Except the " Quaker Trace," 


there were, up to May, 1819, no regular traveled roads. There 
•were simply blazed paths, or tracks haphazard through the woods 
wherever a settler might happen to go. 


At the se.ssion of the Board of County Commissioners, held 
May, 1819, Jesse Johnson and others, residents of the south 
part of the county, petitioned for a road as follows : 

Beginning at Winchester, thence the nearest and best way to 
go between Jesse Johnson's and Paul Beard's, thence the nearest 
and best way to the county line at the southwest corner of Sec- 
tion 14, Township 18, Range 14. The petition was granted 
and the road was laid. It took chiefly the route now the Win- 
chester and Lynn pike and southward to the county line. 

The second road was from Winchester west to the boundary, 
August, 1819. 

The third road was ordered at the same time, August, 1819, 
from Winchester through Bloomingport to Wayne County line. 

The fourth road was the extension of the " Lawrenceburg 
road " from the house of Ephraim Overman to that of William 
Yates (August, 1819) [the road through Arba northward]. 
William Yates entered the north half. Section 9, Township Itf, 
Kange 1, northwest of Spartansburg. 

The fifth road was from West River settlement to Winchester, 
August, 1819. 

The sixth road was from Economy to Huntsville. 

The seventh road (February, 1820) was from Winchester to 
Fort Recovery. This road is not now in use. 

The eighth road (May, 1820), was from Winchester to John 
Foster's (Griifis farm). This afterward became substantially 
the State road to Muncie, Indianapolis, etc., the route, however, 
beini; somewhat changed. 

[Note. — The John Foster or Griffis farm, on Sections 2.5, Town 
17, Range 1, Wayne Township, was entered in 1817 by Cheno- 

The ninth road (May, 1820), was from Sample's Mill to 
Huntsville. [Sample's Mill was on White River west of Winches- 
ter, somewhat east of the " twelve mile boundary]." 

The tenth road (August, 1820), was laid out from Winchester 
to Ridgeville. 

[Note— The County Records of 1821-2.5 are mostly lost.] 

The next road on record (call it the eleventh') is from Sam- 
ple's Mill to Lewallyn's Mill (Ridgeville\ May, 1825. 

The twelfth road (May, 1825) was from southeast corner 
Section 3.5, Township 16, Range 1 west, to Obadiah Small's. 
The point of beginning is on the county line two miles east of 
Arba, and Obadiah Small owned the land that Spartansburg now 
stands on. This road is thought to be the one now running from 
Bethel, Wayne County, by " Pinhook," Charles Crist',s, and 
Jeremiah Middleton's to Spartansburg. 

The thirteenth road was from the State line north of Union 
City to Ridgeville, via Deerfield. 

The fourteenth road was from (the direction of) Dalton 
through Losantville to Windsor. 

The fifteenth road (November, 1827) was from the Win- 
chester and Lynn road, west through Bloomingsport to Hunts- 

The sixteenth road was (September, 1828) from Huntsville, by 
Hunt's, Rook's and Vestal's to the county line west of Vestal's 

The "Quaker Trace" began to be worked in 1825-28, and 
much of it is worked an<l traveled still. 

January, 1830. a road was laid from the west end of Hockett's 
lane to the Wayne County line, at the southeast corner of " Mar- 
tindale's Deadening." A wonderfully, clear and exact descrip- 
tion. The settlers knew where the " road " was as easily as the 
"boy knew his daddy." 

March, 1831. From John Moorman's, via Arba to Ohio 
State line. 

May, 1881. Road from the southwest corner of Samuel 
Smith's fence to the crcssway south of Jackson's, thence to the 
new road at the north end of William Smith's laue. (Another 
description worthy of special notice). 

September, 1831. Cartway laid from Winchester across the 
ford of White River to Lewallyn's mill. 

September, 1832. State road from Winchester to New- 

May, 1833. Richmond and Fort Wayne State Road. 

May, 1833. State Road from (toward) Greenville, Ohio, 
via Ridgeville and Fairview to Saunders' in Delaware County. 

May, 1839. State Road from Winchester via Ridgeville and 
Camden to Bluffton, Wells County. 

May, 1839. State road from Cambridge to Fort Wayne, 

March, 1845. State road from Huntsville through Unions- 
port, Macksville and Fairview into Jay County. 

March, 1845. State road from Deerfield through Steuben- 
ville and Fairview to Granville, Delaware County. 

Doubtless many roads have been laid at some time or other 
not herein mentioned. Enough are named to give a general 
idea of the system of highways established and maintained by the 
county for the use of the citizens. 

These roads, laid out, as we have said, by public authority, 
were opened and worked to some extent, yet for a long time most 
of them were but poor indeed. The trees were cut away some- 
what, a few bridges were made, and log ways were built in some 
places, yet for the most part they were horrid enough. David 
Lasley relates in his "reminiscences" how lie (with another man) 
built three-quarters of a mile of " log-way" on the road west of 
Winchester. As late as 1859 there was one and a quarter miles 
of log- way, nearly in one " string," north between Winchester 
and Deerfield. Often logs a foot or eighteen inches through 
would be laid down and sometimes absolutely nothing on them, 
and the wa:^on had to go " bumping" across that continuou.? 
log-heap. Each new road would be divided into districts ai 
overseer appointed, and " hands" given him for his " gang" to 
open and work the highway, e. g., Francis Frazier (bellmaker, 
east of Lynn), James Wright and William Ilockett, were appointed 
to mark and lay off the road leading through Lynn, which they 
did. Albert Banta claimed damages, and John Ballinger, John 
Way, William Haworth, Joshua Cox and Henry Hill were chosen 
to consider and assess damages. They reported "no damage." 
The road was laid, and Paul Beard was made Supervisor of tho 
south end and John Elzroth of the north end. Beard had all the 
east part Greensfork Township (in the south end of the county) 
for his district, and Elzroth had all the north end for his, east of 
Sugar Creek. 

Paul Beard was a physician, and was called " Old Dr. 
Beard," being the grandfather of Elkanah Beard, and he lived 
southeast of Lynn. 

John Elzroth lived near the "Poor Farm." After residing 
in Randolph a long time he moved to the " Reserve," in Gram, 
County. In 1871 he came back by rail to Deerfield, and on 
foot to Winchester, hale and hearty, then eighty years old. He 
was an older brother of Jacob Elzroth, so long a magistrate in 

[Note.— Either he or a brother of his died June, 1880, at 
Crawfordsville Ind., aged ninety-four years. He was in Ran- 
dolph Couuty on a visit five weeks before his death, being then 
hale and sprightly]. 

Dr. Beard's district was eight miles long and about four miles 
wide, with thirty-two sections and perhaps thirty road-hands, 
and nine miles of road to open and work. 

Mr. Elzroth's district was nine to ten miles long and seven 
miles, wide, containing sixty-six section and about forty hands 
and four and a half miles of road. 

All males from eighteen to fifty years had to work two days 
each per year, and that was all the road tax there was. Hands 
could be hired from 25 to 50 cents a day. Mr. Smith says : 


" How does that look by the side of the road-taxes now (leaving 
out pikes and railroads)." 

And it may be added, how did the " bridle paths" and " log- 
ways," " pole bridges" and " mud beds" then compare with the 
roads now. It must be confessed that, even now, road work is 
often laid out to poor advantage. A better method of highway 
labor is sadly needed. 

For the second road (west from Winchester) Judge John 
Wright was made Supervisor, with all the hands in White River 
Township west of Sugar Creek and south of White River. 

On the third road (Winchester to Bloomingport) is a point 
of some interest, Joseph Gass'. Mr. Smith says : " His house 
stood on the north side of a brushy prairie in Section 29, Town 
19, Range 14, some three miles north of Bloomingport. He 
built there in early days on the main Indian trail between Mun- 
cie (an Indian town at that time) to Greenville, where the Indian 
annuities were paid from Wayne's treaty in 1795 to 1815 or 
1816, at which time the place of payment was changed from 
Greenville to Fort Wayne. The Indians traveled from Muncie 
(which they called Mont-see-town) up White River on the south 
side till they crossed Prairie Creek at its mouth. They then 
took a "bee-line" for Greenville, which none but an Indian can 
do. The trail passed north of Huntsville and Spartansburg, 
and was about as straight as a surveyor could have made it. The 
trace was quite a plain one and was much traveled even by whites 
in those days. 

Joseph Gass was a brother of the Gass who went with Lewis 
and Clark across the continent to the mouth of the Columbia River 
(1805-07), and who published a journal which he kept on that 
expedition. Joseph Gass built and settled on that trace at that 
point when there was no white settler from six miles west of 
Greenville to " Mont-see-town," and he lo<lged travelers who 
passed on that trace, and hence his house was a noted place to 
mention on the route of that road. Mr. Smith says he had 
often seen him and the house he built there. 

The town of Springboro was afterward laid out February 
15, 1834, at the point where Joseph Gass lived, but the town was 
not a success, and it is now extinct. 

[Note. — Jesse Way says Joseph Gass's was not on the " In- 
dian trail" but considerbaly south of it.] 

Mr. Gass probably settled there before he entered his land. 
He was there when the " Way company" came through from 
Carolina to White River, March, 1817. But the date of 
his land entry is August 11, 1817. How much earlier than 
March, 1817, Mr. Gass settled at that place we are not able to 
state. He seems to have been one of that enterprising class 
quite common in those days, whose activity took the form of trad- 
ing with the Indians, which perhaps might have been well enough 
except that it often included the practice of selling strong drink 
to the poor red men. That business, whether among white men 
or Indians, however lucrative it may be to the trader, brings evil 
and only evil to him who uses the fearful fluid. And as now, 
so of old, the traffic in strong drinks was one great source of 
trouble between the settlers and the savages. A sober Indian 
was commonly peaceable but a drunken savage was an object of 
fear and dread. 

However, in those days, the manufacture of intoxicating 
liquors and the traffic in them was not regarded as otherwise than 
proper and honorable. 

The fourth road (north from Arba) was viewed by Ephraim 
Bowen, Ephraim Overman, Jr., and David Bowles ; and Jona- 
than Small was made Supervisor, with all the hands on Nolan's 
Fork and Greenville Creek to work the road. Lawrenceburg, at 
the mouth of the Great Miami was then expected to be " the 
town " on the Ohio, and roads had been extended f among others) 
up White River, past Richmond, to Randolph County line, and it 
was called the "Lawrenceburg road." 

Of the eighth road (May, 1820, State line to Winchester), Mr. 
Smith says : 

" In May, 1820, Viewers were appointed to mark out a road 
from Winchester to the State line, near Foster's (Griffis farm). 
The road was reported and established in August, 1820. John 
Coates was made Supervisor from Winchester to the ford of White 
River, and Amos Peacock from White River to the State line. 
In 1822 or 1823 the Legislature authorized the laying of a State 
road from the State line near Foster's, through Winchester to 
Indianapolis. Joshua Foster, John Sample and John Way were 
appointed Commissioners to lay the road. They took Paul W. 
Way for their surveyor, and started from Foster's to run to Win- 
chester. But they ran too much south, so they made a " bend " 
to the north before reaching White River. But being still toe 
far south they veered again northward, west of George Hyatt's, 
and came in at the end of Broad ( now Washington ) street and 
ran on that street through Winchester. Then diverging to the 
south till they got opposite (west of) the middle of the public 
square in Winchester, they struck west on the route of the 
present State road ( Pike now) to the west side of the county. 
Thence down White River (south .side) to Old Town (Indian 
town) six miles above Muncie, thence down the river by Ander- 
son, Strawtown, etc., to Indianapolis. The county road from 
the State line west to Winchester was merged in this Statfi 
road." Again Mr. Smith says (of the thirteenth road above): "Sep- 
tember, 1825, a road was reported beginning at the Greenville 
road northwest from Greenville (Connor's old trace to his trad- 
ing post) by Daniel B. Miller's to Lewallyn's Mill. This was 
not opened and worked till 1832. February 2, 1832, the Legis- 
lature passed an act appointing Daniel B. Miller Commissioner 
to lay out a State road from the State line (same point as the 
thirteenth road) to Parson's Mill, thence to Lewallyn's Mill, thence 
to intersect the Miamisport road, near Sanders', in Delaware 
County. Judge Miller appointed me his surveyor, and in Aug- 
ust or September, 1832, we began the survey. 

We started where Connor's trace crossed the State line, a lit- 
tle north of Union City, went nearly straight to the east side of 
Deerfield, thence to Parsons' Mill, half mile below Deerfield, 
thence to Lewallyn's Mill, near Ridgeville, thence onward be- 
yond Emraettsville, keeping in a straight line to Sanders' in 
Delaware County, passing north of Fairview. The county road 
from the State line to Lewallyn's Mill was merged in this State 
road. The road remains substantially as we laid it out, having on it 
Middlctown, Deerfield, Ridgeville and Eramettsville." 

Of the "Quaker Trace" Mr. Smith says (among other 
things ): " One Baker settled at the Wabash Crossing and kcp. 
entertainment many years, as also a canoe for crossing the river. 
It was a prominent point for a long time." A Mr. Storms set- 
tled very early near the Mississinewa Crossing. But at first and 
for some years there were none anywhere on the route except a 
single house on Thomson's Prairie, as already stated. 

[Note Mr. Smith says the "Quaker Trace" was opened in 
1818 or 1819. The Bowens say in 1817; which date is correct 
we do not know. The Bowens are more likely to be right, since 
they lived on the route, and one of them helped to make the 

Probably at first the large streams was crossed by fords. 

The first road (through Lynn) crossed White River in itn 
upper course about a mile north of (old) Snow Hill, and the Ease 
Branch of Green's Fork, south of Lynn. The road west to Wind- 
sor crossed Cabin Creek near Solomon Wright's, and Stony Creek 
east of Windsor. The road north toward Deerfield crossed 
White River north of Winchester, and Mississinewa north of 

The State road from Greenville to Winchester crossed Green- 
ville Creek east of Bartonia, and White River east of Nathaniel 

The road from Losantville to Windsor would probably cross 
Little AVhite River. 


The large bridges (if any werf; built) would needs be in tlie 
north part of the county, since the large streams were all there. 

There are now several large bridges, some of which are of 
iron. A bridge crosses the Mississinewa in connection with the 
Allensville pike running north. Another one is south of New 
Pittsburg. There is one north of Deerfield, one at Ridgeville 
and one at Fairview, besides one or two between the two places 
last named. 

There is a bridge across White River east of Winchester, and 
one on each of the pikes leading thence to Union City, one across 
White River northwest of Winchester, one still west of that, 
one south of Farmland, and one near Parker. There is a large 
bridge across Stony Creek east of Windsor on the Winchester 
Pike. There are, of course, bridges innumerable across the sev- 
eral creeks that course through the county in various directions. 

Some of the streams are still crossed by fords, as Cabin Creek 
just west of Unionsport, Greenville Creek northeast of Bartonia 
{ between Elihu Cammack's and William Macy's ), Salt Creek 
northwest of Winchester, Mississinewa east of Ridgeville, and 
perhaps many other places. 


Iron bridge at Fairview, across Mississinewa River, old, Sec- 
tion 4, 21, 12, not substantial. 

Iron bridge at Ridgeville, Section 12, 21, 12. 

Iron bridge over White River, near Stephen Moorman's, on 
the line between 15 and 16, 20, 13. 

Bridge south of Farmland, over White River, between 19, 
20, 13 and 24, 20, 12. 

Bridge south of Parker, 29, 20, 12, over White River. 

Bridge north of Deerfield, over Mississinewa, between 8 and 

9, 21, 14. 

Bridge west of Ridgeville, over Mississinewa, between 10 and 
11, 21, 13. 

Bridge north of Allensville, over Mississinewa, between 9 and 

10, 21, 15. 

Bridge south of Pittsburg, over Mississinewa, between 12, 21, 
14, and 7, 21, 15. 

Bridge west of Harrisville, over W^hite River, between 13, 20, 
14 and 18, 20, 15. 

Bridge ^ast of Winchester, Section 35, 20, 14. over White 

Bridge northwest of Winchester, over White River. 

Bridge near Maxville, 20, 20, 13 (probably down at present). 

Bridge north of Winchester, over White River, 17, 20, 14. 

Bridge east of Ridgeville (gone), between 17 and 18, 21, 14. 

Bridge north of Steubenville, over Mississinewa, between 11 
and 12, 21, 12. 

Bridge southeast of Winchester, over Wliite River, on Green- 
ville State road. 

Bridge over Stony Creek, near Windsor, on the Winchester 

Bridge over Greenville Creek at State line, 24, 17, 1. 

Bridge over Greenville, east of Bartonia, 2(3, 17, 1. 

Bridge over Cabin Creek, west of Maxville, 23, 20, 12. 

Ford over Greenville Creek, northeast of Bartonia. 

Ford over Mississinewa, east of Ridgeville. 

Ford over Cabin Creek, west of Unionsport. 


1. Over Salt Creek in Winchester, on Franklin street. 

2. Across Mississinewa, at Ridgeville. 

3. Across White River, south of Parker. 

4. Across White River, five miles west of Winchester, near 
Stephen Moorman's. 

5. Across Mississinewa, at Fairview. This is the first iron 
bridge in the county : built in 1868. 

Road work has been heretofore done under the direction of 
Supervisors chosen for each road district, each man -between 

eighteen and forty-five having to work the road. A law passed 
the Legislature of 1S80-1881 making important and radical 
changes, putting the roads into the hands of a new officer styled 
Township Superintendent. The law goes practically into effect 
April, 1882, since no Superintendent can be appointed until that 


As to mills, etc., before 1820, we have not been able to gain 
any certain or exact information. There were some mills built 
on Nolan's and Green's Forks ( as, also, some horse-mill corn- 
crackers and hominy-pounders ). 

William Smith, father of Hon. Jeremiah Smith, built a mill 
in 1819, on West River. Meshach Lewallyn built one at 
Ridgeville on Mississinewa, about the same time. J ere Cox 
erected one on White River, some miles east of Winchester, 
in 1825. Jessop had a mill on Greenville Creek as soon as 
1820 or before. Aaron Hill's father, as also a Mr. Hawkins, in 
the region of Arba, had hominy-pounders, and perhaps, corn- 
crackers, run by horse-power, shortly after the first settlers 
came. However, Aaron Hill's father came to this county in 

Jesse Way says he thinks the first water mill in the county 
was built by John Wright, on Salt Creek, just north of Win- 
chester, in 1818 or 1819. 

But to find exact dates, and to determine the locations of 
those early mills, has been a difficult, and in many cases an im- 
possible task. In the statement herein given, locality has been 
followed rather than priority of ijate; and no doubt many, after 
all the labor expended in the work, have been omitted. 


A mill was built at (just below) Macksyille by Robert Cox 
about thirty-two years ago (1848). It is now owned by Roberts 
& Goode. It is a good (grist) mill, and does a thriving business. 

At the mouth of Cabin Creek Mr. Bunker built a saw-mill 
very early. Afterward John H. Bond rebuilt the saw- mill and 
added a grist-mill. William Roberta bought and rebuilt the mill 
soon after 1854. It is standing yet and is owned by Dick & 

Roberts put in steam, but the mill is now run by water alone. 
The saw-mill has been removed but the grist-mill does a good 

Up Cabin Creek (three-quarters of a mile) is another grist- 
mill; Jacob Boles built one on that site very early. Afterward 
it was rebuilt by Peter S. Miller (from Bucks County, Penn.), and 
again by William Marine (about) 1844. It was owned by John 
H. Bond and Solomon Wright, and now by Studebaker. ' Steam 
was used at one time but now water alone. A portable saw- 
mill was there once but it has been taken away. 'The mill now 
has a good reputation for work. 

Just above that (also on Cabin Creek), William Marine had 
built another mill (about) 1839. lie at one time owned both 
these mills (called Marine's upper and lower mills). The upper 
one has gone down. 

While Marine was running both these mills, Nathan Menden- 
hall undertook to build still another mill between Marine's upper 
dam and the lower mill connected with that dam. He built his dam, 
dug the race, got the timber on the ground but finally he 
stopped. Why we do not know, for one would think a man might 
as well go clear through as to begin such a job as that. It is a 
pity he had not put to actual test the project of running a water- 
mill without water! 

Two miles above (on Cabin Creek still) stood Mendenhall'.s 
(lower) mill, built before 1840. It has been rebuilt once or 
twice, and was discontinued not long ago. The works were taken 
to Parker, and the mill is in operation there now. 

A mile above was Mendenhall's upper mill, built by Nathan 
Mendenhall (father of the one mentioned above), at a very early 



The mill was rebuilt bj his son Hiram. It has since been 
changed into a woolen factory, and is now used as such. It is at 
Unionsport, and is run by both water and steam. It has had a 
good reputation, and with the requisite capital a fine business 
might be maintained. 

A saw-mill was built by William Davison before 1829. It 
was running up to 1852, but was discontinued soon after. 

Thomas Gillum built a " corn-cracker" one-fourth of a mile 
south of Buena Vista, one of the first water-mills in the county. 
It was gone long ago. 

Below Macksville mill (on White River), Mr. Spiller built a 
saw-mill (about) 1850. It was rebuilt by David Harris. The 
mill was running five years ago, but is gone now. 

On Sparrow Creek, a saw-mill was erected (before the Macks- 
ville grist-mill was built) by Morgan Mills. He used to saw day 
and night. He would set his log and start the saw, and then lie 
down and take a nap. When the saw got through the log, the 
snapping of tlie trigger would wake him up, and he would set the 
log again. That mill went down twenty-five years or more ago. 
Robert Cox rebuilt the mill and used it to saw the lumber for the 
mill he built (at Macksville) on White River. 

Noah Johnson built a grist-mill on Sparrow Creek at the 
crossing of the Huntsville and Sampletown road, southeast of 
Macksville, very early, about the same time as Gillum's mill on 
Cabin Creek there was also a saw-mill. Both have been gone 
many years (twenty-five years or more],. 

James Clayton built a saw-mill on "Eight Mile Creek" 
above Macksville. That mill quit sawing before 1830. 

Lewallyn's grist-mill on the Mississinewa near Ridgeville, 
was built (say) 1819 or 1820. It was afterward owned by Will- 
iam Addington, and then by his son Joab Addington, afterward 
by Addington & House. Still again by Arthur McKew, and 
now by Whipple. It goes by water and steam both, and is an 
extensive and valuable establishment, having done a large busi- 
ness for many years. 

Frederick Miller had a grist-mill and saw-mill on Bear Creek, 
three miles southwest of Ridgeville, perhaps forty years ago. 
They have been gone many years. 

On Bear Creek, Josiah Bundy and Jacob Horn once had a 
saw-mill. It did not do much. 

The old Sampletown Mill between Macksville and Winches- 
ter, just east of the "twelve-mile boundary," was built very 
early, but has been gone a long time. Some of the old timbers 
are to be seen yet. 

Jere Cox built a grist-mill above Winchester on White 
River in 1825, on the farm now owned by William Pickett. Jo- 
seph and Benjamin Pickett built a saw-mill, William Pickett in 
1853 purchased the place and both mills. They were operated 
till about 1864, and were torn down in 1870. Mr. Pickett says 
there were five dry years (from 1864 to 1869), in which the 
water was so low that the mills could not run, and they were left 
to go to wreck, and were taken away in 1870. 

Parsons had a grist-mill on Mississinewa one half mile below 
Deerfield before 1832. 

Jessup had a "corn-cracker" on Greenville Creek, north of 
Spartanburg before 1820. 

A grist-mill used to stand on Greenville Creek northwest of 
the Griffis farm in Wayne Township. It was there in 1850, 
but has been gone many years. The timbers are there still. 

A Mr. Hinchy had a saw-mill and grist-mill on the Missis- 
sinewa, east of Allensville, in the early settlement of Jackson 
Township, which were somewhat important for several years. 

There are some mills (one or more), on Mississinewa, near 

John Wright is said to have had a corn-cracker water-mill on 
Salt Creek, north of Winchester, thought by some to have been 
the first water-mill in the county. Jesse Way says Wrights mill 
was built in 1818 or 1819. 

Joshua Bond, uncle to Benjamin Bond, long of Washington 

Township, had an oil mill (perhaps the only one in the county), 
as, also, a grist-mill, both run by horse-power, near Winchester, 
very early — perhaps as long ago as 1820, or thereabouts. Ben- 
jamin Bond was married in 1826, and he spout most of several 
previous years with his uncle Joshua, working in that mill. 

Joshua Bond settled near Winchester about 1818, and set 
up his mills soon after ; and about 1835 or so, he removed to 
Jay_ County, building a horse mill there also, and running the 
same till a comparatively late day, dying about 1878, at the age 
of ninety-four. 

His mill in Jay County was noted, settlers coming from both 
far and near. 

He was one of seven brothers, all large limbed, stalwart mount- 
ain men of North Carolina, five of whom, when he was sixty 
years old, were living still. 

Old Paul Beard had a saw-mill on Greensfork, which was 
old in 1837. There was a mill site where a grist-mill had been, 
but had gone down in 1839, and a new mill by Levi Stout (same 
man) two miles lower down on Greensfork, a mile and a half 
north of west from Lynn, about 1838, which was still running 
in 1854. It is now wholly gone. 

Amos Ellis had a saw-mill, in old times, between these two 
mill sites, which was gone, however, in 1840. 

Most of the water there now runs in a ditch. 

There were other mills built from time to time, particularly 
saw-mills, concerning which no information has been obtained. 
These early mills must not be reckoned to be like the great mills 
of the present day. They were, indeed, but small and insignifi- 
cant affairs. It is related of one of the first mills in Jackson 
Township, that the owner boasted that his whole " fixings " had 
cost him only ^2.50. What in particular that same $2.50 was 
expended for " Dame Rumor " has not condescended to furnish 
information. Whether it was for dressing the " gray heads " in- 
to mill-stones, or to purchase the iron gearing (if they had any), 
or for something else, it matters not. The money was spent, 
and it has gone past recovery, and the mill has gone, too, and ro 
relic of either remains. " Sic transit gloria mundi." And go 
"passeth the glory" of those old-time marvels of machinery as 

Those old-time mills were very humble, unpretending estab- 
lishments. Cox's mill above Winchester, built fifty-six yea-- 
ago, and eleven years after the first settlement of the county, 
bolted flour in a hand bolt. The " corn crackers, " so called 
(Jessup's on Greenville Creek, for instance), used to grind about =■ 
peck an hour. The stones employed in many of the first mills were 
simply the native boulders of the region, dressed to suit the pur- 
pose. Still they served the needs of the settlers in a small way 
for many years. Some half-dressed mill stones are lying beside 
the highways still. 

The grist would be sent on the back of a horse or a mule 
with a half-grown lad, and one by one these grists would be 
slowly, oh, how slowly, worked through the machinery of the mill. 

Men, however, who were able to command a wagon and team 
and enough grain to warrant the labor required, would take atrip 
to the more extensive and better appointed mills on the White 
Water, or the Stillwater, or even the Miami. In the earliest 
times, boys have been sent on horseback twenty miles or more, 
from the Arba settlement to the mills on the White Water be- 
low Piichmond, both to buy corn and to get it ground in one oi 
the mills in that region. 

The story told by the old settlers of nearly every one of the 
first mills in the whole region, though perhaps not an actual faco 
as to even a single one of them, is yet painfully suggestive of the 
more important real fact that the mills did actually grind so " aw- 
ful slow " that everybody would naturally believe that a dog 
might " lick the meal by spirts," and lift up his head and howl 
between the "jets" for more. But let us not laugh at these 
small beginnings of things. The settlers used far more labor, 
and displayed much greater energy in undertaking what they 



were able to accomplish under such appalling difficulties than 
their posterity do in effecting the far greater results of the pres- 
ent day. 


For years after the opening of the country for settlement, the 
use of steam power was unknown. To fit up a steam establish- 
ment required a large amount of money, more, in fact, than most 
could command. Still as the country grew, and the milling neces- 
sities began to surpass the capacities of the water-power, and the 
" corn cracker" and the hand-bolt mills of the region, men vent- 
ured to try how steam would answer the purpose, and one by 
one, mills were built away from the streams. The result has been 
that water-power has dwindled and almost grown out of use, and, 
steam has nearly carried the day. 

One of the first steam mills in the county, possibly the first, 
was built by Elias Kizerat Winchester, as early perhaps as 1835, 
in the east part of the town. It was discontinued perhaps twen- 
ty-five years ago. 

Mr. Roberta had a steam grist-mill at Winchester (in the 
west part of the city). It was running say in 1860, but its 
rumbling has been silent for some years. 

The brick mill and warehouse near the depot has been 
standing for some twenty years. It was built for a warehouse 
by John Mumma. Martin owned it awhile, then Heaston k 
Riley, then Colton & Bates, now Bates Brothers. It is an ex- 
tensive mill, has a high reputation, perfortping good, thorough, 
reliable work, and a large amount of it. 

Deerfield Steam Mill was built by Jason Whipple thirty-seven 
years ago (1845). It has been in operation ever since, and is a 
good mill. For many years it had a very large patronage, and 
does still an extensive business. At one time it drew custom for 
thirty or forty miles in every direction. Customers had the priv- 
ilege, by staying through the night, of having their grists ground 
in turn, and many availed themselves thereof. Sometimes a 
dozen or twenty teams would wait through the darkness of the 
night, rather than go home through the long and tedious journey, 
and then be obliged to return at a future day. 

People came from Centerville, Wabash, Greenville, etc. 
Other mills have been built, and its business has decreased, 
though it does well still. It is now owned by Willis Whipple, 
son of Jason Whipple. 

The mill at Allensville ia fixed so as to run by water or steam. 
It was built in about 1850, and has been running under various 
control ever since. It has a fair reputation for quality of 

A saw-mill (water and steam) was built, and afterward a grist- 
mill, by McNeely before 1845. Both are there still, and doing 
good work. The establishment was rebuilt by Thomas Reese & 

There was a steam saw-mill on Olive Branch, then it was 
made a grist mill, and afterward the works were taken out and 
carried to Farmland. 

At Farmland, Dr. William Macy had a steam sawmill, after- 
ward belonging to Ford & Co., but it has been silent for twenty 

Stanley Brothers had a steam grist-mill at Farmland before 
1860. Having been burned, it was rebuilt with new machinery 
by Hawkins. It is now in operation. 

Another steam-mill is at Farmland, built by Charles Stanley 
about ten years ago, which is running still. 

A steam-mill was built at Ridgeville on the railroad, by Ar- 
thur McKew. It was burned and rebuilt of brick ; is now owned 
by Starr & Co. The mill is a good one, and does much work. 

There is a steam-mill at Harrisville, built some years ago, and 
doing a considerable business. 

A steam grist-mill was running for several years at Arba, but 
it burned down in 1877, and has not been rebuilt. 

There are two stean> saw-mills at Spartansburg. One has 
been in operation for twenty-five years. The other was built by 

Wesley Locke about two years ago. It has a corn-mill and 
planing-mill attached, and does good work. 

A large steam grist-mill was erected at Union City, Ind., 
five or six years ago. It is a grand establishment ; is owned by 
Converse & Co.; has a capacity of 200 barrels per day; has an 
extensive run of custom, and does also a large amount of mer- 
chant work. 

There are two corn-mills in Union City, one is owned by C. 
W. Pierce and the other by Kirschbaum. 

There is a saw-mill at Parker, also a steam grist-mill, built in 

There is a steam saw-mill at Pleasantview, which Las been 
running for several years. 

Several mills have existed at different times in Jackson Town- 
ship, but most of them have ceased to run, except the one at 

A steam saw-mill has been in operation for several years on 
the State line pike, two miles south of Union City, but it was 
removed a year or so ago. 

Carter k Montgar had a steam saw-mill in Union City, Ohio, 
in and after 1852 for several years ; the first saw-mill on that 

Mr. Sheets set up a saw-mill west of Union City, near where 
the machine shop is now, in 1852. 

There was a saw-mill on Oak street. Union City, near where 
William A. Wiley now resides. 

John H. Cammack has a saw-mill in the Cammack neighbor- 
hood, some two miles east of Bartonia. It does considerable busi- 

There is a saw-mill eight miles southwest of Farmland, still 
doing work, having been in operation many years. 

A steam grist-mill has been for many years, and still is, in 
operation in Union City, Ohio. It has a good reputation, and 
does a large business. 

There is a steam-grist mill at Huntsville. It has been in 
operation for fourteen years, and is a good mill. 

There is also a saw-mill at Huntsville, owned by Peyton John- 

There is another saw-mill owned by Jere Hyatt. 

A saw-mill has stood not far east of Deerfield, on the State 
road, from early times until a year or two ago, owned latterly by 
John H. Sipe. 

There was, for years, a saw-mill on the boundary, southwest 
of Spartansburg. 

A saw-mill was in operation for twenty years or more near 
Salem. When Union City began to need lumber for building, 
that mill, among others, helped much to supply the demand. 

A grist-mill and a saw-mill were formerly in operation north 
of Lynn, but one was burned (or both) and now there is neither. 

Anthony McKinney built a saw-mill on Mississinewa, one and 
a quarter miles below Fairview, about 1839, put in a corn-cracker 
about 1840. and built a new and more extensive mill, putting in 
" wheat buhrs " about 1842. He had three run of buhrs — and a bolt 
carried by machinery. It was a good mill for awhile, and is still in 
operation. Mr. McKinney sold the mill to Samuel Zaner. He 
owned it about a year and sold to Abner Wolverton, about 1864, 
who owns it yet. There are now two runs, one for corn and one 
for wheat. Steam was put in in 1875, and now water and steam 
are both employed. 

Mr. Ward had a saw-mill on Mississinewa, below Ridgeville, 
some twenty years ago, which ran for several years. 

John Foust had a saw-mill and corn-cracker in about 1856, in 
Franklin Township, just at the township line, on Mississinewa, 
wiiich stood five or six years. 

Cyrus A. Reed had a saw-faill one mile above Fairview. It 
was built about 1850, and stood perhaps ten years. 

There is a saw-mill at Shedville, running by steam. It has 
been in operation but a short time. 

Before 1825, Lemuel Vestal undertook to erect a mill on Stony 


Creek, near Windsor. Before completing it, he sold out to John 
Thornburg, who finished the grist-mill and also built a saw-mill. 
[See record of John Thornburg]. After four years, ho sold to 
Andrew G. Dje, and he to Moses Neely, and still again the mills 
were transferred to Thomas W. Reece, who built them anew. 
Their owners since have been Neely, Marie Pattis, Johnson & 
Dye, William A. Thornburg, Keece & Sons, Mahlon Clevengor, 
John Thornburg, and now, Robert Cowgill. 

Doubtless other mills may exist, or have done so in years 
past, of which no account has been obtained. 


Peter Cable had a carding machine, etc., in the west part of 
the county. At first Mr. Cable had a little carding machine in 
the garret of John H. Bond's grist-mill. He was very poor, and 
got the use of Bond's " power." After awhile he bought a waste 
farm that was too wet for tillage. He ditched the prairie and 
drained the ponds, springs and swamps, and collected the water, 
and got enough to run a carding machine and woolen factory. 
For a long time it was a famous establishment, getting cus- 
tom far and near, and Mr. Cable made a fortune. His factory is 
gone now. There are pleasant anecdotes about Mr. Cable and 
his mill. Somebody had at one time turned the water upon the 
wheel and made the mill run empty through the night. He 
was provoked, and on Saturday he sawed the foot-bridge over 
the fore-bay almost in two, and laid it in its place. Monday 
morning he came to start his mill, and, forgetting all about his 
"trap," he stepped upon the sawed plank and went, souse, into 
the fore-bay. He scrambled out just as Thomas Addington was 
going to the mill. He ran to meet Thomas, laughing and cry- 
ing out: " 0, Thomas, Thomas, I caught mine self, I caught 
mine self! " Another. Mr. Cable was one day walking along a 
muddy road, near a horse. The animal stepped in a water-hole 
and the water flew fiercely into the honest German's face. Wip- 
ing the muddy slosh from his eyes, he cried out, " Veil, dat vas 
right mutty, didn't it ?" Mr. Cable lives there still, three miles 
south of Macksville. 

There has been for some years a woolen factory at Unions- 
port. It has a good reputation, and its yarns are in great de- 

.There used to be a carding machine at Winchester, belonging 
to Elias Kizer, but it is not there now. 

The old county seminary, at Winchester, was fitted up and 
run as a woolen factory for several years. It was quite exten- 
sive and did much work, but it has been discontinued. 

There was, for many years, a carding machine and woolen 
factory at Deerfield. It was burned down and rebuilt, and 
burned again, and, since the last fire, has not been rebuilt. 

There is a large amount of machinery at Union City, Ind., 
and Ohio, as also at Winchester, Farmland and Ridgeville, 
for various purposes which will be described under the head of 
Union City, and the rest. 

It is told us, as a matter of curiosity, that Moorman Way 
once undertook to fit up a carding machine at Winchester, and 
run it by ox-power. The establishment did some work for 

A carding machine was built and operated in very early days, 
near Winchester. It is thought to have been the first in the coun- 
ty, but has been gone for many, many years. It belonged to 
Daniel Petty, and was operated by horse-power. 


The first pike asked for and granted is thought to have been 
the Williamsburg & Bloomingsport pike, September, 1858. 

The second was the Greenville State Line Company, granted 
also September, 1858. Its officers were : N. Kemp, President ; 
Daniel Hill, Secretary ; James Grifiis, George Hiatt, Alexander 
White, Directors. The whole length of this line was some ten 
miles. But it is remarkable that of this pike has been built only 

about four miles ; three and half miles at the westward, and 
three-quarters of a mile next the State line, leaving a wretched 
gap of some six miles of the worst road in the county. 

Since 1858, a great number of pikes have been projected, 
many of which have been made, and the diiTerence between the 
"old time mud" and the new " regime" is very great indeed, 
though it must be confessed that even the pikes are by no means 
what they ought to be; since in the "muddy, rainy time," some 
of them get so badly cut up that the imagination has to be brought 
into service considerably to succeed in considering them actual 
gravel pikes and not old-fashioned mud roads. 

Below is given a statement of the assessed valuation of some 
of the pikes now in Randolph County for the year 1880, as also 
the estimated cost of dilTerent pikes as contained in the state- 
ments to the Commissioners by the parties asking permission to 
build them. 


White River, Farmland and Shiloh, $1,892; Macksville and 
Unionsport, $253; Winchester and Windsor, $3,300; Winches- 
ter and Deerfield, $2,800 ; Winchester and Bundy's Mill, $2,050 ; 
Winchester and State Line, $500 ; Dunkirk, $400 ; Lynn and 
Winchester, $1,000 ; Lynn and Spartanburg, $600 ; Arba and 
Bartonia, $2,040 ; Nettle Creek and Stony Creek; $f)00 ; Buena 
Vista and Unionsport, $1,173; Winchester tttld Huntsville, 
$1,526 ; Salem and Union City, $2,180 ; New Pittsburg and 
Hoover, $200; Union City and White River^ $1,088; Union 
City and Winchester, $1,500 ; Stone Station and Olive Branch ; 
West River and Washington Township, $282 : White River 
and Southern, $600; Williamsburg and Bloomingsport, $116; 
Economy and Bloomingsport ; Newport and Winchester, $300 ; 
State Line, south from Union City ; State Line, north Union 
City and Recovery. 


From the Commissioners' record, we take some data as the 
estimates upon the costs of pikes projected in the county. 

Some of the earlier ones were not discovered in our search and 
hence they do not appear. 

Two have already been mentioned. We number the others 
in order (not altogether in order of time): 

Winchester and Huntsville, August 19, 1867, length seven 
miles, fourteen and a half rods ; estimated cost $17,100. N. 
P. Heaston, engineer. 

Huntsville and Ilagerstown, February 21, 1867, over six 
and a half miles ; cost $8,200, Robert C. Sheets, Engineer. 

Unionsport and Hagerstown, June 21, 1867 ; ten and nino- 
tenths miles ; cost $17,985. Charles Jaqua, Engineer. 

Farmland South, two miles; cost $8,777.04 (large bridge). 
P. Pomroy, P. Hiatt, Engineers. 

Winchester and Deerfield, November 6, 1865, nine and a 
half miles; cost $17,000. 

Farmland and Hagerstown, November 6, 1867, nine miles 
281 yards; cost $18,834.12. P. Hiatt, Engineer. 

Farmland and Economy, south end, October 22, 1867, four 
miles 420 yards ; cost $8;468.31. P. Hiatt, Engineer. 

Salem and Union City, May 5, 1868, eight and two-thifds 
miles ; cost $17,044. C. Jaqua, Engineer. 

Losantville and Northern, September 6, 1868, ten atid three- 
quarter miles ; cost $23,782. N. P. Heaston, Engineer. 

Spartansburg and Arba, Cherry Grove and Lynn, March -23, 
1869, seven miles; cost $14,616. James H. Hiatt, Engineer. 
Winchester, White River and Union City, September 10, 1869, 
seven miles, four chains ; cost $8,998.20. J. Wharry, Engin- 

Bloomiugsportand Greensfork, August 16, 1869; cost $6,860. 
S. P. Heaston, Engineer. 

Lynn and Winchester, August 31, 1867, eight and three- 
quarter miles ; cost $19,500. 


Winchester and Bloomingsport, May 18, 1867, ten and a 
half miles ; cost $27,300. 

Huntsville and Buena Vista, July 3, 1867, six and a half 
miles ; cost $8,310.26. P. Pomroy, Engineer. 

Union City and White River, Mav 28, 1870. 

Winchester and Salt Creek, May '20, 1867. 

Farmland and Mississinewa Valley. March 27, 1869. 

Winchester and White River, July 17, 1869, three and a 
half miles ; cost |6,165. 

Spartansburg and Arba and Bartonia. 

Mississinewa and Shiloh, March 5, 1869, seven miles. 

Spartansburg and Lynn, March 5, 1869. 

White River and Farmland, March 5, 1869. 

Buena Vista and Unionsport, and West River, September 6, 

Macksville Cemetery and Unionsport, September, 1875. 

Dunkirk Company, right of way granted, June 5, 1876. 

Stone Station and Olive Branch, June 5, 1876. 

New Pittsburg and Brown, June 6, 1876. 

County Line and Farmland, March, 1880. 

Bush Creek and Mississinewa, February 20, 1880. 

Tampico and Lynn, February 2, 1880. 

Huntsville and Buena Vista, June, 1880. 

Bush Creek and Rockingham, June, 1880. 

Elkhorn, June, 1880. 

Ridgeville and Mississinewa Valley, June, 1880. 

Ward and Franklin Townships, June, 1880. 

Mount Zion, June, 1881. 

The Winchester and Windsor pike was granted June, 1867. 

The Arba and Bartonia, June, 1868. 

The Winchester and Richmond, via Lynn, about the same 

Some of the above pikes were never made. 

The first pike in Green Township was begun in the summer 
of 1880. Considerable work of that sort is going on in that 
region now (1881-82). 


In the present article, we give simply the names of the towns 
in Randolph County, with their location and actual condition, 
leaving the detailed description of each to another time and place. 
There are (or have been) in Randolph County, fifty-two towns, 
(or hamlets with names attached) and post ofiices, located in the 
various townships as follows : 

[Note — The townships are arranged in order of location]. 

Oreen Township — Eminetsville P. 0., Sec. 5, Town 5, Ranges 
7 and 8, Town 21, Range 13, decayed ; Fairview P. 0., Section 4, 
Town 21, Range 12, not flourishing ; Olive Branch (hamlet), 
small ; Rockingham, on Mississinewa, below Ridgeville, e.xtinct ; 
Shedville P. 0. (unincorporated), just begun ; Steubenville, 
Sections 13 and 14, Town 21, Range 12, extinct ; Carlisle, Sec- 
tion 12, Town 21, Range 13, extinct. 

Franklin Township— RxUgnwWU P. 0., Section, 12, Town 21, 
Range 14, thriving. 

Ward Township — Berlin (perhaps on Mississinewa River), 
extinct ; Deerfield P. 0., Sections 16 and 17, Town 21, Range 

14, decaying; Randolph P. 0., Sections 16, 17, 20 and 21. 
Town 21, Range 14, small; Sarataga P. 0., on Panhandle Rail- 
road, not large ; Stone Station, Sections 30 and 31, Town 21, 
Range 14, very small ; (Clark P. 0.). 

Jackson Township — AUensville, Section 9, Town 21, Range 

15, dead ; Castle P. 0., Section 27, Town 21, Range 15, store 
and toll-gate ; Mount Holly, Section 27, Town 21, Range 15, 
dead; New Lisbon, Section 12, Town 18, Range 1, dead; New 
Middletown, Section 30, Town 21, Range 15, dead; New Pitts- 
burg P. 0., Section 6, Town 21, Range 15, decayed. 

Wayne Township — Bartonia P. 0., Section 27, Town 17, 
Range 1, decayed ; Harrisville P. 0., Sections 17 and 18, Town 
20, Range 15, thriving ; Randolph (ohl). Section 27, Town 17, 
Range 1, extinct; Salem, Sections 11 and 12, Town 17, Range 

1, dead ; Union City P. 0., Sections 24 and 25, Town 18, Range 
1, large. 

White River Township— M.w\iss\\\e, Section 20, Town 20, 
Range 12, decayed ; New Dayton (hamlet) P. 0., Section 2, 
Town 20, Range 13, small ; Sampletown, Section 22, Town 20, 
Range 13, extinct; Winchester P. 0., Section 20, Town 20, 
Range 14, large ; Unionsport P. 0. (partly in West River), 
small ; Buena Vista, Cerro Gordo P. 0. (partly in West River), 

Monroe Township— Y^rmXandi P. 0., Sections 12, 13, 18 and 
20, Town 20, Range 13, thriving; Morristown, Parker P. 0., 
Sections 16 and 17, Town 20, Range 12, thriving ; Royston 
Section 17, Town 20, Range 13, extinct. 

Stony Creek Township — Georgetown, Section 29, Town 20. 
Range 12, extinct; Neff P. 0., Section 24, Town 20, Rang ■ 
12, store and dwelling ; Windsor P. 0., Section 10, Town Is, 
Range 12, small. 

Nettle Creek Township. — Fallen Timber P. 0., northeast of 
Losantville ; Flemingsburg, Section 23, Town ■ 19, Range 12, 
extinct: Losantville P. 0., Sections 11, 12, 13 and 14, Town 
19, Range 12, small ; Pleasant View, Good View P. 0., Sec- 
tions 11, 12, 13 and 14, Town 19, Range 12, small. 

West River Township. — Buena Vista, Cerro Gordo P. 0., 
Sections 3, 4, 9 and 10, Town 19, Range 13, decayed; Hunis- 
ville, Trenton P. 0.. Sections 27 and 28, Town 19, Range 13, 
thriving; Swain's Hill P. 0., Section 5, Town 18, Range 13, 
post office ; Unionsport P. 0., Sections 4, 5, 8 and 9, Town 19, 
Range 13, neat. 

Washington Toivnship. — Bloomingsport, P. 0., Sections 5, 
6, 7 and 8, Town 18, Range 14, not large; Johnson's Station 
P. 0., Section 11, Town 18, Range 14, small; Lynn, P. 0., 
Sections 34 and 35, 19, and 2 and 3, Town 18, Range 14, thriv- 
ing; Rural P. 0., Wood Station, Sections 9 and 16, Town 19, 
Range 14, small; Snow Hill (old). Section 23, Town 19, 
Range 14, extinct; Snow Hill Station, Section 16 and 21, 
Town 19, Range 14, very small ; Springboro, Section 29, Town 
19, Range 14, extinct; West Lynn, Sections 3 and 3, Town 
19, Range 14, not large. 

Oreensfork Township. — Arba P. O., Section 33, Town 16, 
Range 1, thriving; Spartansburg ( formerly Newburg ) P. 0., 
Section 10, Town 16, Range 1, thriving; Edgewood (hamlec j, 
Section 12, Town 16, Range 1, seminary and church. 


Four of the above are only post offices. Four are only ham- 
lets, never laid out as towns. Eleven are absolutely extinct. 
Four are dead, but not wholly gone. Eightare very small. Eleven 
are much decayed. Two are somewhat active. Six have con- 
siderable trade. Two are quite large towns. There are twenty- 
eight post offices. 

Fort Wayne ( now Allen County, but when laid out, in Ran- 
dolph County), 118 lots; streets, 66 feet; alleys, 5, 14,16 feet. 
The streets in the plat were: North and south — Barr, Clin- 
ton, Calhoun; east and west — Water, Columbia, Main, Berry. 

Location: Junction of St. Joseph's and St. Mary's Rivers, 
head of the Maumee River (now Allen County), in Section- 2, 
Town 30, Range 12. 

Recorded at Winchester, June 9, 1824. 

The town has grown, of course, immensely since those primi- 
tive days, and it is now a city of 30,000 inhabitants. 


Township 16 north. Range 1 west, of First Principal Merid- 
ian — surveyed by Israel Ludlow, 1800 ; subdivided by Samuel 
Archer, 1812. 

Township 17 north. Range 1 west — surveyed by Daniel C. 
Cooper, 1800 ; subdivided by Jeremiah McLane, 1805. 

Township 18 north. Range 1 west — surveyed by Daniel C. 
Cooper, 1800 ; subdivided by Jeremiah McLane, 1800. 


Township 19 north, Range 1 west — surveyed by Daniel C. 
Cooper, 1800. 

Township 18 north. Range 13 east — east part, Henry Bryan 

Township 19 north, Range 13 east — east part, Jacob Fowler, 

Township 20 north. Range 13 east — east part, Jacob Fowler, 

Township 21 north. Range 13 cast — east part, Jacob Fowler, 

Township 18 north, Range 14 east — Henry Bryan, 1811. 

Township 19 north. Range 14 east — Jacob Fowler, 1811. 

Township 20 north, Range 14 east— Jacob Fowler, 1811. 

Township 21 north. Range 14 east — east part, Jacob Fowler, 

Township 18 north. Range 15 east — not told. 

Township 19 north, Range 15 east — Jacob Fowler, 1811. 

Township 20 north, Range 15 east— Jacob Fowler, 1811. 

Township 21 north. Range 15 east — Jacob Fowler, 1811. 

Township 18 north. Range 12 east — not known. 

Township 19 north. Range 12 east — John Hendricks, 1821. 

Township 20 north. Range 12 east— John Hendricks, 1822. 

Township 20 north. Range 12 east— J. F. Polke, 1822. 

Township 18 north. Range 13 east — west part, John Hen- 
dricks, 1821. 

Township 19 north. Range 13 east;— west part, John Hen- 
dricks, 1821. 

Township 20 north. Range 13 east — west part, John Hen- 
dricks, 1821. 

Township 21 north. Range 13 east— J. F. Polke, 1822. 

Township 21 north, Range 14 east — west part, John Hen- 
dricks, 1822. 

[Note.— The " old boundary " separates 16, 17, 18, 19 north. 
Range 1 west, from 18, 19, 20, 21 north. Ranges 12, 13, 14, 15 

The " new boundary" divides 18, 19, 20, 21 north, Range 13 
east, and 21 north. Range 14 east]. 

The "field notes " were copied from the records at the Land 
Office (Cincinnati, perhaps) by Samuel Williams, Clerk in said 
office, March 1, 1834. 

They were recopied from the first copy by Calvin G. Good- 
rich, Surveyor of Randolph County, August 24, 1841. 

The latter copy is now on file in the office of the County Au- 
ditor at Winchester, Randolph County, Ind. 



Dekds— Appkenticesiiip— Frke Papers— Adstraot of Titles— 
Mareiaoes— CnicaiT Court— CoMSitssioNEUs' Board— Pro- 
bate Court. 


CHARLES CONWAY was for the first twenty years Clerk, 
Recorder and Auditor (i. e., he did the business which the 
Auditor now performs), all three at once. The three together 
must have made but a poor living for even one man. 

The Recorder's book shows the following facts, viz. : 

From September, 1818, to December 31, 1822 (four years 
and four months), fifty-six instruments in all were put on record. 

In 1823, thirty-two instruments; 1824, twenty-two; 1825, 
thirty-eight; 1826, twenty-one; 1827, fifty-two; 1828, forty- 

By the close of 1828 (about ten years), 262 pages had been 
filled by the Recorder, including all kinds : deeds, bonds, mort- 
gages, bills of sale or chattel mortgages, official bonds, etc., or 

an average of twenty-seven instruments or twenty-six pages a 
year for ten years. 

The following statements will show the slow but gradual in- 
crease of work in the Recorder's office: 

In 1829, 64 pages ; 1830, 77 pages ; 1831, 68 pages ; 1832, 
100 pages ; 1833, 149 pages ; 1834, 143 pages ; 1835, 260 pages ; 
1836, 294 pages ; 1837, 350 pages ; 1838, 480 pages ; 1839, 
467 pages; 1840, 415 pages; 1841, 478 pages: 1842, 393 
pages; 1843, 389 pages; 1844, 335 pages; 1846, 415 pages; 
averaging for nine years, 1829-37, 167 pages annually ; for 
the last eight years, 487 pages yearly ; for seventeen years, 318 
pages annually ; and for the whole time 210 pages, or about 17 
pages per month. 

In 1818, only one " record" is made, viz.: David Wright's 
bond as Sheriff. 

In 1819, only one record, Solomon Wright's bond as Coro- 
ner, date of record, November 25, 1819. 

In 1820, things began to " start" a little. Thirteen instru- 
ments were put on the record, or one a month and one to spare. 

First bond for deed — Paul W. Way, County agent, to Jamea 
McCoole, for Lot 1, west front, Winchester; deed to be given on 
or before the year 1825, on what conditions precedent to be ful- 
filled does not appear. 

Second and third patents (5,967 and 6,105) to Charles Con- 
way, dated August 15, 1817, and May 5, 1818, signed by James 
Monroe, President. Recorded February 10, 1820. 

Fourth warrantee deed— From Paul W. Way, agent, to 
Isaac Wright, of Clinton County, Ohio, for north half of Lot 6, 
south front, Winchester; price, f30. Date of deed, December 
14, 1819; date of record, March 7, 1820. 

Fifth deed— r. W. Way, agent, to Albert Banta, Lot 3, south- 
west square, for $31.20; date, April 3, 1820. 

Sixth deed— David Heaston to John and Elizabeth Elzroth ; 
land in Section 6, Town 19, Range 14 ; price, $500; dated, 
March 13, 1820. 

Seventh deed — A curious instrument; purport as follows: 
First. John Elzroth has sold sixty acres of land to Jacob Roths 
(Roads) on south side of Section 33, Town 20, Range 14. 
Second. Elzroth agrees to take in payment the share of Polly 
(Elzroth) Roths in the estate of Nicholas Elzroth (her father), 
provided said legacy amounts to $160 or more. Third. If said 
legacy falls short of $150, John Roths agrees to pay to John 
Elzroth the deficit. Recorded April 6, 1820. 

Eighth deed — From John Elzroth to John Roths as descrii'^f* 

Ninth deed— John Elzroth to John Irvin, 180 acres ; price, 
$500; Section 6, Town 9, Range 14; recorded March 13, 

Tenth deed — P. W. Way, agent, to Hiram Bailey, Clinton 
County, Ohio; Lot 6, south front, Winchester; price $30. 
Dated December 14, 1819 ; recorded February 5, 1820. 

Eleventh deed (by donation) — Charles Conway to Paul W. 
Way, County Agent, sixty acres. Section 20, Town 20, Range 
14, for town plat (in part) of Winchester. Deed made Septem- 
ber 30, 1819 ; recorded September 4, 1820. 

Twelfth, bill of sale— George Hight, of Darke County, Ohio, 
to William Vance, Jr. Amount, $2,678.50. 

[Note — The schedule is deemed worthy to be here inserted.] 

One bay horse, 7 years $2(10 00 

One brown horse, seven years 100 00 

One dun-mare 90 00 

One black horse (abouut 12 years) 60 00 

One sorrel horse 50 GO 

One black horse, 15 years .50 00 

One sorrel horse, 3 years 50 00 

Ten sleers, 1 year 60 00 

Ten heifers, 1 year 50 00 

Five calves 1 year 10 00 

Seventy hogs at S3 210 00 

Two wagons 20<'i 00 

Four oxyokes 12 00 

Three ox chains 20 00 


One sorrel marc, colt 50 00 

One bay horse, colt, 1 year 20 00 

One iron gray mare, oolt, 1 year 20 00 

One pair oxen, 8 years 100 GO 

One pair work steers, 3 years 50 00 

One English bull 75 00 

Twenty-one cows at $18 378 00 

Five steers, 3 years at $12 00 00 

Two heifers, 3 years 24 00 

Seven steers, 2 years at,$10 70 00 

Four heifers, 2 years, at $10 40 00 

Gears for three horses, three double trees 40 00 

Three plows 20 00 

Three felling axes 9 00 

Three weeding axes 00 

Two malaxes 00 

One crowbar 3 00 

One cradle, two boythes 7 00 

Three grass scythes and hangings 12 00 

One horse sledge 4 00 

Threeiron wedges 5 00 

Two pitchforks 3 00 

Throe negro hoes 6 00 

Six sickles G 00 

One wooden clock 30 00 

One plate stove 35 00 

Seven Windsor chairs 16 00 

Four tables 10 00 

One stand 2 00 

Three looking glasses 12 00 

One iron shovel 2 00 

One set harrow teeth 13 00 

Two grindstones, with cranks, etc 18 00 

One pair andirons - 4 00 

One crane, trammel and hooks 5 00 

One shovel and tongs 4 00 

One !2-gallon kettle 7 00 

One coffee mill 3 00 

One shotgun 17 00 

Three saddles and bridTeB'..!!'.'.'.'.'.'.!.'....'.. 70 00 

One U. H. map 20 OO 

Four maps 40 00 

One Ohio map 10 00 

Two hand axes, two drawing knives, six augers, four 
planes, three chisels, one cross-cut saw, one hand 

saw 34 00 

Four bedsteads 10 00 

Three bed sacks, ten bed blankets 40 00 

One mattress 00 

One counterpane, four sheets 25 00 

One pair saddle-bags, etc 5 00 

One seven-gal. kettle, onelarge pot, one stew pan. one hake oven, one griddle, one small pot, 
one toasting iron, one disli kettle, one spider, one 

skillet 23 50 

Three sad irons, two pairs steel yards 5 00 

One frying pan 1 50 

One wheat sieve 2 50 

One buffalo hide 8 00 

One cutting box 5 00 

Total amount $2078 50 

If the above marked prices were a fair estimate for the time, 
the schedule furnishe.s a noteworthy exhibition of the comparative 
value of commodities of various kinds at that date. 

It would be interesting to know more of this George Hight. 
He would seem to liavo been a large farmer for those early days. 

Thirteenth deed (mortgage) — James Oldham to Paul \V. 
Way, agent of Outlet No. 2, southeast square, Winchester, $1.50, 
given as security for the payment of two promissory notes given 
by Oldham to Way (doubtless for the land itself),' and due in 
one and two years from date, with interest. Notes dated Sep- 
tember 80, 1819 ; acknowledged September 27, 1820; recorded 
January 6, 1821, 

In 1821, nineteen instruments were recorded. Twelve deeds 
in fee, two deeds of gift, two mortgages, one bond for deed, one 
SherilT's bond, one bill of sale. 

In 1822, twenty-two instruments passed to the Record. 
Eighteen deeds in fee, two deeds in gift, one Sheriff's bond, one 
Coroner's bond. 

As specimens of the frequency in those times of bringing 
deeds, etc., for record, we give a statement for 182(J. 

From November 28, 1825, to April 15, 1826, none ; May 
8, 1826, three; June 3, 1826, one: June 26, 1826, one; July 
3, 1826, one; July 4, 1826, one; July 5, 1826, one; July 17, 
1826, two; July 8, 1826, one; July 14, 1826, one; September 
2, 1826, three; September 14, 1826, one; September 15, 182n, 
two; October 11, 1826, one; October 23, 1826, one ; January 
11, 1827, one. 

It is refreshing to those who complain in these latter days of 
exorbitant fees to bloated officials, to learn that "Charlie" Conway's 
fee-bill for recording instruments of writing for the worthy citi 
zens of Randolph County from September 2. 1826, to January 
11, 1827, amounted to $6.75, or exactly $1.50 per month. Tl.- 
princely sum was not all, however. He had, besides his fees • 
Clerk of the Court (including Circuit and Probate business), hi" 
fees for issuing marriage licenses, and then the fees for serving a 
clerk of the Commissioners' Court, which would doubtless rais- 
ins monthly salary to $5, possibly $7.50 per month. 

Our good friend, Conway, must have got even more than that, 
for the record frequently shows that he was in the habit, as oftcr. 
as he could get the chance, of taking acknowledgments, solem- 
nizing marriages and similar things. And the entire avails of his 
official labor may possibly have swelled to the amount of $10 per 
month. And think what a vast sum, honest man as Judge Smit' 
reckons him to be, he wrested from the pockets of the hara- 
handed yeomanry of Randolph during his almost life-long contin- 
uance in office. 

Twenty-one years make 252 months, and ten times 252 are 
2,520, and so many dollars, and how many more no mortal 
knows, that graj-haired official took in pretended compensation 
for work performed in official station, from the tax-payers and 
business men of that over-burdened community. 

The first deed on record seems to be one made by Charles 
Conway (as Recorder) to Paul W. Way, agent, of sixty acres of 
land, being the tract donated by the said Conway to the county 
for the location of the county seat. The date of the deed is Sep- 
tember 30, 1819. 

Another deed is founded on notes that bear the same date, Sep- 
tember 30, 1819, though the deed itself was acknowledged nearly a 
year later, September 27, 1820, and recorded January 6, 1821. 
It was from James Oldham to Paul W. Way, agent, for ouiIt; 
No. 2, southeast square, Winchester, to secure the payment o. 
two promissory notes for $75 each, due in ono and two yeiii 
from date. 

The next deed in order is dated the next day, October 1, 18^ 
made by William Jones to Paul W. Way, agent, for Lot No. 1-. 
southwest S(iuare, Winchester. It is a mortj^age to secure pay 
of two notes $31.28 each, due in one and two years. 

The transiiction hardly seems clear, but probably Way had 
conveyed the lot to Jones in some way, as agent for the county, 
and then Jones had mortgaged it back to Way to secure the pay 
ment of the purchase money. No account of such a transaction, 
however, has been found, and the actual deed on record, made by 
Way, as agent, conveying the lot in question to Jones, is dated 
in 1822 (probably), at any rate after the time for payment of tht 

[Note. — Daniel Lasley, County Superintendent of Education, 
found amid the rubbish of the Recoriier's office (where it had lain 
for more than sixty years, the original of the above document. 
He rescued it from its hiding place, mounted it in a neat frami, 
and it now serves to assist in decorating the walls of his office in 
the court house. Two or three other instruments (not so oM as 
that, however), arc in the back of the frame]. 


On page 233, Book B.' is found the record of the in- 
dentures of Cornelia Ann Jackson, a poor child of tiie age 
of five years and nine months. She is to be taught the 
"business and mystery of housekeeping," to have fifteen 
months' schooling (sixty-five days for three months, or 325 days 


on the whole) three months thereof to be when she is between 
the ages of fifteen and eighteen years ; and at her majority she 
is to have as follows : 

" One good feather bed with bedding, bedsteads and cord, 
such as are common among respectable farmers ; one good spin- 
ning (flax) wheel ; two good suits of warm clothing, such us good 
home-made flannel ; two pair of new shoes, and two pair of 
new stockings." 

On page 202, Book B, is found another record of apprentice- 
ship, of a lad named Logan M. Jackson, to Francis Frazier. 
He is to have eighteen months' schooling (sixty-five days for 
three months), three months to be when he is bfitween nineteen 
and twenty-one. He is to have $50 (in land, or otherwise 
under the direction of hia guardian), two good home-made suits, 
two pair of shoes, two pair of stockings and one fur hat. 

sueriff's deed. 

The first SherifTs deed that is found is made by Solomon 
Wright, Sheriff, of Lot No. 6. southeast square, Winchester, un- 
der a writ, " alias f lures fieri facias," against Thomas Hutson and 
Jacob B. Hornish. Date of deed, April 12, 1823. Recorded, 
June 29, 1824. 

The first mention in the record of a Notary Public appears 
under date of October 15, 1834. The deed was made by N. 
Longworth, of Cincinnati, and acknowledged by him at the date 
above mentioned, before James Foster, of Hamilton County, 
Ohio, who was a Notary Public. 

The deed was made to Dennis Kelly, and was recorded Octo- 
ber 27, 1834. 

A curiosity is to be seen under date of August 4, 1834. It 
consists of the "Free Papers" of Ezekiel Lewis, an enterprising 
colored man, who was one of the pioneers of the Greenville set- 
tlement, northeast of Spartansburg. We give the document en- 

VNo. 52. 

State of Virginia, 
Rockingham County. 

To wit: Registered in the office according to law, October 
19, 1820. Ezekiel Lewis, a free man of color, about twenty- 
two years on the fifth day of March, 1829, as appears by his in- 
denture, he having been bound by the overseers of Rockingham 
County, to John Koontz, to learn the tanning business, by order 
of the court of said county at the January court, 1818. He is 
about five feet ten and one-half inches high, has a scar on his 
forehead, which is not perceivable when his hat is on ; he is stout 
built, and follows his trade, and is very dark. 

The foregoing register was compared by the County Court of 
Rockingham County, with the said Ezekiel Lewis, and found to 
be duly made, and a copy thereof was ordered to be furnished 
him as the law directs. Done at October court, 1820. 

In witness whereof I have delivered him this copy, and hereun- 
to affixed the seal of my said county this 2yth day of November, 
1834, in the forty-ninth year of our commonwealth. 

H. J. Gambell, 
Clerk of Rockingham County. 

Recorded (at Winchester) August'4, 1834. 

[This Ezekiel Lewis became a permanent and prominent 
settler in the colored settlement on the Ohio line, and, at his 
death was the owner of an excellent tract of land, 160 acres, 
northeast 1, 16, 1.] 


For many years, all records belonging to the Recorder's office, 
were kept in the same set of bo^ks. But, after some years, differ- 
ent sets were provided, and there are now eighteen distinct sets 
of books in that office alone. 

The records, in all, number 142 books ; the deeds alone in- 
clude sixty-five books; the mortg.igej number nineteen books; 

the chattel mortgages are in three books ; the school fund ^nort- 
gages comprise two books; tax titles are in two books; Sheriff's 
deeds have been recorded in two books ; mechanic liens are all 
in one book ; record of executions, one book ; record of decrees, 
one book ; record of fee bills, one book ; indexes of deed.s, 
twelve books; indexes of mortgages, seven books; entry of 
deeds, three books; entry of mortgages, three books ; partition 
records, one book ; soldiers' discharges, one book ; town plats, 
one book ; miscellaneous records, five books. Each book con- 
tains from 400 to 700 pages. 

The whole number, as before stated, is 142, several of which 
are in the process of being filled. The contrast is indeed sharp 
and striking, in the Recorder's office, between the business in 
early years and at the present time. The first four years and 
four months have less than sixty entries, covering about sixty 
pages. The last four years include several thousand pages. 
For some years past a memorandum has been taken of the mort- 
gages recorded, and also of those which have been canceled dur 
ing the same time. The gratifying fact appears that the amount 
canceled far exceeds that of those entered upon record during the 
time in question, though the exact sums cannot now be stated. 


This very important business was undertaken about 1875, by 
William Harris. Daniel Lesley bought half interest, and, in 
about a year, ho purchased the whole. The work is immense, 
having taken thus far about six years, and requiring several 
months yet to complete the labor. 

The books are as follows : The books of general abstract, 
240 and 464, immense double folio pages ; one book, maps of sec- 
tions. 169 large double pages ; two books, towns, 240 and 319 
large double pages. The abstractor at present has his office in 
that of the Recorder. The enterprise is of great and constantly 
increasing importance to the real estate interests of the county. 


A very ancient authority has declared that it " is not good 
for man to be alone," and for all the ages since that primitive 
era, the search has been unceasing by each individual man to find 
his mate. 

This universal " race for a wife " was not stopped, perhaj: 
not even checked by the process of emigration. The boys weni 
on courting the girls in the western woods, even as they used t(- 
do, and their fathers before them had done, in their far-off Eac.' 
ern or Southern homes. And hence it came to pass, ere a lon^ 
time had lapsed, that the Clerk of the Court was called on for a 
" marriage license," a'ld the services of the squire or parson were 
had in requisition, and the log cabin beneath the shadow of the 
beeches was the center of a gay and joyous festal scene, in the 
shape of a country wedding. And the young people of Randolph 
were no exception to the general rule in this respect. And so 
the record of marriages, as kept in the Clerk's office, begins at 
the very first, and keeps equal step through the lapsing years 
with the ceaseless whirl and turmoil of business and of pleasure. 

That record, though faithful and true, doubtless, for the most 
part, to the facts of marriage, at any rate to the number seeking 
marriage in the county, yet fails to show the whole number oT thi 
residents of the county who, in those early years, took unto them 
selves wives of the daughters of the land. 

It very often happens, almost of necessity, in fact, that the 
young men, hale, strong and personable, would come into tha 
wilds and select for themselves a home, and after remaining Ion.' 
enough to clear a patch and erect a cabin, would return to the 
land of their nativity, marry the lovely lass who had long been the 
girl of their choice, and wend their cheerful way, sometimes on 
horseback, man and wife, possibly two upon the same horse, to 
the Western paradise, and settle down in their new home to fight 
life's rough battle in earnest together. One couple came on 
horseback, and the bride stuck her riding whip into the ground 


on reaching the place of their destination, ami it stands there yet, 
now grown a giant tree, to commemorate their early arrival. 
The lady died many years ago, but the groom, then hale and 
young in 1822, lived "until the spring of 1881 in the county, 
almost sixty years a denizen of Randolph, between eighty and 
ninety years old. And many found their mates among the dam- 
sels dwelling in the older settlements, outside of Randolph. 

Two of the very first pioneers on White River went out from 
the places of their selection, and found -their way down into 
Wayne County, the very first winter of their tarry in this region, 
and, when they returned, each had a wife to share his labors and 
his pleasures. And, moreover, as the number of settlers multi- 
plied, there were swarms of boys and girls everywhere, for the old 
pioneer families were wondrous for their numbers. Ten, twelve, 
fourteen, eighteen, twenty-two, and even twenty-four children 
have been found to be reckoned in a single household. Some 
families there were who moved into the Western wilderness with 
fourteen children. One family in this region of the State num- 
bered eighteen children, nine sons and nine daughters ; and, when 
the youngest was twenty-three years of age, the whole eighteen 
were grown, married and still living, as also the father of this 
immense company of descendants ; and now, when the youngest 
is forty-four years old, twelve of the eighteen yet behold the 
glorious sun. and still breathe the vital air. There is a citizen 
now residing in the county, who has eleven sons now alive, all 
farmers but two, and every one Republicans, so that (with his 
own vote) he turned an even dozen for the successful candidate 
in 1880. No wonder that Randolph gave 2,200 majority for 

The first license for marriage in Randolph County was issued 
to Jacob Wright and Sally Wright, February 1, 1819 ; and they 
were married February 2, 1819, by Rev. John Gibson, M. E. 

The second marriage was that of Absalom Gray and Margery 

The license was dated June 7, 1811.), and the marriage took 
place June 10, 1819, the nuptial ceremony being performed by 
John Wright, Justice of the Peace. 

The third marriage license was to Samuel Frazier and Mary 
Cook, dated June 21, 1819. The marriage was performed by 
Ephraim Bowen, Justice of Peace, August 3, 1819, six weeks 
after the license was issued. 

The number of licenses varies greatly in different years. In 
1819, twelve licenses were issued; in 1820, ten; in 1821, ten; 
in 1822, eight: in 1823, twenty-three; in 1824, seventeen; in 
1825, twenty-five; in 1826, fifteen; in 1827, thirty; in 1828, 
twenty-seven; in 1829, twenty-four; in 1830, thirty-nine; in 
1831, thirty-two; and up to April, 1832, sixteen. 

From February, 1819, to April, 1830, 290 marriaee licenses 
were issued by the County Clerk ; up to August, 1837, 271 ; to 
September, 1847, 907; to July, 18,52, 686; to June, 1858, 1,- 
164 ; to October, 1865. 1,272; to February, 1870,1,109; 
uary, 1875, 1,208 ; to January, 1879, 1,117 ; to February, 1881, 
593. Making a total in sixty-two years of marriage licenses is- 
sued by the County Clerk of Randolph County of 8,678 couples, 
waiting to be joined in the bonds of holy wedlock. Probably, in- 
cluding those happy Randolph swains, wlio were so fortunate as to 
find their fair dulcineas in other counties or other States, the whole 
number would reach 9,000. 

Who and how many of this immense multitude still remain 
alive; how many yet are residents of Randolph County; how 
many have removed to other regions of our widespread land; 
how many have gone to that clime where they " neither marry nor 
are given in marriage;" how many descendants have sprung from 
these marriage unions; how many have been separated by the re- 
morseless hand of death; how many of the whole vast number 
have been second, third, or even fourth marriages, and how many 
now remain in the loneliness of their desolation, waiting in 
patient resignation the hour when they shall be summoned to join 

only to Him who dwells 

the pale nations of the dead an 
in the light of omniscience ! 

This statement of the marriage licenses issued does not em- 
brace those who were married in " Quaker meeting ; " and that, 
in this county, where, almost from the very beginning, there have 
been' six or eight " preparative meetings of Friends " in constant 
and prosperous existence, must have been a considerable number. 
How many, however, have thus been joined in the bonds of holy 
wedlock, the means of determining are not now at hand. 

The whole number of marriages cannot fall far short of 10,- 


Amount of record. Up to April, 1838, not quite twenty years, 
there had been made in all about 500 pages of record for the 
business of the Circuit Court, an average of about twenty-fiv. 
pages for each year. The first twenty-four terms, one hundred 
and twenty-one pages of record were filled in the "Order Book," 
making an average of five pages per terra, or ten pages per yeur. 

From that time the record stands thus : April term, 1840, 96 
pages; September term, 1840, 80 pages; March term, 1841, 74 
pages; September term, 1841, 66 pages; March terra, 1842, 101 
pages; September term, 1842,82 pages; March term, 187ri, 
142 pages; March term, 1877, 825 pages; during the year 1880, 
446 pages. 

Besides all this there is an immense amount of Probd!- 
Record and of Vacation Record, etc., concerning which we have 
made' no account. Statements concerning the marriage license 
record may be found elsewhere. 

The entire mass of " records " in the various "county offices" 
is something astonishing. 

We have already stated the " Books of Record " in the Re- 
corder's office to be 147 (including those pertaining to the '• ab- 
stract of title). 

In the Clerk's office are about 340 books ; in the Auditor's 
office are about 240 books; in the Treasurer's office are about 
250 books. The whole mass of " record " includes about 1,000 
books, most of them large, with from 300 to 700 pages each, and 
some of them of immense size. 

Besides all these, the "papers" belonging to every case that 
has ever been before the courts are supposed to be on file, and 
every report made to the Commissioners and everything else k 
(in theory) preserved (in one office or another) for ready and coii- ' 
venient reference. In the Auditor's office "pigeon holes'" ar.' 
made to suffice for the "stowing away " of these endless "papers;" 
but in the Clerk's office, through the painstaking ingenuity of 
the late Circuit Clerk, John W. Macy, Esq., a system of tin 
"boxes" has been put into use, in which all the "cases" that 
could be found in the office arc deposited in regular detailed 

The whole, number of boxes is 1,685. Only 1,047 of them 
are yet in use. Each box containes a greater or less number of 
" cases." Some have in them as many as twenty " cases." Each 
"case" is in a strong, firm envelope, the envelope being num- 
bered to show the " box " to which it belongs and also its own 
number in the box. 

The "cases" are "indexed " in the "order books" so as to 
show the number of the " box " and of the " case " in each box. 
The system is ingenious, simple, perfect and capable of indcfinit;:; 
expansion in application to years or even centuries to come ; and 
its successful establishment in the Clerk's office is of incalculable 
advantage to the public business. 


First six terms, 8 pages, October, 1818, to October, 1820. 
Second six terras, 21 pages, April, 1821, to November, 1822. 
Third six terms, 41 pages. August, 1823, to August, 1825. 
Fourth six terms, 51 pages, February, 1826, to August, 

Fifth interval, 383 pages, February, 1829, to April, 1838. 


Sixth interval, 476 pages, May, 1838, to January, 1841. 

Seventh interval, 560 pages, September, 1845, to February, 

Eighth interval, 640 pages, March, 1876, to January, 1^77. 

Ninth interval, 626 pages, September, 1879, to February, 

These statistics show an almost incredible difference between 
the early and the later times in this respect. 

These statements include only the "order books," so called, 
besides which there are the "fee books," "index books" and 
various other kinds, familiar indeed to the incumbent of the office, 
but a fathomless mystery to the "outsider." 


In looking over the books containing the records of the Cir- 
cuit Court, various items of interest have been gleaned, some of 
which are given below : 

November, 1823, a license to sell spirits was granted to Will- 
iam Suttonlield, of Fort Wayne, under bond of $500. 

August, 1826, Daniel Shoemaker was fined $1 for disturbing 
the court by crowding on the window. The next day the fine 
was remitted and paid back to the delinquent. 

August, 1827, the grand jury report concerning the jail, 
that it is clean but not strong, that the trapdoor is not sufficient 
and that the hinges on the outside door are not strong enough. 

February, 1828, Thomas Shaylor was indicted for an assault 
and battery. He pleaded guilty, and Vas fined $1 and costs, and 
was to stand committed until paid. 

Bazel Jay was declared insane, and guardians were appoint- 
ed to take charge of his estate, viz., Nathan Hocket, James Jay 
and Joseph Jay. 

Same court — Slander trial. John Irvin vs. Richard Tharp. 
Defendent adjudged guilty, and damages set at $17.52,5 (not 
another mill) and costs. It would be interesting to learn by what 
process the jury were able to attain such marvelous exactness, 
even to the twelfth part of a cent, but that will probably never 
be forthcoming. That degree of exactness would be invaluable 
at the present time, both to juries and otherwise. 

August, 1828, Marshall Wright vs. Kizer for an affray. They 
confessed guilty, and were adjudged to pay each $1 fine and half 
the costs. 

August, 1828, grand jury report " the jail is sufficiently strong 
but not sufficiently clean. It needs an inside door-shutter, and 
a lock for the accommodation of both sexes." 

February, 1829, Sheriff allowed $1 for furnishing wood for the 
session of the court. 

If we could only find so accommoduting a Sheriff now-a-days ! 
But alas ! tempora mutantur, et nos mutamur cum illis. Times 
change and we change with them. 

February, 1829, Paul M. Way indicted for retailing liquors 
without license. The defendent pleaded guilty, was fined $2 and 
costs, and paid the fine to the clerk forthwith. Not many years 
afterward, the same Paul Way was an active, thoroughgoing tem- 
perance man. And the exact why of the case does not appear in 
the record. 

Edward Mason was indicted for " vending foreign merchan- 
dise without license." Pleaded guilty and was fined $1 and costs, 
and it is to be presumed he paid up like a little man, "though 
nothing is said about it in the records. " 

Several indictments are found against parties for selling spir- 
its without license. 

The jail is reported to be clean and strong, but not sufficient- 
ly warm. 

February, 1830, the fact is set down that the petit jury got 
50 'cents a day. 

Seventeen jurymen served a total of forty days, and received 
among them $20. 

The Associate Judges received $2 a day. 

February, 1834. Ezekiel Roe vs. Isaac Lewallyn and Ed- 

'ard McKew. Charge — trespass vi et armis. Lewallyn ad- 
judged guilty and fined $13, McKew cleared and authoriecd to 
recover costs of plaintiff. 

Hannah Lewallyn vs. Ezekiel Roe — charge of slander. De- 
fendant guilty and mulcted in damages 1 cent and costs. Paid 
forthwith to the Clerk. 

May. 18.35, Ezekiel Roe decreed to lie in jail six hours for 
contempt of court, in making noise and other disturbance in couri- 

Winchester was incorporated as a town in 1838, by popular 

At an election held to determine the question, thirty-eight 
voted for incorporation, and none against. The persons voti'^ij; 

John Way, Carey S. Goodrich, Edward B. Goodrich, George 
T. Willson, John D. Stewart, George M. Goodrich, David Heai- 
ton, Jeremiah Smith, Nathan Garrett, John Neff, Zachary Puck 
ett, John Connor, Josiah Mongar, Jacob Elzroth, Alfred Rossmati 
Robert Way, John Wright, Martin Comer, Charles W. V/ise- 
heart, Andrew Aker, Welcome L. Puckett, James W. Olds, John 
Aker, George W. Monks, Elisha Martin, Michael Aker, Jesse 
Moorman, David Aker, Thornton Alexander, Paul W. Way 
Stephen Segraves, W. Page, Philip Allen, Jesse Way, Josepli 
Botkin, William Kizer, Micajah Puckett, James Alexander. 

The town was divided into five wards, and a Trustee was chos- 
en for each ward : 

First Ward, northeast square, Elias Kizer ; Second Waru. 
north front and northwest square, Nathan Garrett ; Third Ward, 
west front and southwest square, Jeremiah Smith ; Fourth Ward, 
south front and southeast square, John D. Stewart ; Fifth Ward, 
east front, Jesse Way. 

October, 1839, eleven indictments were found against one 
person for selling liquor. He was found guilty and fined $2 in 
each case, and the costs also were assessed against him. 

On file in the " pigeon holes " are found immense quantities 
of all sorts of things. Among them are great numbers of old 
" bonds." From these were selected the following "grocers' bonds," 
given at various times : 

James Burke, 1835 ; James H. Hart, 1836 ; Thornton Alex- 
ander, 1836 ; John Neff. 1836 ; Jesse Cartwright,1836 ; S. Dv. 
1837; A. B. Hester, 1837; A. Garinger, 1838; D. S. D- 
1838; Michael Aker, 1838: Henry Neff, 1838; Alexand-' 
Martin, 1838 ; William Page, 1839. 

Thornton Alexander is probably the one who was afterw;< 
elected Sheriff, became a sot, and finally died some years ai'ie- 
ward with delirium tremens ; and from his desolate dwelling wbi 
his lifeless corpse lay stiff and gaunt therein, the ladies of Win 
Chester, headed by the widow of the wretched man, marched it, 
long and grim procession to the groggery of William Page, and 
knocking in the heads of his barrels and what-not, spilled tli! 
abominable, murderous stuff into the street, out of which startling 
transaction grew the noted " Page Liquor Case," so famous tweu 
ty-five years ago. And the same terrible demon of the drinl, 
traffic raises still its devilish head, and eagerly goes about to de 
stroy everything fair and lovely and of good report. 

Hundreds, possibly thousands, of indictments have been ef 
fected against liquor sellers in Randolph County, and scoi'fes o 
men have been fined for selling strong drink "contrary to law.' 
Yet men are to be found who, for money, will carry on the mis 
chievous traffic, and law-makers will still play with thewild beast 
Alcohol, as though it were a merry, gamboling kitten to be pette( 
and cuddled, instead of being, as it is, a tierce and ruthless mon 
ster to be throttled and slain, with its horrid carcass burned I 
ashes and scattered to the four winds. 


In 1842, Philip Kabel, a wool-carder, sued one Jonathan 
Frier for slander. The complainant charges that Frier had sai' 
publicly of Kabel, " He spoiled my wool," " he stole ten pound- 


out of sixty, and that before my eyes." After a severe quarrel, 
the matter was settled apparently; Frier agreed to haul a load of 
wheat to Lawrenceburg for Kabel and to take hira and his family 
oh a visit into Wayne County, Ind.; and on this promise from 
Frier, Kabel withdrew the slander charge from court. 

It would seem, however, that Frier broke his agreement. At 
any rate Kabel sued Frier for damages for breach of contract 
and recovered $1. Frier appealed to the court and a judgment 
was rendered against Frier, but only for $3. Whether that was 
the end, and how much was the cost we do not know. It must 
have been considerable, and, moreover, must have been somewhat 
equally divided. Frier would have to pay the first co-sts, since 
he was beaten, and Kabel would have to pay the second since 
the amount was lowered in the court above. But what a com- 
ment on the folly and passion of men ! 


A father was a farmer, his son was a blacksmith. They 
dealt and kept accounts ; on a petty disagreement as to items of 
account, one sued the other before a Justice, and the beaten one ap- 
pealed to court. When the case was decided the parties pro- 
voked each other into a fight in the court yard, and a severe 
battle took place ; suits followed, and so on until both were 
broken up after years of bitter hostility and estrangement, and 
hundreds, perhaps thousands of dollars expense. 


Fey, for killing Heltz, his son-in-law, in 1845, convicted of 
murder, sentenced to be hanged, commuted to imprisonment for 
life, hung himself in prison soon after entering penitentiary. 

Calvin Bunch, for poisoning his wife near Bartonia in 1863, 
convicted of murder in first degree and sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life; pardoned by Gov. Jray in 1880. 

Barney Hinshaw for killing Abram Heaston in Winchester, 
acquitted on the ground of self-defense. 

, for killing Kennon at Union City, adjudged 

guilty of manslaughter with three years in penitentiary. 

Another murder at Union City, we have not the namrs. 

Case of John H. Lewis and son, for killing young Lumpkin 
in 1879. A terrible case of passion ; one man killed and two 
badly wounded, concerning a diich across a pike. 

The public mind was greatly aroused, and many thought it a 
clear case of willful murder; the result, however, as tried in Jay 
County, was a verdict of acquittal, which ending was, to say the 
least, entirely unlooked for and, to many, utterly unaccountable. 

Case of State vs. Woodbury was a remarkable one, in which 
a sister undertook to fasten upon another sister the charge of 
having set a barn on fire to spite herself against a suitor 
for giving attentions to another. The trial occurred seven years 
after the burning of the barn charged upon the young woman. 
The result was a verdict of acquittal, which is thought to have 
been in accord with the general sentiment. 

A very curious case was tried in the Circuit Court, in the 
fall of 1880. Hartzell vs. Hartzell, in which both man and 
wife sued mutually for divorce, but the judge denied them both, 
80 that in law they are still one, although in fact distinctly and 
decidedly two. 


In the time of Judge George Debolt, a jury was trying a 
case which had already taken a week and was likely to take two 
weeks more. The wages of the jury were 25 cents a case. Some 
of the jury were Asahel Stone, W. W. Smith, Elias Kizer, 
Pearson, etc. Pearson had lost a child and was nearly crazy 
with grief, and the jury finally agreed out of consideration 
for him. But during the progress of the case, after a week's 
sitting as above stated, the jury rebelled, and informed the Judge 
that they must have pay or they would refuse to continue. The 
Judge was surprised, and said to them: "Do you know it will be 

my duty to send you to prison for contempt of court ?" " We 
do, and we shall not resist your order if you make it." The 
wortliy Judge was nonplussed, but the parties to the suit came 
to the rescue and agreed to pay the jury per diem till the trial 
was ended, which was some three weeks or more. 

The courts in tlieir various forms furnish sad commentaries 
upon the failings and crimes of the human race, as also upon 
the curious and strange " tangle" into which, often, in spite of 
everything, business will manage to fall. He that knows enough 
to keep " clear of law" is indeed an exceedingly wise and wonder- 
fully fortunate man. 

In old times, a landlord who had been engaged for years in ;i 
wearisome and expensive lawsuit, upon the decision of the casf. 
painted a new sign for his hotel, having on one side a man 
clothed in rags, and on the other a man with no clothes at all. 
When asked the reason for such a freak, he replied, "The mar 
in rags is the successful party in a lawsuit, and the man in purU 
naturalibiis is the one who is beaten." 


The record begins in November, 1818. 

Superintendents of school sections were appointed : 

William Hockett, Townships 18 and 19, Range 14. 

John Wright, Township 20, Range 14. 

James Massey, Townships 19 and 20, Range 13. 

Expenses of establishing the county seat were found to bo 
$97. Two and a half pages of record were made at the first 

December, 1818, contract was entered into for building a 
court house and jail ; two pages of record. 

February, 1819, two pages. 

May, 1819, George Bowles appointed Lister (Assessor) ; cost 
of assessing the county, $10; county tax was 25 cents on each 
" horse beast ; " three pages of record. Commissioners' wages, 
$2 per day. 

August, 1819, five pages. 

November, 1819, Jesse Johnson, Treasurer, allowed $13 for 
services to November, 1819. 

West River laid off from west line of Section 16, Township 
18, Range 14, north to White River and west to county line; 
record, seven pages. 

February. 1820, Abner Overman. Lister; four pages of record. 

May, 1820, four pages. 

June, 1820, special session upon the court house and jail i 
one and a half pages. 

August, 1820, Ward Township created, whole north part of 
the county ; Wayne Township also, extending indefinitely north- 
ward to Fort Wayne, etc. [Records missing up to Nov., 1825. J 

November, 1825, first session of Board of Justices ; two pages. 

January, 1820, Robert Way was allowed $5.25 " for ' blazing 
lines ' through the woods for streets in the town of Winchester," 
six days ' work, 87^ cents per day ; four pages record. 

March, 1820, two pages. 

May, 1826, Joshua Foster, who had been Corarai-ssioner of 
Greenville k Winchester State road, had removed from the re- 
gion, and John Nelson was elected in his room. 

Road laid out from Ilockett's road three-quarters of a mile 
north of " Gass' " in an irregular direction to the State road at 
Vernon." [Where is that ? Perhaps Sampletown — No one now 
seems to know.] Eleven pages of record. David Vestal was 
paid $5 for assessing Liberty Township (Delaware County.) 

July, 3, 1826 — Special — two pages; called to arrange for a 
new brick court house. 

July 29. 1826, conditions for court house agreed upon ; two 
and a half pages. 

September, 1826, David Wysonghad contracted for buiWing 
a new court house ; the price does not appear. He is allowed $225 
extra for rock foundation instead of brick ; four pages. 

November, 1826, three pages. 




January, 1827, David Wysong is paid 1292.50 in part for 
work on court house. 

March, 1827, one and a half pages. 

May, 1827, Robinson Mclntyre appointed Trustee of Semi- 
nary Fund for three years; nine pages. 

July, 1827, bounty offered for wolf scalps ; 12^ cents over six 
months old, 6^ cents under that age, except old prairie wolves. 
Stony Creek was laid off, comprising Townships 19, 20 and 21, 
Range 12 ; two pages record. 

Account of sales of lots in Winchester by Paul W. Way, 
County Agent: 

First sale, November 6, 1818, thirty lots, $14(39.76 ; second 
sale. September 30, 1819, fourteen lots, $736.32 ; third sale, Sep- 
tember 26, 1822, eleven lots, $269.16 ; fourth sale, February 26, 
1825, eleven lots, $208.26; fifth sale, November 26, 1825, 
eighteen lots, $121.15 ; sixth sale, January, 1828 (items not 

September, 1827, Albert Banta was acquitted of 13 cents 
tax on town lot; John Coates, 16 cents for the same, which 
doubtless made them feel better; William Smith was allowed 
$6 for keeping Judith Ray, an infant pauper, three months; 
Curtis Cleny was allowed $11.44 for keeping Levi Hale, a pau- 
per, three months ; three and a half pages. 

November, 1827, road laid out leading from Winchester 
toward Richmond, between Obadiah Harris and John Moor- 
man, by William Connor's, Hezekiah Hockett's and the meeting 
house near William Hunt's; two pages. January, 1828, one 
and a half pages; March, 1828, 5 pages. Inside work of court 
house let. May, 1828, twelve pages ; July, 1828, two pages ; 
September. 1828, five pages ; November, 1828, Paul W. Way 
was allowed $189.90 for work on court house. January, 1829, 
Solomon Wright was allowed $112.50 for work on court house. 
David Hoaston, allowed for same, $109.67 ; Abraham Kerne ac- 
quitted of 4A cents tax; Elijah Arnold adjudged a resident ; 
three pages. March, 1829, four pages ; May, 1829, fine re- 
ported by Justice assessed against John Stevenson for swearing 
ten oaths, $10 ; allowance made for keeping pauper six months, 
$12; twelve pages. July, 1829, three pages. 

September, 1829, Ezekiel Williams is reported as fined for 
swearing ten oaths, $10; for .something else, $2; total, $12. 
Joseph Crown is allowed to work at his trade in the west room of 
the court house; seven pages. 

January, 1830, road is laid "from the west end of Hezekiah 
Hockett's lane to the Wayne County line, at the southeast cor- 
ner of Martindale's deadening." Surveyors now might have 
some trouble in locating that road ; Surveyor Jaqua would better 
be set to find the route. But the parties then knew where the 
road was to be and the Commissioners thought that was enough. 

December, 31, 1829, John Mann fined for working on Sun- 
day in his clearing, $1 ; no costs charged, David Semans, J. P. ; 
four pages; March, 1830, five pages. May, 1830, Travis Adcock 
is allowed $1.50 for three days' time spent in attending to a 
pauper. Philip Storms then lived in the county since he is ap- 
pointed supervisor in place of Charles Simmons ; thirteen pages. 

July, 1830, four pages. David Semans, President. 

September, 183(i, four pages ; November, 1830, two pages, 
William Hunt, President; January, 1831, John Odel, County 
Treasurer, four pages ; Treasurer's Report for 1830, $869.24; 
Treasurer's Commission, $25.90. 

Joel Ward is engaged to do work at his own price ; if he and 
the county do not agree, a committee of workmen are to settle 
the dispute, and he may draw at any time for $50. May, 1831, 
four pages. 

Road laid from southwest corner of Samuel Smith's fen'ce to 
the crossing south of Jack.son'3, thence to new road at the north 
end of William Smith's lane. Charmingly accurate and clear 
description, only " Samuel Smith's fence," southwest corner and 
all, is probably gone long ago. 

Commissioners' Court revived and county divided into three 

districtss First District, east of line dividing Townships 15 and 
16, Range 14. Second District, west of said line to the line 
between 'Townships 15 and 16, Range 13. Third District, west 
of said last line. 

Commissioners met September, 1831. Cartway laid out 
from Winchester across ford of White River to Lewallyn's mill, 
five pages. 

November, 1831, five pages; January, 1832, report of Paul 
VV. Way, agent, in settlement; total receipts, $2,679.02|-, set- 
tled in full; eight pages. 

May, 1832, Jere Smith appointed Commissioner of the "three 
per cent fund." Ordered as follows (of that fund): $50 to the 
bridge over White River east of Winchester, $30 to the bridge 
over Sugar Creek, $500 upon the road from Winchester to New- 
castle. S. R. Shaylor, J. P., reports: Three men fined for 
swearing, |3 ; fine for assault, $1 ; fine for disturbing religious 
meeting, $1 ; eighteen pages. 

September, 1832, State road from Winchester to Newcastle 
located shortly before ; expenses of location through Randolph 
paid by Commissioners; length of road in Randolph 17 miles, 28 
chains, 47 links; November, 1832, seven pages ; Januarv, 1833, 
County receipts, $796.13 ; March, 1833, John Odle, Treasurer, 
reports: Receipts, $2.50; expenditures, $1.50; balance on 
hand, $1. Jeremiah Smith appointed Treasurer one year. 

May, 1833, Jere Smith, Surveyor, makes reports of the loca- 
tion of the following roads : State road from Richmond to Fort 
Wayne; State road from Winchester to Newcastle; State road' 
from Greenville (via Ridgeville and Fairview) to Saunders' in 
Delaware County. 

September, 1833, Andrew Aker is appointed Commissioner of 
the three per cent fund, the avails frorn which fund are said to 
be $500. Paul W. Way is put in charge of road from Winches- 
ter toward Fort Wayne to expend $160. David Heaston is to 
expend $150 on the Greenville road ; David Frazier is to apply 
$90 on the road toward Richmond, and $70 toward New- 

November, 1833, Jackson laid out, including also all of what 
is now Wayne. Treasurer's receipts^ $775.73. 

January, 1834, Green laid out, present limits and two and a 
half miles of what is now the north end of Monroe : Treasurer's 
receipts, $7.59.19; taxes laid — license for capital in trade, $1,000, 
or less, $10 ; license for each addition thousand, $5; license for 
grocery, $10 ; license for selling wooden clocks, $10 ; license for 
tavern, $10 ; license for covering horses, one price per season ; 
horses, 37.}; oxen, 37.}; watches, 37i ; carriages, four wheels, 
$1 ; carriages, two wheels, 50 ; brass clocks, $1 ; town lots, 
two per cent; first rate land, 1 cent per acre; second rate do, 
I cent; third rate do, i cent; Treasurer's report, $221.42. 

September, 1834, half a mile taken from Greensfork and 
added to Washington, Andrew Aker appointed Treasurer ; re- 
ceipts for the year, $1,070.94;^- ; Joel Ward'h work viewed by 
referees and adjudged to be worth $188.00 (moral, agree upon 
the price beforehand) ; Salamonie Township (Jay County) 

January, 18^5, Nettle Creek, created with one mile also that 
now belongs to Stony Creek. West River arranged seven miles 
long and four miles wide (east line one mile west of present 

May, 1835, Madison Township laid off in what is now Jay 
County, five miles wide on the east side of Jay County ; meeting 
advertised by the Sheriff for the formation of an agricultural so- 
ciety to be held on the last Saturday in May, 1835. 

September, 1835, two paupers farmed out at $30 per year; 
road laid beginning at the southwest corner of Robert Bunker's 
door yard ; nice place to bpgin at. 

March, 1836 — Building an office for the Clerk and Recorder. 
Ordered to be let by Jere Smith. It seems from subsequent en- 
tries that David Heaston took the contract. 

November, 1836 — Three per cent funds on hand, amounting 


to $1,914.22. Ordered to be expended thus : Greenville State 
road, $700; Richmond and Fort Wayne, $800; Centerville 
Road, $250; Newcastle, $114.22; Muncie, $50. 

November, 1836 — David Heaston undertook the contract to 
build an office for the Clerk and Recorder. 

Samuel Skaggs was appointed Trustee of " Library Company" 
in place of Jere Smith, resigned. 

March, 1837— Treasurer's receipts, $1,808.16. 

May, 1837 — License on vending wooden clocks at $60. 
Andrew Aker, Treasurer. 

March, 1838— Union Township, four miles square laid off, 
embracing the north end of West River Township. Edmund B. 
Goodrich and Jere Smith appear as Commissioners of the Semi- 
nary fund. 

Reports from seven Congressional townships show funds 
amounting to $2,640.81. 

May, 1838 — County divided into forty seven road districts. 

September, 1838 — Wayne Township cut off from Jackson. 
Nathan Garrett licensed to keep tavern. 

May Term, 1839— Court house not done. Paul W. Way 
directed to relet the job of completing it. It had been let to 
David Heaston, but he would not fulfill the conditions of the 

Benjamin Inman was allowed a license to sell goods at 

Receipts for county from January to November, 1839, 

Michael Aker contracted for finishing the court house for $2, 480. 

That second court house would seem to be almost as long in 

building as Herod's Temple in Jerusalem. " Forty and seven 

years was this temple in building, and wilt thou destroy it in 

three days?" 

J. L. Addington was paid for attending the agricultural 
society 75 cents. 

William Kizer, Collector— Receipts $2,707. 24|. Three per 
cent fund expended that year. 

S. D. Woodworth, $1,894.27. H. D. Huffman, $318.79. 

State road from Winchester via Ridgeville, Mount Pleasant 
and Camden to Bluffton, located. 

Also road located from Cambridge to Fort Wayne; field 
notes recorded. Remonstrance presented against taverns and 
groceries to sell intoxicating drink, signed as follows, dated 
Junel. 1840: George W. Goodrich, W. C. Willmore, Moor- 
man Way, George W. Monks, James W. Olds, E. B. Goodrich, 
G. W. Henderson, David Aker, Robert Way, W. M. Way, 
Philip Allen, S. B. Cunningham, Elias Kizer, Robert Woody, 
Paul W. Way, James Butterworth, David E. He.iston, John. 
Way, Thomas Best, Nathan Wooters, A.sahel Stone, W. G. 
Puckett, Cary S. Goodrich, Mary Reeder, R. Irvin, Nelson S. 
Ball, Henry Diggs, William Holderraan, John Leake. 

March, 1840 — Heman Searl received license for tavern at 

May, 1840— Clock peddlers' license, $100. 

August, 1840— J. L. Addington was allowed $2 for attend- 

via Unionsport, Macksville, and Fairview into Jay County, nine- 
teen and three-quiirtcr miles in Riindolph County. 

State road from Deerfield to Granville, Delaware County, 
via Steubenville and Fairview, twelve and two-third miles in 
Randolph County. 


It would seem from the "record" that the business of County 
Agent, beginning at the first establishment of the county, con- 
tinued a long time. 

Paul W. Way was appointed County Agent in 1818, to sell 
lots in the county seat, etc., and in June, 1852, thirty-four years 
after his appointment, ho reports business as follows : Moneys 
received since February, 1847, $497.79, with vouchors for the 

same. Whether this report closes his business the statement 
does not say. 

1856 — Two brick buildings were erected for county purposes. 

It would appear that the second court house of 1826 was a 
"poor job" and became worthless so as to be abandoned. These 
buildings as above were erected for county offices, jail and 
Sheriff's, residence, coupled with lialls for scomtaoMcUea in rootna 
above, and the courts were held for years in what is now Ward's 
Hall, north of the public square. 

June, 18.'J9, Franklin Township erected, the last and smallest 
in the county. 

June, 1875 — New court house put under contract. 

April, 1877 — New court house completed. 

Spring of 1881, new jail contracted for an.l co,nmonr.c.J, A. 
G. Campfield, contractor, Hodson, architect. 


At first and up to 1834, the Associate Judges acted as a Pro- 
bate Court. From 1834 to 1852, there was a distinct Probate 
Court presided over by a separate Judge. 

From 1852 to 1873 the Probate business was done by the 
Court of Common Pleas. 

In 1873, the Court of Common Pleas was abolished and the 
Probate business was transferred to the Circuit Court. 

The first to administer the affairs of Probate for Randolph 
County were Hons. John Wright and William Edwards, Associ- 
ate Judges for the county, elected August, 1818. 

The first court seems to have been held May 3, 1819. At 
that time Antony Way (son of " Huldy " Way ), aged ten years, 
nine months, was bound to Thomas Frazier to learn "farming." 
He was to receive eighteen months in all, schooling, and at 
his majority $100 in a horse, saddle and bridle, and one 
good suit of new cloth clothes. Thinking that a veritable " bond 
of Apprenticeship " " all of the olden time " would be a "curi- 
osity " to the present generation, we subjoin the " bond " by 
which Thomas Frazier, master, and Antony Way, apprentice, 
were mutually obligated to care and instruction and service : 

This Inilenlure, nmde this third day of May in the year of our Lord, one 
thousand eight hundred and nineteen, Wilnesseth : That Antony Way, son of 
" Huldy" Way. a^ged ten years nine months and 6ve days, by and with the 
consent of his guardian, Jonathan Oibum, hatii, of his o*n free will, placed 
and bound himself to Thomas Fm' 

d Thon 

s Fraziei 

veil, c 

itony VVay shall accomplish and arrive at 
the full age of 21 years; during all which term of years the said Antony Way 
his said master shall well and faithfully serve, his secrets keep, his lawful com- 
mands gladly do and obey; hurt to his master he shall not do, nor willfully suf- 
fer it to be done by others, but of the same to Ihe utmost of his power shall 
gi»e notice forthwith to his said master; Ihe goods of his said master he sh.ill 
not embezzle nor waste, nor them lend without his consent to any; nt cards, 
dice, nor any other unlawful games he shall not play; taverns nor ale houses 
he shall not frecjuent, *«**»** matrimony heshallnotcontraci, 
f om the service of his said master he shall not absent himself without his mas- 
ter's consent; but in all things as a good and faithful servant shall and will de- 
mean and behave himself toward bis said master and all his during his said 
term. And the said master his said servant in the art of husbandry will teach 
and instruct or cause to be well and sufficiently instructed after the best way 
and manner he can ; and ahull and will tind and allow to his said servant meat, 
drinks, lodging, and "apperrill." both linen and woolens and all other neces- 
saries fit and oouvenient for said servant during Ihe term aforesaid ; and also 
shall, for the space of one year between the date hereof and the time when the 
said Autony rtay shall come to be fifteen years of age, put the said Antony to 
some good English school lo be instructed in reading and writing and arithmc-~ 
tic. and also six monlh>< when the said Antony is between the age of 18 and 20, 
to be instructed ivs aforesaid; and at the expiration of the said term of servi- 
tude for the said Antony the said Thom is Frazier shall pay to the said Antony 
the sum of $101), to be discharged in a horse, saddle and bridle, and also one 
good suit of new cloth clothes. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our 
hands and seais Ihe day and year first above wrilten. his 

Antont X Wat, [seai,.] 

Attest, Charlks Conway, Clerk. Thomas Frazier, [seal.] 

Under date of March, 1821, stands an inventory of goods be- 
longing to Isaac Burnett, a deceased Indian trader, who had been 
located at Fort Wayne, then and for some years longer in Ran- 
dolph County. 

Some of the items appear below. 


....|121 71 

847i yards blue calico, at 85 osnts 

9 T»rrl. B.,«ift Bbeeting, at 76 cents o 'o 

21 yards Eugli-u „.i!^„. at 69i — "- 18 26 

• 76 yards domestic cotton, at 30 cents 22 20 

72 Eood coon skins, at 40 cents - 28 80 

• 82 bad coon skins, at 20 cenU 16 40 

4 oatt 1 rat, 2 bear skins (sic) 5 UO 

1 sorrel horse 15 00 

Monev on hand 163 00 

66 pmnds butter, at 12} cents 7 00 

)9j pounds powder, at 87J cents 16 43J 

clothes, blue cloth, blankets, surcingles, bridles, legging 
straps, knives, spurs, plumes, snuff boxes, fine combs, 
flints, screw nippers, playing cards, 26 looking glasses, 
wampum, belts, files, rasps, shears, bits, striped deer 

20 best fine combs, at 37} cents...'. .'. .' 7 60 

657 ear bobs 

6 pair large ear wheels 6 00 

6 pair small ear wheels 4 60 

1000 while wampum 4 00 

950 purple wampum 4 00 

7 lomahiwkB 6 12} 

SLtraps 6 00 

42 deer skins 

1 pound tea 2 00 

1 breechcloth, etc., etc., etc 


John P. Hedqeb, V Appraisers. 

Samuel Hanna, Admiuatrator. 
FoET Wattme, March, 1821. 


The firet will on Record is that of John Ozburn, decedent, of 
Clinton County, Ohio. Its provisions are in brief, as follows : 

1. Pay his debts and expenses. 

2. Pay to Daniel Ozburn (his son) and his heirs forever, $1. 

3. Pay his daughter, Ann Kersey, and her heirs forever, ^1. 

4. Pay Sarah Way's heirs, $1. 

6. Pay Haldy Way (wife of Nathan Way) and her heirs 
forever, $1. 

6. Give to John Ozburn a three-year old mare and one hun- 
dred acres of land (he to support his mother during life, or widow- 

7. Give to Jonathan Ozburn sixty acres, the rest of the 160 
acres (left after the one hundred acres on the north side has been 
taken by John Ozburn) upon payment of §80. 

8. Pay to Mary Ballard and her heirs, $1. 

9. Give to Susannah Ozburn and her heirs forever, a cow and 

10. To my beloved wife, Sarah Ozburn, all my movable 
property during her widowhood, then to return to John Ozburn, 
to be his forever, except her wheel and bed ; she to have pos- 
session of the one hundred acres willed to John Ozburn, and sup- 
port therefrom during widowhood. 


April 30, 1821 : Estate of John Moore. Administrator, 
David Wright. Sale May 25, 1821 : 

Feathers, S7.27| ; one stew-kettle, $2.05; one flax wh^el, 
$1.39 ; one weeding hoe, 96 cents ; one Yankee hoe, 75 cents ; 
one kettle and bale, $4.06; one mare and bridle, $42.91 ; one bake 
oven and bale, $1.80 ; six pewter plates, $2.61 ; one castor hat, 
$1.76. Total, $84.81. 


April 8, 1822, Mary Moore, four years ten months, 
Solomon Wright, guardian, bound to James Massey till eighteen; 
to have schooling one year, and, at majority, one suit of clothes, 
one feather bed and furniture, and one cow and calf. 

April, 1822, George Burkett obtained letters of administra- 
tion on the estate of Dr. William Turner, of Fort Wayne, de- 

April, 1822, Daniel Ozburn came into court with receipts 

from six legatees of John Ozburn, decedent, and paid $1 to the 
court for the heirs of Sarah Way. 

July, 1822, Samuel Hanna, administrator of Isaac Burnett, 
of Fort Wayne, deceased, returns inventory and bill of sale, con- 
taining among other things, as follows : 

Sixty-seven deer skins at 13 cents, $8.71 ; twenty-six coon 
skins at 27^ cents, $5.33; thirty eight dressed deer skins at 36 
cents, $13.68 ; seventeen muskrat skins at 16 cents, $2.72 ; re- 
porting the debts to be $5,469.18. The estate was declared 
bankrupt, and an order issued to sell two sections of land belong- 
ing to the said decedent. The land had been granted to him at 
the treaty of St. Mary's in 1818, in connection with the Potta- 
watomies. Permission of the President of the United States for 
the sale had to be obtained, which was granted by James Monroe, 
and the land was sold. 

Also his undivided interest in six sections granted to his chil- 
dren which he had by an Indian woman, Cakama, a Pottawato- 
mie, sister of Toppemba, principal chief of the nation. Ilie 
land was appraised at 68J and 50 cents per acre. 

The tract on Tippecanoe RiVer was sold at 70 cents, and that 
on Flint River, Michigan, for 50 cents per acre. Total, $768. 

July 22, 1822, George Burkett, administrator of Dr. William 
Turner, returned the bill of sale, containing the following items. 
I 5 00 

"Waggon" $80 00 

Cow and calf. 10 50 

Cow and calf 14 00 

4 Cows and calves (to the 

widow— all) 18 37 

2 Cows 16 60 

1 "Yoak" oxen (widow).... 15 00 
1 Horse (widow) 20 00 

3 Yearlings and a calf (all). 

8 00 
. 18 37} 

1 Saddle 

10 Bushels pola 
1 Box surgical 

} Dozen tumblers 

2 Beds and furniture. 

Set castors and glas: 

8 00 
.... 16 00 
.... 16 50J 
„... 21 00 

4 37} 

,.... 6 64i 
;... 15 00 

1 62} 

8 60} 

August, 1824, first guardian, self chosen, was by Adam.Ki-r; 
zer, minor son of Henry Kizer; guardian, Charles Conway. . 


1. Pay his debts and personal charges. 

2. To his sons Jeremiah and Elijah 160 acres each, previous- 
ly deeded to them. 

3. To his sons Enoch and Benjamin, 320 acres jointly. 

4. To Robert and William, 320 acres jointly. 

5. To Samuel and John, 320 acres jointly. 

6. To his daughter. Amy Roberts, $25. 

7. To her children at age, $200. 

8. To his wife Catharine, one-third of all his estate not before 
mentioned, two-thirds to be divided equally between twelve 

Money on hand of Jeremiah Cox's estate, United Stated notes, 
$225 ; silver, $1,082.31^. 

Sale bill covers nineteen double column pages. 

June 7, 1830. Bill of sale of John Canaday's estate amounts 
to $1,009.22J. 

October 19, 1830. The inventory of the estate of lahmael 
Bunch contains the following : 

"A right of hogs not 'appraist,' running in the woods, and 
wild, 'cutent be got,' sold for ten dollars to James Simmons on 
the day of sale to highest bidder." 

Philip Storms seems to have been a resident then, for he bid 
off a "free" at 97 cents. 

A list of the purchasers at the sale of Ishmael Bunch's prop- 
erty will be interesting as showing the residents at that date, 
November 4, 1830. [Ishmael Bunch lived not far from Dolph 
Warren's, in Jackson Township.] Zachariah Key, George Reit- 
enour, John Wolfe, Samuel Helm, Charles Summers, Henry 
Jackson, Philip Storms, Samuel Williams, William Brockus, 
Jeremiah Brockus, John Gray, Bennet Evans, James Simmons, 



Samuel Simmons, Mary Key, Samuel Emery, George Porter, 
John Jones, Samuel Hawkins, James Brown, Robert Parsons, 
William A. Lindsey, Amos Smith, Allen Wall, Isaac Lewallyn,. 
-<.l..;l., T,......)l tvvo..i^ olv p.Msons. Thf tRrrit,.>iy from which 

these persons came is quite extensive, from below Dcerfield 
to above AUensville, and from Jay County. 

January 4, 1831. Estate of Joseph Small ( Green's Fork), 
contained, among other things, one "spider," one "frying pan." 

The purchasers at his sale were Emsley Wade (one skillet and 
frying-pan), Jason Overman, Aaron Mifls, Jesse Overman, Al- 
fred Long, Abijah Mills, Jonathan Moore, Nelson Conner, Samp- 
son Shoemaker, Joseph Green. Daniel Shoemaker, Jesse Small, 
Aaron Hill, Henry Davis, Willis Davis, John W. Shoemaker, 
Daniel James, John Mills, David Harris, John Mann, Robert 
James, William H. Freeman, Charles Morgan, Ziba Marine. 


1. Pay debts and expenses. 

2. Son William, land heretofore deeded and one cow. 
. 3. Son John, land heretofore deeded. 

4. Son Samuel, land heretofore deeded. 

6. Son Amos, land heretofore deeded, and farming utensils. 

6. Daughter Elizabeth (Ozburn), |30. 

7. Daughter Margaret. $10. 

8. Daughter Mary (Hall), $2. 

9. Daughter Ann (Williams), $10. 

10. His wife Rachel, all except as above, including household 
furniture, farming utensils and stock, during her life. 

Estate of John F. Hawkins (of Jay County), father of Judge 
Nathan B. Hawkins, Benjamin Hawkins, Esq., Joseph C. 
Hawkins, etc., died 1831, $280.70J. 


1. To five sons and three daughters, the whole real e.state ; 
the daughters to pay $25 each, the amount to be divided among 
the boys, and William to pay $20 to the rest. 

2. Rest of the property to pay the debts, etc., the balance to 
be divided equally among all the heirs. 

3. Bay mare to George for two years. 


1. 154f acres to his wife while she remains a widow or is 
alive, and theu to John. 

2. Daughter Margaret, the large Bible. 

3. Amos, Elvira, Achsah have had enough already. 

4. After the debts are paid, the remainder is to go to the 
widow, Pheriba, Miriam and Margaret. 

The inventory of John Cammack's personal estate, as returned 
by John James and John W. Thomas, amounts to $704 51^. 


1. To his wife, the plantation, while a widow or during life, 
then to the children. 

2. To his wife, the gray mare, horse, colt, two milk cows, thir- 
teen sheep, all the stock and fatting hogs and geese, and corn 
and wheat, the household and kitchen furniture. 

3. The rest to be sold and divided among the children. 


This will indicates a "new dsparture," the "day spring " of 
a "new era " as will be seen. 

1. To his wife Eleanor all his property, she to bring up the 
children that are under age. 

2. After her death and the majority of the youngest child the 
property to be divided among the children. 


February 24, 1835. 
1. Pay the debts. 

2. To his wife, Phobe, two beds, two spinning wheels, reel, 
cupboard and ware, pot, Dutch oven, skillet, brass kettle, three 
chairs, chest and flax hackle, smoothing iron, wire sieve and fire 
shovel, cow, horse and saddle, half the orchard, and a comfortable 
support while living or his widow. 

3. To Hannah, $20. 

4. To Susannah, $1. 

5. To Robert, $1. 

6. To Aaron, $1. 

7. To Stephen, $5. 

8. To John, $114. 

9. To Phebe, loom and $12, and a living with her mother 
while single. 

10. Anything else divided among all the heirs. 


November 29, 1874— prohated June 18, 1879. 
All his property to his sister, Charlotte A. Dresser ; R. A. 
Wilson to be executor. 


Recorded January 12, 1875. 

1. My body for burial, and my soul to God. 

2. Debts, if any, to be paid. 

3. The graveyard where my father and mother lie buried on 
the old farm in Section 5, Township 18, Range 13, 150 feet 
square, to be kept for my posterity as a burial ground — a poplar 
tree in it, one foot through, to be preserved — the iron . fence 
around my father's and mother's graves to be finished and kept up. 

4. Oliver H. to bo educated to graduation, and to have $1,- 
500 like the rest. 

5. No account to be taken of other sums given during life. 

6. My flute to Jeremiah G., and the oil paintings of myself 
and wife to Charlotte A. ; my private library, etc., to be divided 
among children amicably. Old books, manuscripts, etc., to be 

7. My goods sold, and debts collected, and distribution made 
to heirs annually. 

8. Real estate (except that in Union City) to be sold at the 
discretion of my executors and distributed. 

9. The Union City property to be held and disposed of by 
the close of 1895. 

10. The executors are to use their best judgment for the 
good of the estate, managing as they have reason to think I 
would have done in the same place. 

11. William K., and John Dye Smith are to be executors, and 
after them or either of them, Henry B., Jere G. and Oliver H., 
in order as named. 

I enjoin it upon all ray sons and daughters that harmony and 
concord, unity and affection, be cultivated and preserved among 
them during all their lives, and that they suffer no " root of bit- 
terness " to spring up and trouble them; and that they live hum- 
ble disciples of the Lord Jesus Christ throughout their lives, that 
I may meet them in a happy eternity. 


Inventory, November 9, 1874. Taken by widow, $500 ; 
personal property, $1,211.49 ; dues, $47,734.34 ; additional, 
March, 1876, $6,141.50. 


George W. Monks. $20,378.14, October 21, 1865. 
Carey S. Goodrich, $10,991.28, November 2, 1865. 
David Riddlebarger, May 2, 1876, $4,488.33. 
Philip Powell, September 13, 1876, $10,306.30. 
William Chenoweth, November 24, 1876, $19,574.77. 
James Rubey, February 3, 1877, $5,971.80. 
Ezekiel Robbins, December 23, 1876, $3,579.16. 
John Sumwalt, April 12, 1877, $3,329.45. 
Edward Thoma.s, March 12, 1877, $3,039.01. 


John C. Retts, March 31, 1877, and August 30, 1877, $7,- 

Levi Reece, September 1, 1877, $4,466.30. 
A. Bai-nes, November 14, 1877,' $8,589.90. 
Dennis Hart, December 14, 1877, $9,153.60. 
Robert S. Fisher, May 25, 1880, $58,991.11. 
Fountain Murray, March 8, 1878, $5,528.00. 
Samuel Emery, Sr., July 25, 1878, $4,285.01. 
Mark DiRgs. $18,369.34. 

Abram J. Chenoweth, January 8, 1879, $7,548.45. 
Mordecai S. Ford, March 1, 1879, $3,0.54.31. 
James F. Dresser, August 22, 1879, $17,382.00. 
Thomas Meeks, September 17, 1879, $10,605.21. 
Israel F. Wirt, October 16, 1880, $15,468.50. 
William Hawkins, July 27, 1880, $10,050.96. 
Jacob S. Miller, June 10, 1880, $5,031.01. 
Daniel B. Miller, 1881, $41,591.59. 
Amos RockhiU, July 20, 1881, $5,254.85. 
Joel Blansct, 1881, $3,279.79. 
Peter S. Miller, $5,031.01. 
John Fisher, February 22, 1881, $18,273.15. 
John Demory (colored), $2,788.70. 



THE following reminiscences by old and early settlers concern- 
ing their pioneer life in Randolph County and elsewhere, were 
ritten from their own lips, mostly in their own language. Care 
has been taken to have all the matter in these narratives fresh and 
unique, the same thing not being repeated, each pioneer's tale 
giving some fact or phase not found in any other. 

Most of these sketches are from the original settlers, and from 
those who mme when the land was heavily laden with dense, un- 
broken forests, and the country was still a wild and unpeopled 

The "reminiscences" are arranged for the most part, though 
not entirely, in the order of time. 

Some of the "sketches" contain incidents that occurred out- 
side of Randolph County, yet in connection with persons who 
have been at some period residents thereof. This portion of the 
work might have been greatly enlarged. 

JliSSE PARKER, 1814, 

son of Thomas W. Parker, first settler, April, 1814, and long of 
Bethel, Ind., but dying November, 1881, near Lynn, Randolph 

" The Indians were thick all around us, but they were civil 
and peaceable and friendly. They would help the settlers 
raise cabins, bring us turkeys and venison, etc Three wigwams 
were in sight of our cabin. We children had great sport with the 
young Indians, and they were then almost or quite our only 

" A squaw once scared me nearly to death. I had gone to 
drive a calf home to its pen. The calf was near one of the wig 
warns ; I felt skittish (this was before I had became so familiar 
with them), but the calf had to be brought and I had to do it, 
for children had to mind in those days. So how about the calf 'i 
This way — I got around it and started it for the pen, and away we 
went, calf and boy, when, hallo! out popped a squaw full tilt 
after me! She had jumped behind a tree and stuck out what I 
took to be a gun, and as I came near she bounced after me. My 
legs flew, you may guess ; I could keep up with the calf with the 
squaw after me. She chased me home, she was tickled well nigh 
to death, and I was scared nearly out of my wits. I thought I 
could feel the ball hit me; but she had no gun, it was only a stick, 

and she was in fun. But there was no going around nettles then ; 
they flew like sticks in a whirlwind, and she came rushing after 
me, parting the brush as she came ! The Indians would often 
come slipping around watching for deer, and would carry the 
dead doer to their wigwams. The squaws would dress the veni- 
son and jerk the meat and dress the skins for leather. 

"The Indians wore paint and all their war equipments, which 
made them look frightful enough. But we soon got used to them, 
as they were very friendly. As the country settled up, they went 
farther back — Winchester, Macksville, Windsor — and then to 
Sraithfield, Muncie and Anderson. They would pa-s back and 
forth on their trails, bringing moccasins, etc., to trade for iron, 
salt, corn, etc., for their use. 

"There were many rattlesnakes, yet but few people ever got 
bitten by them. 

"Father settled April, 1814; John W. Thomas and Clarkson 
Willcutts, farther north during the summer, and October 22, 
1814, Ephraim Bowen drove up t-o father's door, and he went still 
farther up Nolan's Fork, and the farthest north of any. North 
and northwest was an endless wilderness, except a few soldiers at 
Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn and Green Bay and Mackinaw. 
"At first it seemed lonely, but neighbors came gradually, and 
the blue smoke of their cabins could be seen curling up among 
the forest trees, as we followed the "blazes " from hut to hut. 

" The settlers who had come in by 1819 were these : Thomas 
Parker, John W. Thomas, Clarkson Willcutts, Ephraim Bowen, 
Ephraim Overman, Eli Overman, John Schooly, Seth Burson, 
Nathan Overman, Joshua Small, George Bowles, Jesse Small, 
Jonathan Small, David Bowles, James Caramack, John Cam- 
mack, John Jay, Isaac Mann, John Mann, William Mann, 
Stephen Thomas, Elijah Thomas, Stephen Williams, etc., etc. 
" We settled near (east of) the old (Wayne's) boundary. Game 
was plenty — deer, opossum, coons, turkeys, crows, wildcats, 
catamounts, bears, wolves, etc. The wolves would come near 
the door at night to pick up the crumbs, though precious little 
they found to pick, except the bones. Stephen Williams built a 
wolf-pen. Sometimes a wolf would get caught, and there would 
be fun. They would put a dog into the pen, and the wolf would 
whip the dog quick enough. The wolves would howl till one 
could not sleep for their noise. 

" Our bedsteads had but one post, and they needed no more. 
The rails were bored into the logs of the house, and met in 
one post at the corner. But we slept first rate. The floor was 
puncheon, the door was one big puncheon, the loft was boards 
laid on poles, or often none at all. We would climb into the loft by a 
ladder, and slept u.nder the roof to the music of the rain on the 
shingles. The fire-place was cut out six or eight feet long : the 
back and jambs were dirt beaten in and puncheons outside; the 
chimney was sticks and clay ; the table was a puncheon upon 
poles laid on forks ; the chairs were rough stools, or we had 
none, or sat on puncheon benches ; yet we were happy and full 
of glee. Our diet was splendid — venison, turkey, roasted coon, 
fat possum, bear steak, roasted squash, sweet potatoes, pump- 
kins, corn bread baked on a hoe, or a lid, or a board, johnny- 
cake, or dodger bread, all good. Health and hunger make the 
best sauce, and we had them both. Then we had pounded 
hominy, and lye hominy fit to set before a king. 

" About my schooling : It was not much, picked up in the 
woods. The neighbors joined and put up a cabin for church and 
school, the first of the kind in the county. The first school was 
taught by Eli Overman, and I attended it and was there the first 
day. My first book was a primer, and my next (and my last) 
was Noah Webster (spelling book). 

" The house had a puncheon floor and door, a puncheon to 
write on, scalped off" smooth with the ' pitching ax. ' The benches 
were split poles with legs. Not a plank, nor a shingle, nor a 
brick, nor a nail, nor a pane of glass was in the whole house. 
The nails were pegs, the bricks were dirt, the planks were 
puncheons, the shingles were clapboards, the glass was greased 


paper over a crack for light, and the bigger boys got the wood 
for fuel. They had not far to go ; the mighty giants stood huge, 
grim and frowning, stretching far and wide their monstrous 
arms as if to reach down and devour us. I tell you, the way the 
men and women (and the boys and girls, too) made the work 
hop around was a wonder — a sight to beliold. Log-rolling 
would begin and keep on twenty or twenty-five days, people 
helping one another all around, liaising cabins, chopping 
trees, rolling logs, clearing land, splitting rails, making fences, 
plowing, planting and what not, kept folks busy enough for 
weeks and weeks the whole year through. People would go 
miles to help their neighbors; one could hear the ax ring or the 
maul go crack, crack, or the trees come crashing down, from 
morning till night, all over the woods. The loom and the wheel 
were heard in every cabin ; the giant oaks, and the kingly sugar 
maples and the mighty beeches could be seen bowing their proud 
and stately heads, and coming heavily, helplessly down on every 
hand. The girls spun and the women wove and made the 
clothing, and took care of the family. Now, the first thing 
when a couple get married, is a hired girl, and the next thing a 

" We had hard times, indeed, in those grand old days amid the 
majestic, overshadowing forest. And now, how changed ! And 
what shall sixty-six years more of time, stretching forward into 
the dim and wondrous future, accomplish for those who shall 
look on those coming days ? We wh(5 have borne the brunt of 
the hardy past — how few we stand, how swift our passage to the 
opening tomb! The rising race — what do they know? They 
complain of hard times, forsooth ! Then, it was the ax, the 
maul, the iron sledge-hammer, the flail, the brake, the swin- 
gling-board, the hatchet, the "cards," the wheel, the reel, the 
winding blades, the loom. If we went anywhere, it was on 
foot, or on horseback, or even on oxback, or on rough, home- 
made sleds. And now these things are fled, and the faithless 
ones of the present day will scarcely believe that such things 
are any more than idle tales made up to beguile the weary hours 
in the telling ; yet they are true, as the few old pioneers know 
full well. 

"The Indians helped father raise his cabin. There was no 
one else to help. He covered his " camp " with bedclothes and 
brush the first night. We crept into our cabin under the end 
logs the first night after it was built because no door hole had 
been cut. Father and mother went to Friends' meeting at New 
Garden (probably) the next " First Day " after they moved into 
the forest, seven miles through the woods. John Peale and 
Francis Thomas, at New Garden pole-cabin meeting-house, one 
day, swapped pants, and Pealo kept the ones he got, and was 
buried in them, April 21, 1879. The swap took place about 
1813, so that he must have kept those " pants " about sixty- 
six years. 

" The Pucketts were eight brothers. Four settled near Dun- 
kirk. Daniel settled near Newport, Benjamin lived a few 
years in Randolph, but moved to Morgan Countv, Ind., in 

"We crossed the Ohio at Cincinnati, on a flat-bottomed boat, 
thpt was pulled over by a rope stretcheii across the river. 

" There were just three pole-cabins in Richmond with families 
living in them, and one with goods for sale. The families were 
John Smith, Jere Cox and Robert Hill. 

" Robert Hill had the store. Mother sold him some " slaies," 
reeds for weaving, for some muslin and other " traps." 

" Francis Thomas lived near the toll-gate below Newport, per- 
haps. My father and John W. Thomas went up to Nolan's 
Fork and picked out their " places." Parker moved to his 
land first ; Thomas next, and afterward Clarkson Willcutts. 

"Thoma.s Parker sold out to John James, and bcpught out 
Clarkson Willcutts, and Willcutts bought elsewhere. 

" The squaw who .scared me so and chased me through the 
brush, was so " tickled " at my terrible " scare " that she could 

not tell mother what she had done, for laughing. She fell 
down on the cabin floor, and laughed and laughed, and kept on 
laughing; and to mother's'question, she only pointed her finger 
at me as she lay there, and burst out laughing again ; and I 
stood there, as mad as a lad of my age could well be, at the squaw, 
forscaring me so terribly, and then laughing herself well-nigh to 
death over the fun she had got out of me. 


Mrs. Celia Arnold, daughter of Thomas W. Parker, first set- 
tler of Randolph (who is now living at Arba, Ind.), and sister of 
Jesse Parker, being one of the three children who belonged to the 
family of the first emigrant to the Randolph woods. She say,<i, 
" I was born in 1811, married Benjamin Arnold in 1830, and have 
had five children, three of whom are living. My husband died 
12th month, 11th day, 1878, aged seventy-two years. He was 
born 3d month, 11th day, 1807. lie came to Randolph County 
in 1823, being the son of William Arnold. 

" As we were coming to Indiana, our wagon upset and scraped 
my wrist. Two families, John Thomas and Thomas Parker, 
came all the way in the same wagon, nine in all, and some of the 
way Thomas Willcuts and his wife and five children. [Note. — 
David Willcutts, later of Newport, Ind., Thomas Willcutts' 
youngest son came with us]. All these did all the riding 
they did on the one wagon. We brought beds and cooking 
utensils, and one chair (for mother). She died in 1823. I 
used, when a girl in my teens, to go on foot to New Garden, 
six and a half miles, to meeting. I have done it many a time, 
and did not consider myself as having done anything worthy of 
special mention." 

SQUIRE liOWEN, 1814. 

" The " Quaker Trace " was begun in 1817. Jamea Clark, 
with twenty-five or thirty men, started with three wagon loads of 
provisions, as also a surveyor and chain, etc., and they marked 
" mile trees," and cut the road out enough for wagons to pass. 
They wound around ponds, however, and big logs and trees, and 
quagmires, fording the Mississinewa above AUensville, Randolph 
County, and the Wabash just west of Corydon, Jay County, and 
so on to Fort Wayne. My brother James and myself first 
went to Fort Wayne (with a four-horse team) in 1820. James 
himself had been the trip a year or so before that. ■ We took our 
feed along for the whole trip, as there was but one house from 
one mile north of Spartansburg to Fort Wayne, viz., at Thom- 
son's Prairie, eight miles north of Wabash River. At Black 
Swamp we had to wade half-leg to knee deep, walking to drive 
(we always had to do that). After that first trip, we always took 
oxen, generally three yoke for a team. No feed was needed for 
the oxen, for they could be turned out to pick their living. Our 
load was commonly about 2,500 pounds of bacon, flour, etc. 
Bacon would be 10 to 12 cents a pound, and flour |7 to fS a 
barrel. The trip would take about two weeks, and we expected 
to make about $40 a trip. It would take eight days to go, three 
days in Fort Wayne and four days to return. Once an ox team 
came through in three days, which was the quickest trip ever 
made. We would unyoke the oxen, "hopple" them, put a bell upon 
one of them and turn them out. For ourselves, we would build a 
fire by a log, cook supper, throw down an old bed on the leaves 
under a tent stretched before the fire, and lie down and sleep as 
sound as a nut. We would start early, drive till 9 o'clock and 
get breakfast, and let the oxen eat again. From two to six teams 
would go in company. Sometimes the teams would get "stuck," 
but not often. If so, we would unhitch the " lead " yoke from 
another team, hitch on in front, and pull the load through. Once 
only I had to unload. I got fast in the quicksands in crossing 
the Mississinewa. We got a horse from a settler (Philip Storms), 
cariied the flour to the bank of the river on his back, hitched the 
oxen to the hind end and pulled the wagon out backward. 

" The first religious meeting washeld in father's cabin. Stephen 
Williams exhorted (perhaps in 1815). The first sermon was 


preached there also (in 1815), by Rev. Holman, of Louisville> 
Ky.; text, Isaiah, "Is there no balm in Gilead ? Is there no phy- 
sician there? Why then is the hurt of the daughter of my people 
not recovered?'' It was a good Gospel sermon, and was food to 
the hungry souls longing to be fed in the wilderness. We used 
to go to meeting to Dwiggins' (near Newport), and they would 
come up to our house. The Methodist meeting house near Dwig- 
gins' was warmed thus : They had a box, nearly filled with dirt, 
standing in the middle of the floor, and would make a fire with 
charcoal in the box. That house never had a stove in it, but 
was warmed in that way as long as it stood, fifteen or twenty 
years. They would have a rail-pen near the church to hold the 
coal, and carry it in as it might be needed. Mrs. Bowen says 
she has carried many a basket of coal to replenish the fire. The 
first meeting house was at Arba, built by the Friends in 1815, 
and used for church and schoolhouse both ; I went to school there 
four or five years. Afterward they built ahewed-log church, and 
had a stove in it. 

" We would catch wolves in a wolf-pen. We could pay our 
taxes with the "scalps." A wolf-pen was made, say six feet 
long and four feet wide and two feet high, of poles for bottom, 
sides and top, the size of your arm. The top was made like a 
"lid," withed down to the pen at one end, and so as to lift up at 
the other. The "lid" would be "set" with a trap so as to fall and 
catch the wolf and fasten him into the pen. The bait would be deer 
meat. To kill the wolf, take a hickorj switch and make it lim- 
ber by " witheing " it, i.e., twisting it limber. Make a noose and 
slip it through the pen and around the wolfs neck, and lift him 
against the top of the pen and choke him to death. If the wolf 
were shot and bled in the pen, no more wolves would come into it. 
One big wolf father undertook to choke, but the dogs wished so 
much to get in at him, that we let them in, but the wolf fought 
them terribly, and whipped the dogs out, till father put an end 
to the battle by choking him in dead earnest. We moved into 
the thick, green woods. We would cut out the trees a foot and 
under, grub the undergrowth, pile and burn the logs, girdle the 
big trees, and kill them by burning brush piles around them. 

" The last time I went to Fort Wayne was in 1829. Several 
tribes drew their payments there for years after Fort Wayne was 
laid out as a town. The Indiana around here were Shawnees. 
They would trap in April and May, and then go back to their 
towns. The squaws would plant and raise the corn, and dress 
the skins. The men did the hunting and the women did the 
work. At one time at Fort Wayne, thirteen Indians were killed 
during one payment in drunken fights." 

" Plenty of wild plums and grapes (and some blackberries) 
were to be found. The plums and grapes grew on the banks of 
the creeks, and along the edges of the (wet) prairies. There were 
different sorts, red and purple, small and round, but very sweet 
and good, better than most tame plums. Some grapes were fall 
grapes and some winter grapes.- The blackberries grew on the 
" windfalls." There was one near Spartansburg. There were 
crab-apples, but too sour to use, and papaws, but no one would eat 
them. The woods were full of weeds of many kinds, and of pea- 
vines, and horses and cattle lived well on them. Some places had 
been burned over, and the woods, in those spots, were open like 
a big orchard. 

" I knew Johnny Cornstalk, the Shawnee chief. My mother- 
in law once made him an overcoat. He was a large, portly, 
fine looking, genteel Indian, straight as an arrow. 

He once came fwith his wife) to my father's, on horseback, 
to tell him that they had found a bee-tree in his woods. They 
rode up. Cornstalk dismounted, but his wife sat still upon her 
horse, tall, straight and lady-like, genteel, dressed richly in In- 
dian fashion, with a beautiful side-saddle and bridle, and a fine 
pony. Mother said, " Won't you light ?" Spry as a cat, she 
sprang off, and they went into the house. She was waiting for 
an invitation. They were a stately, elegant-looking couple. 
Cornstalk told father of the bee-tree, and father went and cut the 

tree down and gathered the honey, and gave Cornstalk half. 
They were then "camping" near James Jackson's place. I 
knew Chief Richardville five miles above Fort Wayne, on St. 
Mary's River. He was a Miami Chief, had a large, brick house 
and was rich. His daughters dressed Indian fashion, but very 
grand and stylish. He was a good, honest, genteel, friendly 
man. and much respected, both by the Indians and white men. 
We made bricks one season at Fort Wayne, and saw him often. 
"In plowing, when father first moved, we used a bar-share 
plow and a wooden mold -board. I could tell tales by the hour of 
those old times, but it is not worth the while to print so much of 

.JAMES C. EOWEN, 1814. 

Son of the fourth settler, who came on his forty-fifth birth- 
day. October 22, 1814, when James was only a half-grown boy. 

" Hunting was splendid, and game plenty in the woods. Deer, 
turkeys, bears (and wolves) were abundant. 

" We used to go to mill to Newport, to George Sugart's mill, 
but oftener to White Water, to Jere Cox's mill. Sugart had a 
little "corn-cracker" run by water-power. The buhr went around 
no oftener than the wheel did. Sugart would throw in a bushel 
of corn, and go out and swingle flax, etc., for an hour or two, and 
then go in and attend to his grist again. Awful slow ! One day 
a hound came in and began licking up the meal as it came in 
spurts from the spout. It did not come fast enough for him and 
he would look up with a pitiful howl, and then lick for more 
meal ! We boys would go fourteen miles to liiWl on horseback. 
Sometimes we would go with a wagon and take a load, and then 
it would take two days. Often the settlers had to go over to the 
Big Miami for provisions. Sometimes two men would join teams 
and go with four horses, and bring a big load. Once I went with 
Clark Willcutts' son (we were boys) on horseback to a mill four 
miles east of Richmond, to get a grist of corn. We each got a 
sack of corn, took it to Cox's mill, got it ground, and took the 
meal home. It was twenty miles and took us two days. 

" Pork was $1.50 a hundred net, and sometimes $1, or even less 
than that. As late as 1835, when I was Justice, I rendered 
judgment on a debt, and the defendant said he had wheat at 
Jeremiah Cox's mill, and he could not get HI cents a bushel, in 
money, to pay the debt. At Newport, Jonathan Unthank sued 
David Bowles for $5, balance on a store debt. Bowles was angry 
and declared he would never trade with Unthank any more. " To 
think, " he said, " that I have traded there so much, and he must 
go and sue me for $5 I" Benjamin Thomas (Wayne County) said 
he had as good wheat as ever grew, and he could not get 12J 
cents a bushel, in money, to pay his taxes ! 

" In making " Quaker Trace," in 1817, twenty-five or thirty 
men started with three wagon-loads of provisions. I went about 
twenty-five miles (beyond the Misaissinewa River) until one wag- 
onload was gone, and then returned with that team." 

[Mr. Bowen thinks that Sample's mill, on White River, was 
the first mill of any importance in the country. He says, also, 
that Cox's mill liad at first a hand bolt, and that flour had to be 
bolted by hand, which was a slow and tedious process]. 

[Ephram Bowen came from Ohio in a big Shaker wagon, with 
a load of " plunder," and then went back after his falnily. 
The patent for his quarter-section was signed by James Madison. 
E. B. was an intelligent, devoted Methodist, and did much to 
help plant the foundations of religion in this western wilderness. 
His dwelling was the " preacher's home," and a preaching station 
for more than thirty years. The first meeting was held at his 
house, and the first sermon was preached there also. All the 
Methodists in the region were there, and others, perhaps thirty 
persons. The descendants of E. B. are numerous and wide- 
spread. There were at his death seventy grandchildren and many 
great-grandchildren. E. B. and his family are a fine specimen 
of the hardy pioneers who subdued these Western wilds. Courag- 
eous, honest, industrious, devout, intelligent, energetic, upright. 


enterprising, successful ; their labors and achievements have 
helped thehowling wilderness to become the" garden of the Lord," 
and to cause the " desert to bud and blossom as the rose."] 


" I was fifteen years old when father came here. Paul Beard 
and John Moorman and Francis Frazier and John Barnes were 
here when we came. Paul Beard came the same spring. The others 
had come perhaps the year before. Curtis Cleny came, I think, 
the same fall. Daniel Shoemaker, James Frazier, David Ken- 
worthy were early settlers. The settlers before us had not been 
here more than a year, perhaps not so long. John Barnes was 
very old and he died last spring (1880 ). 

"James Frazier (bell-maker) had a large family, and lived in 
a " camp." The roof-poles of his camp were put in the forks of 
a cherry tree. There came a heavy snow May 4, after the 
leaves were out, and broke down his forks, roof — snow and all 
right on their heads. 

" The Friends first attended meeting at Center Meeting in 
Wayne County, but soon Lynn meeting was set up (about 1820). 

" Francis Frazier lived west of the pike, a mile south of Lynn. 
Daniel Kenworthy lived east of Jesse Johnson. Curtis Cleny 
lived a mile south. Daniel Shoemaker lived a half mile east of 
Lynn. James Frazier lived one mile east of Lynn. 

CHOLERA, 1849. 

" In the morning about breakfast, a black cloud came up from 
the east, dark and threatening ; there was some thunder and a 
little rain, suddenly a sharp stroke of lightning seemed to strike 
the earth between Mr. Palmer's and the four corners, a mile east 
of Lynn. The sky was filled with smoke, and a fearful sicken- 
ing smell as of burning sulphur filled the air, which lasted some 
time. A little while afterward, that same morning, John Lister 
and two sons (one a lad ) passed those corners. They were all 
taken sick that evening, John died next morning, and his oldest 
son during the day. The lad lingered a month, but recovered. 
William llodgin passed next, and then Henry Benson and three 
others ; they were all taken sick and died tlie next day or very 
shortly. On Chamness' place, a mile ofl^, five or six were taken 
sick, but they did not die. 

Isaac Moody and Jonathan Clevinger nursed the sick all the 
time, but were not sick themselves. Most of the persons east and 
south of those corners were taken sick. Twenty-seven died, and 
a few got well. It lasted two or three weeks. There seemed to 
be an uncommonly sharp smell after dark. [See W. Pickett's, 
Francis Frazier's and W. D. Stone's accounts]. 

When Jesse Johnson came in the fall of 1817 (perhaps), 
Paul Beard had cleared a field and burned the standing trees 
black by piling the brush of the undergrowth around the roots of 
the trees and then burning the brush piles. 

Settlers at that time were Pajil Beard, Sr., Francis Frazier, 
John Moorman, John Barnes (Wayne County), Travis Adcock, 
Isaac Hockett (Cherry Grove), Gideon Frazier. 

David Kenworthy had entered land ( 80 acres ) some years 
before, but he came after Jesse Johnson did. 

Jesse Johnson had been here and had entered the land, and 
came and settled soon afterwards. 

Curtis Cleny was the next that bought near Francis Frazier, 
John Moorman and Travis Adcock. 

Cleny was in the Indian war of 1811-13, in the block- 
house and scouting in the region. 

James Frazier and John Baxter came the next spring. Ed- 
ward Hunt came when Jesse Johnson did, fcnd settled west of, 
and near to Lynn, 1817. James Abshire was an early settler, 
northwest of Lynn. He was a famous hunter. His son Isaac 
Abshire is still residing in thatregion." 

IRA SWAIN, 1815. 
" My father, Elihu Swain, was born in 1759, on Nantucket 

Island, moved from there to Guilford County, N. C, in 1776 ; 
to Jefferson County, East Tennessee, in 1785 ; to Wayne County, 
Ind. (near Randolph County line) in 1815, and died in 1848, 
aged nearly ninety. He married Sarah Mills in North Carolina 
in 1782. They had ten children, six boys and four girls— John, 
Nathaniel, Hannah, Samuel, Joseph, Lydia, Elihu, Rachel, Job 
and Ira. The family lived in a tent made of a wagon sheet for 
three weeks or more, lying in beds on the ground. Tliey built a 
pole cabin, which for some time had a Yankee blanket for a door. 

" For two or three years the children used to play with the 
Indians, who were plenty. A dozen Indians lived noar, with 
their families, in "camps," made of poles set up in a circle, with 
ash bark peeled off the tree for a roof, the fire being built in the 
middle and a hole at the top in the peak to let off the smoke. 

" In two or three years the Indians left their wigwams and 
came back no more, but their little pole tents stood tenantleas 
and desolate for years. 

" Ore little Indian by the name of " Jim," who lived not 200 
yards away, and with whom I played many a day when we were 
boys there together, was adopted by Judge Reeves, and grew up 
civilized. I met him years afterward at La Porte, Ind. He 
knew me, though I did not know him. He had traveled a great 
deal, but he came back, and lived on Judge Reeves' old place a 
few years ago, remaining there until he died. When our family 
were coming from Tennessee, I saw a sight of cruelty which will 
stick by me to my dying day, and the memory of which has done 
much to fasten in ray mind an eternal hatred of human slavery. 
As we came through Richmond, Ky., a man was being flogged near 
the road where we passed. I was but a child, but I remember it 
well. The man's hands were drawn down over his knees, and a 
stick was thrust through between his arms and his legs, thug 
fastening him forward. His body was naked, and they were 
whipping him terribly. He was screaming with all his might, 
and his back and hips were all cut into a jelly. It was a fearful 

" Father entered Congress land. The twelve-mile purchase was 
in market, but the land west of it was not, being surveyed in 
1821-22. Father had to go or send to mill to Connersville (thirty 
miles). They would buy corn near the mill and get it ground 
and bring the meal home. 

" The first school was near David Moore's (in 1816 or 1817), 
with, perhaps, twenty scholars. The house was a pole cabin, 
14x18 feet. One end of it was cut out (much of it) for a fire- 
place. We used to pile up logs in the fire-place (i. e., the larger 
scholars did) for a rousing big fire. The fire-place was built up 
to the mantel, with puncheons filled in with clay inside, and the 
chimney was made above with sticks and clay around. The fl6or 
was puncheons, and the benches were split poles with legs. The 
older pupils used to get wood at noon to last till the next day 
noon. That was not much trouble, though the chief care was 
not to fell the trees on the schoolhouse, and it took "lots " of 
wood to keep the house warm. 

"For several winters we had no shoes. Then father dug out 
a large log and made a big trough and tanned some hides, and 
made some leather, and so wo got some shoes. One man who 
had a trough and some hides tanning, intending to move 
and wishing to take his hides along (I suppose they were 
not tanned enough, and he thought there was no bark on 
the prairie where he was going), made a big truck wagon 
with wooden wheels, sawed from a large oak tree. He 
loaded his tan trough, bark, hides and all, upon his huge 
truck-wagon, and away he started for Illinois. After trav- 
eling two or three days, he bethought himself that he had left; 
some tobacco in a crack of his cabin, and, leaving his folks and 
team (of oxen) in the woods, he "footed" it back after the to- 
bacco, found it, got it, and tramped back again, spending two or 
three days in the operation. What the folks did meanwhile I do 
not know ; I suppose they just waited there in the woods, cook- 
ing and eating, and taking it easy. 


If • '-\ , , 


'• The people in those days maile 'hand-mills' with stones 'a 
foot over ' to grind com with. To turn them was hard work. 
My wife's father once took a peck of corn to grind on one of 
them ; a boy came with a tin cup to toll the grist. The man 
ground and ground, till he got so tired that he called out to the 
boy, " Come here, sonny, with your tin, and get some more toll, 
or I sh.all never get done." People went on horseback, or rather 
walked and led the horse, with a sack of corn or meal on his 
back, thirty miles to mill. A man or a boy would go with a 
horse and three bushels of corn in a four-bushel sack all 
that distance. Johnny Banks made a great improvement ; he 
loaded one horse and attached a rein, leading one and riding 
another, thus not exactly killing two birds with one stone, but 
what was still better, getting two grists of corn to mill with one 
boy. Great labor-saving invention, to make on • boy to accom- 
plish the work of two, and more than that, for the led horse, hav- 
ing no boy to " tote," could take a full load of corn. We were 
often two weeks without bread. However, mother could make 
plenty of lye hominy, and we had potatoes, and sweet potatoes, 
and sweet pumpkins and squashes, and plenty of bacon and 
chickens and eggs, venison, wild turkey, etc., so tli't people need 
not starve even on such fare." 

"Mr. Blount lived at first on the Zimmerman pi ice [southern 
part of West River]. Mr. Barnes Uvea south of it. 

Griffith Davis lived south of Mount Pleasant Church. Will- 
iam Smith settled a mile north. .He came in 1817. I remem- 
ber the " falling timber." I saw a tree fall between the house 
and the corn-crib, and remember playing under the tree top, as it 
lay there, with Cahoon's children, an Irish family, who lived near 
by. I recollect father's trying to get some colts that were in the 
woods among the fallen timber. We could see them and hear 
them " whinny," but he could not get them. They worked 
round home in three or four days. Tlie cattle also took several 
days to come home. We could hear them bawl, but they 
could not be got at. One heifer did not come, but we got her a 
year afterward. A man saw the mark on her and came and 
told us, and father went and got her. My sister was keeping 
house for Isaac Branson, with his children ; father clam- 
bered over the trees after the storm and got there ; half of the 
house roof was blown off, and the stable roof also, and the logs 
were blown down round the horse, so that he could not move, yet 
he was not hurt ; their cow was killed, and that was the only 
animal we knew to have been hurt. Tree.s were blown crosswise 
in every direction ; east of our house it blew down but little ; 
the storm seemed to rise for a space, but it came down again near 
Albert Macy's and took his house roof off; by-and-by it rose, and 
did net come down any more. The crops were injured, but not 
so badly as one might think ; there was no hail ; the worst of 
the storm was north of us. The house we lived in at the time 
of the storm is standing yet, and in good repair." 

w. M. nOTKIN (1816). 

"My father was a tanner ; his tan troughs are here yet, though 
out of use for many years. A large cherry tree is growing in the 
end of one of them, as it lies buried in the ground. General muster 
used to be held on father's farm. A colored man named Jack 
ran away from Kentucky in early times and came to ray father's, 
stopping awhile to work. One night a spelling-school was held 
in father's cabin. While they were spelling, a knock was heard at 
the door ; father went to the door and asked who was there. Jack 
heard the reply, and knew his master's voice. Peter Botkin 
opened the window and let Jack jump out and escape. The 
master offered father ^50 to help him get the slave, but we helped 
hira off instead. 

Plows were made almost wholly of wood ; the bar and share 
were iron, but the moldboard, etc., were of wood"; sometimes 

a piece of a saw or the like would be put over the moldb&aru to 
make the plow scour. 

To make a cradle to rock the baby in, we took a hollow buck- 
eye and split the log, and put rockers on the bottom. 

I have cut many a cord of wood at 20 cents a cord and board, 
and have split rails at 9J cents a hundred. I have worked many 
a day for 25 cents, and 37-| cents in harvest, from sunrise tifl 
sundown at that. Wheat was 87-i- cents a bushel, and pork $1.25 
a hundred net. I used to slide on the ice barefooted ; the skin 
on the bottom of my feet was hard, almost like a stick. 

Methodist meetings were held in fither's cabin, and quarterly 
meeting at Jesse Cox's. ■ Father's cabin burned down, and then 
meetings were held elsewhere; William Hunt and Nathan Gib- 
son were preachers ; father was very poor when we came to Ran- 

There is now on my place a tan trough, made by my father 
more than sixty years ago, hollowed from the body of a large 
tree, the top of the tree, some thirty feet long, being still in con- 
nection with the trough. There are also rails, made of white 
oak, of blue ash and of walnut, still sound and in use on the farm, 
made by father before 1820, and put up into fences by him on 
his original farm in that early day. It is only two or three years 
since I changed the location of some of the rails which had lain 
all that long time unmolested in a fence, and the "crossing" of 
the rails were firm and sulid." 

[Mr. Botkin, poor though he v/as when a boy, as his story 
shows, is poor no longer. He owns several hundred acres of ex- 
cellent land ; has a splendid brick mansion in a beautiful situa- 
tion ; is a thrifty and prosperous farmer, and a prominent and 
influential citizen, foremost in every good work. It is really a 
wonder how many of the rich men of the day are sons of men 
who were very poor, and some of them widows' sons and even 

Thomas Ward's father was not able to enter forty acres of land. 

Nathan Cadwallader's father died when Nathan was a lad ; 
their old horse died and they were too poor to buy another. 

John Fisher was an orphan boy who rode a pony alone from 
Carolina to Indiana. 

Simeon Branham was an orphan boy who went for himself 
alone in the world at sixteen years old. And so on ad infinitum. 


" Father was forty-five and mother was forty-two years of age 
when they died and left me alone orphan in the world. I knew 
of no settlers in Randolph when I came but those on Nolan's 
Fork. What I understood to be the first wagon that went to 
White River was that of William Wright, from Clinton County, 
Ohio, in the fall of 1817." 

[Mr. Fisher is mistaken. Settlers hail come upon Nolan's 
Fork, Greensfork, Martindale Creek and West River in 1815, 
and on White River in the summer of 1816. Mr. Wright's wagon 
may have been the first that passed through that neighborhood 
two miles north of Newport { Fountain City). The company 
from Carolina in the spring of 1817, bound for White River, most 
likely went along a route farther west, past Economy, Joseph 
Gass', etc.] 

" I owned a little mare and a saddle and bridle, and nothing 
else. I was an orphan boy and had no more than that ponv 
and its accouterments. I had heard of the free and glorious 
Northwest, the grand and fertile plains beyond the mountains 
and the river, where no slave might tread; and set my heart to 
find that wondrous country, and I found it and thanked God for 
the consolation. I crossed the Blue Ridge at ' Ward's Gap,' 
thence to Grayson C. II., Wythe C. H., Abingdon, Va., head 
of Holston River, Tennessee, a large spring, from which flows a 
wonderful stream as big as the White Water at Richmond. I 
traveled down Ilolston to French Broad, turning north into Ken- 
tucky, crossing Clinch Mountain, and Cumberland Mountains to 
Cumberland River, and so on to Kentucky River, Cincinnati, 


Richmond. The latter place had perhaps thirty houses, one small 
store kept by Robert Morrison, one log tavern, etc. 

Newport was founded in 1822. It was a solid wilderness for 
years after I came. I have voted at every Presidential election, 
beginning with Madison's second term, 1816. I voted for rdadi- 
son, Monroe and Adams, against Jackson, Van Buren ; for Har- 
rison and Taylor, against Polk, Pierce, Buchanan ; for Lincoln, 
Grant and Hayes. I hope to give yet one more vote, and to help 
elect one more Republican President, and then I must leave 
national politics for younger hands [Friend Fisher had his wish. 
He went to the polls and helpeil elect another Republican Presi- 
dent ; and nov/ he is gone to the land " where the wicked 
cease from troubling, and where the weary are at rest." He 
lacked thirty hours of living long enough to hear the candidate of 
his choice declared President by the presiding officer of the Sen- 
ate in the joint convention of the whole Congress assembled to 
witness the counting of the electoral votes and the proclamation 
of the grand result. The second Wednesday of February was on 
the 9th, and he died on the morning of the 8th, at 6 o'clock. 
Father Fisher's era of life was truly an eventful one]. 

Mr. Fisher says : " I had no wagon for seven or eight years ; 
my hauling was all done on a sled, winter and summer. In 1826, 
a neighbor and I bought a wagon ' to the halves ' and we used 
it in company. In 1829, I bought his half and owned it alone. 
That was an event in my life, to be the'sole owner of a two horse 
wagon. Wagons were like 'angels' visits, few and far between. 

•' Of course there were some wagons in the country, but great 
numbers had none, and I belonged to that numerous class until 
the eventful hour when the bargain was struck, the trade was 
complete, and the wagon was mine, all mine. " 


" Father, Edward Starbuck, Sr., came to Wayne County, in 
1817. The family who came were father and mother and nine 
children. One daughter had been married in Carolina, and did 
not come till afterward. Father had, in all, eighteen children ; 
ten by his first wife and eight by the second, nine boys and nine 
girls, the first set five and five, and the second set four and four. 
The first that died was Phcbe (Leverton), sixty years old, and that 
was when the youngest was twenty -three years old. The father 
and eighteen children were alive till the youngest was twenty-three 
years old. The whole eighteen were married. The next that 
died was James, sixty-five; Edward, sixty-one; Betsey, eiglitv. 
Thirteen are still living. (1880). 

" I have a large platter (pewter) which was my father's in 
Carolina, which he got from his mother. Its age is probably not 
less, perhaps more, than 120 years. The platter is fifteen inches 
across, is heavy and thick, and has never been remolded." 

Mrs. F. has an iron candlestick, more than fifty years old, and 
as good as new, made by her uncle, Zachariah Coffin, a famous 
blacksmith of those early days. It is " the old candlestick "— 
the family candlestick — that used to hang, by a hook at the top, 
from a chair back, to study by, when people were thankful for 
"tallow dips;" and the splendors of gaslight and kerosene 
were a thing unknown and unimagined- 

She can show several wooden trays forty years old, in 
good condition, though dusty for lack of use. She can show 
also the greatest curiosity and oddity of all, in the identical "first 
coat and pants," made for and worn by her oldest son Daniel, 
now in his fifty-ninth year. The ancient' relic must bo about 
fifty-five years old. They arc truly quaint and odd ; the coat is 
not " shad-belly," but more like " sWallow-tail ; " the pants are 
" single fall, " as was the fashion sixty years ago ; the buttons arc 
good, bright, brass buttons, good for fifty years more; the cloth 
is striped, home-made, strong and smooth, and just a trifle coarse. 

Mrs. F. says: " When we ' kept house,' at first, we had a 
tabic, four cups and saucers, half a dozen plates, four knives and 
f)rks, one iron pot, one skillet, one rolling pin, four chairs, one 
light featherbed, two sheets, one flaxand-cotton, and one tow, 

one quilt, one coverlet. I have the coverlet yet. Mother wove 
it herself, in old Guilford County, N. C, and she gave it to rae. 
I have had it more than sixty years, and how much older it is I 
cannot tell I borrowed a straw tick of Aunt Rebecca for three 
or four weeks, till I could make some for myself out of tow, 
which I did, all but the weaving — I hired that done. For a 
bedstead, I borrowed an auger and made two benches out of 
puncheons, and lugged in nine clapboards and put across on the 
benches, and on this new, grand bedstead I made up our bed ; 
and, let me tell you, I was "set up ' greatly, and felt as proud of 
my bed, all nice and neat, as of anything I ever had. My 
brother Edward and myself went back to North Carolina ten or 
twelve years ago. I was surprised, and pleased, also, to find 
how well I remembered the country ; I could go anywhere, and 
knew every hill and stream, every road and farm, although I 
had been absent fifty years. I found in that ancient region four 
aunts and one sister, whom I had not seen since my father 
moved away. They were, of course, greatly rejoiced that we 
should be spared to meet, face to face, this side of glory land. " 
[Note. — Mrs. Jane Fisher, relict of John Fisher, deceased, 
departed this life at the dwelling of her son in-law, Capt. J. R. 
Jackson, Union City, Ind., Thursday, February 4, 1882, aged 
about seventy-eight years. She had become much enfeebled, 
having, some months before her death, suffered a paralytic 
stroke, from the effects of which she never recovered.] 


"Jo.seph Hockett came to Randolph County, Washington 
Township, in 1816. The Quaker meeting was set up at Cherry 
Grove in 1816 or 1817 ; they built a double log cabin for a 

" Bloomingsport was laid out not far from 1828, by Nathan 
Hockett. Alfred Blizzard built the first house; Beeson kept 
the first store. 

" Dr. Paul Beard, Sr., was the first physician in the region ; 
there was none in Bloominsgport for a long time. Dr. Gideon 
Frazier resided there in somewhat early years. 

" Other physicians were Drs. Gore, Strattan, Kemper, etc. 
Messrs. Beeson, Comfort, Bullard, Budd, Wyatt, Wright, Coggs- 
hall, Hockett, etc., have been merchants. 

" There has been a potter's shop, a wheelwright's shop, a saw- 
mill, a grist-mill, etc. 

"There are two churches, Methodist and United Brethren. 
At Ridgeville, fifty-four years ago, Meshach Lewallyn's daughter 
Polly married David Hammer. At the wedding supper, the 
bride's brothers were present, and one of them, dressed in buck- 
skin hunting-shirt and leather belt, and with a butcher knife at 
his waist, undertook to carve the turkey, and did it with his hunt- 
ing knife. 

" At another wedding, the people tad gathered, but the supper 
was not yet done ; and as the women were trying to bake pones or 
slapjacks or something, the crowd of half-drunken fellows would 
snatch and eat as fast as the women would bake, till at last, one 
chap, not quite so drunk as the rest, took a club, and stood and 
watched, and guarded the women till they got enough baked-for 
supper. This was at the house where the boys were chopping as 
related below. The family was immense, a dozen children or so ; 
the cabin was small. They had a loom in the house but took it 
down and out, to make room for the ' weddingers.' " 

Mrs. Smith says: " When I was twelve years old, my sister 
and myself went to help one of the neighbors pick wool. They 
baked a great " pone," and turned it out on the floor. The 
ducks came in, waddling and quacking, and fell to pecking away 
at the ■' pone " till they had broken it badly. The woman had 
her milk set under the bed, and in scaring the ducks away from 
the "pone," they scattered and ran under the bed, and went 
floundering and plunging and paddling " slapdab " through the 
milk. As the ducks went out, the sheep came in, 'baa-baaing ' all 
over the room. We went home without eating, and said to 


motlicr, '■ If those folks wish us to pick wool, they must bring 
the wool here ; we can't stand such living;' and our picking wool 
there :iraong the sheep and ducks was at an end. 

" The boys would come in and stamp the mud oft' their feet 
upon the floor until the dirt was so thick that they had to scrape 
it from the floor with a hoe to let the door shut. One of our 
neighbors told us to be sure to call on a family of " new-comers," 
who, he said, were "upper crust," neat, stylish people, and 
that we must fix up our best. So one day sister and I fixed up 
in our " nicest," and went over there, a little afraid that we were 
not slick enough. When we got there, lo, and behold, a sight 
indeed ! Four boys, brothers, from eight years and upward, were 
at the wood-pile chopping wood, with their shirts on and — nothing 
else ! We were taken aback, and thought we must have got to 
the wrong place. But no, this was the very house. We went 
in ; they set us some stools, black and greasy from having had 
meat chopped on thera. Hardly knowing what to do, we spread 
some handkerchiefs on the stools and sat down. It was winter, 
and the creeks were frozen. The boys went out to the ice to 
slide barefooted, and when they came back their feet were as red 
as lobsters. "Are not your feet cold ?" " No, they burn," was 
the reply. And such times the folks had, and such things were 
done by young and old in days of ' auld lang syne.' " 

PAUL BEARD, JR., 1817. 

" Settlers, about the same time with my father, were James 
Frazier, east of Lynn ; Francis Frazier; John Pegg, three miles 
southwest of Beard's; Obadiah Harris, Cherry Grove ;• Stephen 
Hockett, Cherry Grove ; Edward Thornburg, Cherry Grove ; 
Travis Adcock, Curtis Cleny, Jesse Johnson shortly after, and 
perhaps others." 

[Paul Beard, Jr., and his wife are both living at this time, 


" Mother was greatly afraid of tlie Indians ; father was not 
afraid of them at all. They would come at night ; father would 
get UD and make a fire, and let them sit and smoke and stay all 
night if they wished. Sometimes they would come late in the 
night and wish to warm, and when they were warm they would 
go away. Father had to go to Richmond for grain and for mill- 
ing; this was too much trouble, and they used to pound corn for 

" Father made a sweep with a maul at the end, and a pin 
through the maul ; two men would take hold of the pin, one on 
each side, and thus work the maul to pound the corn into 
meal in a trough or mortar below. We took the finest for bread, 
and the coarse for mush. We raised a kind of squash that was 
excellent for baking; many a meal has been made on baked 
squash and milk and butter. 

Benjamin Cox was a great hunter, and killed abundance of 
deer. He has shot as many as five and six deer in a day. A 
prairie was near and also a spring; he would sprinkle salt around 
the spring, and the deer would come to lick the salt. He made a 
scaifold, ten or twelve feet high, in the forks of two elm trees, and 
from that he watched the deer, and shot them as they came. 
He has killed scores of deer from that scaffold. Mrs. Beard 
thinks her father was the first settler on White River, east of 

" John Cox, father of Benjamin Cox, came in the spring of 
1818; Joshua and John Cox, sons of John Cox, came in the 
fall of 1818. 

" Thomas Ward and Joseph Moffatt came shortly afterward ; 
Jonathan Hiatt, Zachariah Hiatt and Jehu Robison came not 
long after. 

"White River meeting-house was built of logs in 1820 or 
1821. It was warmed by a box filled with dirt, with coals or bark 
on the top for a fire." 

" Mrs. Paul Beard, Jr., is the daughter of Benjamin Cox. 

She was born in 1813; she married Paul Beard, Jr., in 1033. 
They have had nine children, eight are living and seven married." 

ELIHi; CAMMACK, 1817. 

"The floor of the barn on my father's farm near Arba was 
made of lumber sawed by hand with a whip-saw, done in this 
way : The log was put on a high frame, and one man stood above 
on the log and the other below, and they sawed somewhat as with 
a cross-cut saw. The work was slow and very tedious, but there 
was no other way then and there. That barn was covered with 
shingles, and was reckoned the best barn in all that region. 

" The meeting-house was warmed by a dirt box. They would 
have a great log heap fire out of doors, and take the box out to 
the fire and shovel in coals enough, and then take it buck into 
the house, and set it in the middle of the room, and people would 
get round it and warm themselves as well as they could. 

" The cabin in which I was born sixty-three years ago is still 
standing and in good repair. The roof has been renewed, but 
the logs are sound, and a family occupies it now. The cabin was 
" scutched down," i. e., scored and hewed down after the build- 

" I have hauled to Cincinnati many winters ; the price for 
hauling was 50 cents per hundred; the trip took a week. A. 
man would make from $6 to $9 a trip. Teamsters on the " pikes" 
would have big Conestoga wagons, and four to six horses, and take 
tremendous loads — equal to a small ship. Dealers would pack 
meat in " bulk," and teamsters would haul it " loose," and some- 
times, when they would get "stalled," they would throw the load 
of meat out on the ground, like a pile of wood, and come back 
afterwards and pick it up again. The first wagon I ever owned 
myself, about 1841, I bought the iron for in Cincinnati, and got 
the money to pay for it with by selling (hauling) bacon, smoked, 
'hog-round,' good, sweet and nice, to Cincinnati from near Arba, 
at $2.12 per hundred. The iron was P.50 per hundred. I have 
hauled wheat to Eaton, selling at 37J cents a bushel. I have 
fattened hogs and sold the pork, net, at Spartanburg for $1.2o 
under two hundred, and $1.37, two hundred full. This was 
done about 1842-43. Henry Peacock, of Jericho, now dead, 
has told me that since he settled in Jericho, he has paid $18 a bar- 
rel for salt, and paid for it in pork at $2 a hundred. 

" I must give you a story told me on himself by Judge W. A. 
Peele, at Indianapolis, when he was Secretary of State. When 
he was a boy just old enough to turn the grindstone, his father 
and himself went to my grandfather's to grind an ax. They 
went into the house ; grandmother had lately made a rag carpet, 
perhaps the first in the county. His father walked in, and 
stepped on the carpet. William thought the carpet was some 
nice cloth spread upon the floor, and that his father had done 
very wrong, so he tried to better the matter by undertaking to 
jump across it. lie failed, and stumbled upon it, and got dirt on 
the carpet, and was scolded and laughed at besides for all the 
pains he took to keep off the wonderful and mysterious thing." 


" I was born in Anson County, N. C, December 17, 1798. 
In the year of 1816, I came to Indiana to seek a home for my- 
self. Paul, Henry H., William and Robert Way and "I 
came across the country from North Carolina in a road wagon, 
crossed the Ohio River at Louisville, Ky.; came to Blue River, 
•but not being pleased with the country, we came to Wayne 
County, made our temporary abode at Charlotte Way's (afterward 
my mother-in-law), and looked around for suitable places. We 
finally selected our lands and built our camps about two miles 
west of Winchester. I remained there till the latter part of Au- 
gust, when the Indians became so numerous that our friends ad- 
vised us to abandon our claims and seek safety in the settlements. 

" I was married to Charlotte Way October 6, 1816, and re- 
turned to my claim in February, 1817. At that time there was 
only one white settler nearer than twelve miles. 


" We moved into a camp and lived in it till I could cut the 
logs and build a small log house, which seemed a palace to us 
then. Vie saw no white man's face for eight weeks after settling 
there. ]5ut Indians were plenty, yet peaceable. 

" The first year, I cleared four acres of ground, and planted it 
in corn, but it did not ripen, and we had to go to Richmond, where 
settlers had been living for twelve or fifteen years, for all oiir 
breadstuffs. Wheat was then 75 cents a bushel, and corn ?1. 

" When we were getting out of bread, I would start on horse- 
back for the White Water, buy a sack of corn, get it ground, and 
take it home. In this way we lived till more settlers came. Not 
long after, small hand-mills were introduced into the county, and 
as soon as the corn became too hard for roasting, we would take 
a small jack-plane, shave the corn off the cob and dry it. We 
would take this corn to a hand-mill and grind it into meal. The 
nearest mill to my house was three miks. 

" Often I have worked hard all day, and then taken a sack of 
corn on ray back to the mill, and gone home with it to furnish 
bread for my family next day. 

" In this manner we lived till the country settled up so as to 
afford better accommodations. We brought up nine children ; all 
but one are living vet, and they were all born in Randolph 
County, and on White River. The eldest, Fannie, now Mrs. 
Matthew Hill, lives at Jericho, Randolph Co., Ind. ; Anna, now 
Mrs. Jesse Reynard, lives east of Buena Vista, Randolph 
Co., Ind.; Eunice, now Mrs. Thomas Sloorman, of Winchester, 
Ind.; Pleasant W., married Anna Peacock, and now resides at 
Earlliam, Madison Co., Iowa; Agnes, not living; Henry H., 
married Sarah Wright (now deceased), and afterward Lois Ann 
Carpenter. Their home is at Nora, Jo Daviess Co., 111. An- 
thony Diggs, married Elvira C. Thomas, daughter of George 
and Asenath Thomas, and they reside at Earlham, Madison Co., 
Iowa ; Ruth, married Matthew W. Diggs, and they live at Farm- 
land, Randolph Co., Ind. After our children left us, we sold the 
farm which had been our home so many years, and moved to 
Poplar Run, to be near some of our children. We remained 
there some years when my wife's health became poor, and the 
children had all left that neighborhood. We sold that farm also 
and moved to Winchester. In about sixteen months my beloved 
companion died. Since then I have made my home with my 
children, and am now residing at Earlham, Iowa. My age is 
now eighty-nine years." 

Paul W. Way. Henry H. Way, William Way, and Robert 
Way and myself, came in the summer of 1816 ; Henry H. 
Way and myself were both single, and we married during the 
winter of 1816-17, he taking for his wife Rachel Manlove, of 
Wayne County, Ind.; Robert Way stayed, as did all the group 
but"paul Way, who returned to Carolina and brought back a 
large company in the spring of 1817. During the spring or 
summer of 1817, William Way went to the South and brought 
his father and mother to White River. 

Paul Way and his company got to White River in the spring 
of 1817. crossing the Ohio River on the ice with their wagons. 

[Note. — That winter was very cold]. 

" Henry, William and Robert Way built cabins for themselves 
and the rest. Persons from Williamsburg, fifteen miles away, 
came and helped raise the cabins. 

Fanny (Diggs) Hill is the first white child born in White 
River, her birthday being September 11, 1817 ; she is living still. 
My wife died January 31, 1877. I went to Jo Daviess County, 
III, in May, 1877, to visit my children, stayed there three 
months, went on to Iowa, and am in Iowa still. 

My health is good, I can walk around town and to church, 
etc. I am an Orthodox "Body Friend," never having gone with 
any "separations." 

I have voted at every Presidential election since I was old 
enough to vote, casting my first Presidentiar ballot for James 
Monroe in 1816, and having voted for President in all seventeen 

times. I Wiis a Whig in the days of that party, and have since 
been and still am a Republican." 

FANNY (diggs) HILL, 1817. 

" I went to school first at Williamsburg, in Wayne County, 
Ind., when eight or nine years old. I attended school also un- 
der Henry D. Huffman in a log schoolhouse three miles west of 
Winchester. For a wonder, that house had window sash and 
glass ! 

When my mother was getting me to .sleep one day, she heard 
a noise outside the cabin door. Hurrying to the door, she looked 
out, and lo! there stood a bear! 

She scared it away, and it went to the milk-house, and tore 
the cloth off the milk-strainer, etc., but shortly went away. 

Father for years had but one horse ; mother has many a time 
gone out and cut an armful of wild grass to feed the horse. 

My mother's father, Henry Way, of Wayne County, Ind., 
was killed by lightning. 

Mother used to tell me that we were the first family on 
White River, and that our cabin was fifteen miles away from 
any other dwelling, and that for six weeks she saw no white per- 
son's face but that of her own husband. She used to tell me that 
the Indians told her when they were at her cabin how easily they 
could have killed her and sister while the girls were milking, as 
the Indians lay hid in the brush.'' 


" I ustd to kill many deer. Really, I was too fond of it. My 
friends tried to get me to quit. George Sugart, with a committee 
of Friends, undertook to visit me to give me advice. I managed 
to shun them three times, but the fourth time they caught me at 
home, and I could not dodge them. They talked kindly and 
urged me to lay aside my gun. I tried to do so for awhile, but 
' what is bred in the bone, will break out in the flesh.' 

" One day a boy told me that some swine needed attention 
out in the woods. I went, taking my gun. Tying two pigs to- 
gether with my suspenders, I slung them across my shoulder, and 
started for the house. Along flew the hound, chasing some deer; 
pell mell they went and I after them. I tossed the pigs between 
some logs and laid off my shot pouch ; had my coat on my shoulder 
and lost it. I shot one deer, and chased the other a mile and a 
half, but could not get it. I came back and found the dead deer, 
a splendid buck, throe snagged, three years old. I-hung it up, 
hide on, entrails out, and went to hunt for my pigs- They were 
gone, so were my " gallowses," and I have never seen them to this 
day, though that was fifty years ago, or more than that. 

" One damp, drizzly day I was out hunting, and heard a hog 
squealing terribly. I ran toward the noise, perhaps half a mile ; 
came to a thickety pond and started into it. I saw nothing, but 
still heard the squealing, and also the bones ' craunching,' and 
knew a bear was killing the hog. As I pushed through the 
thicket, the thought struck me, " What if I shoot and she takes 
after me? There is nothing for me to climb, and I shall be a 
' goner.' " 

" I turned and went home, and got my two brothers on horse- 
back to come. The dog ran in, the bear bit him, and he bounded 
out yelling for dear life. The bear bounced out too, and we after 
him, jumping logs, and tearing through the bush screeching like a 
thousand Indians. The dogs treed the bear, I shot him, and 
down he came tearing through the branches, and James rode up 
just as the bear fell. We skinned it and took the meat home, but 
it was too fat to eat. Once William Kiff came to our house, and 
wanted some venison ; so we went out to hunt. The day Wft8 
cloudy and misty, and I was not in humor to stay long. I said to 
myself, " I will go home ; Kiff may hunt venison for ^fflfself." 
All at once a red deer stood near me ; I shot and down' It;?^^ Came. 
It was a grand, four snagged buck, right " in the TeT^et'';'^:hprns 


drop off in winter. In the spring they begin to grow, and the 
horns will come with " points " or snags on, one (on each horn) 
for every year of the deer's age. I have spen a deer with thir- 
teen snags, seven on one horn and six on the other. I dressed 
the deer and carried it in, and "jerked "the meat, i. c., cooked it 
in strips over a slow fire. Kiff filled his pockets witii the veni- 
son and went home satisfied. 

" We nsed to wear shoes and leggings to keep the snakes from 
biting us. I have killed nine rattlesnakes in one day, The 
woods had plenty of plums and grapes. 

" One morning I started toward White River Prairie. Seeing 
something run into a hollow log. I stuck my rifle into the log 
and let fly, but the recoil of the rifle came near knocking me 
down. As 1 went home, I came to a " maple flat," and saw a 
great gray wolf coming. I whistled and she stopped, and I shot 
at her. I went to the house and got father and Samuel to go 
back with me. The old sinner had tried to run, but she had 
made five or six beds as she went, and vomited mutton at each 
place. After awhile we found her nearly dead. We used wolf- 
skins, instead of saddles, like blankets on a horse. 

" On ' Fifth Day,' as we were going to meeting, I said to 
James, '■ Let us kill a deer as we go home." '' All right," said 
he. James' wife spoke up, " If any deer is killed, James will 
have it to do." We went after the deer, and the women went 
home. We went to a pond and saw deer tracks. There was a 
sloping tree with the roots turned up, and James sat there watch- 
ing for deer. The bushes crackled, and out sprang two bucks. 
One threw his head up, and I shot it between the eyes and the 
nose, and down he dropped. "Hallo," cried James, " is the 
deer down ?" " Yes." - We tied the feet and carried it home on 
a pole. "Well," said James' wife, "who killed the deer'f 
"Francis," said James. She hated it that I had shot the deer 
instead of her precious husband. 


"My father was a bell maker, and so was I. Bells were in 
great demand then. Cattle and horses and sheep ran in the 
woods, and there had to be a bell in the flock to keep them to- 
gether. I tended a little farm, and would plow till the flies would 
vex my beast, and then go and work in the shop, making bells. 
In that w«y I would make §17 to $22 worth in a single week. 
They sold from 25 cents to $.3.50 a piece. Those heavy ox bells 
w.Me large ; they could be heard easily four miles. I have heard 
one of thero seven miles. [I questioned the accuracy of his 
memory, but the old gentleman rallied gallantly to the defense of 
his bell.s, declaring that his statement was simply the sober, 
actual fact. — Author.] 

" I would take my saddle bags and stuff' them with ' nests ' of 
bells, i. e., little bells in bigger ones, perhaps two dozen bells, and 
set out for Winchester. The bells were ready sale, cash down. I 
would trade for shoes, hats, anything needed, and tie them on 
my horse, and go home loaded some times to the very tail of the 
horse. People would joke me, " Hi\llo, there, got ahorseback 
grocery?" "Yes; can't you see for yourself,'' I would say. 
1 made the bells of the best Juniata iron. When father died, the 
doctor's bill was $60. He wanted his pay in bells, but I would 
not do it, and he took a wagon. Sometimes I used boiler iron, 
and sometimes sheet iron, but Juniata (or Sligo) iron was the 
best. People would send far for my bells. I sent $16 worth to 
Fort Wayne, and they said, " They are the best bells we ever 
saw." They sent another order for $100 worth, but I could not 
fill it. The demand at home and from Illinois and Iowa movers 
was more than 1 could supply. I made bells for over twenty 

"I was quite wild at one time of my life, and inclined to 
skepticism. I had two nice horses, perfect idols to me. I would 
walk to Newport any day rather than ride either of them. One 
day as I was plowing I thought, " If there is a God, I wish he 
would reveal Himself to me in some way that I may know Him !" 

Shortly afterward, as I was in the house, and the horses were 
in the stable, suddenly there came a sharp flash of lightning and 
a crashing thunder peal. I went to the stable and there were 
my beauties with their heads lying on a long trough. I spoke to 
them, but they made no sign. The lightning had killed them 
both dead. It impressed me greatly, " Turn, or the next will 
be thine," rang in my soul. I did turn, and since that time I 
have tried in my poor, weak way to serve the Lord, and I hum- 
bly trust my Maker looks upon my feeble service with gracious 

CHOLERA, 1849. 

" The rise of the cholera near Lynn (1849) was very strange 
and striking. A cloud rose in the morning from the east, with 
some lightning and thunder. The lightning struck the ground 
at the cross roads near Isaac Palmer's, east of Lynn, and there 
came a terrible smell. The cholera began the same day, and ran 
along those roads west and south. The next day, in the morning, 
when I was at Newport, a neighbor came for a coffin, and said, 
"James Lister is dead with the cholera, sick only a few hours." 
I went home instantly. Henry Benson was taken also and died 
that night. Ilodgen died also. Jesse Williams came to shave 
the corpse, and some one said, "Jesse, what is the matter?" 
He quit shaving, went out of the door, sat down, and in a few 
minutes he was dead. Hodgen and Williams lay dead together. 
Hodgen's wife stayed all night alone with the two corpses. 
Hodgen's body was taken away the next morning for burial, and 
Williams' corpse lay there alone till the next day. Twenty- 
sevendied in all. Ur. Cook came down from Winchester, say- 
ing that he could cure it easily enough. He went into the field 
and picked and ate blackberries, and in two or three hours he 
was dead himself!" 

NoTK. — The writer of these sketches then lived at the Union 
Literary Institute, near Spartansburg, and some eight miles from 
Lynn ; and it was stated at the time that six lay dead before the 
one that died first had been buried. And also that two half- 
grown lads had to bury their father alone. It was said also that 
at Boston, six miles south of Richmond, Ind., the first person 
was taken sick at sunrise, and that before sundown six persons 
lay dead in that village. Whether these statements were true is 
not now known, but it is certain that they were made at the time 
as being matters of current news, and that they were supposed 
to be correct. The writer well recollects what fear pervaded the 
school at the institute lest the dread scourge should break out 
amongst them in its terrible power as at Lynn and elsewhere. 
The boarding house of the institution was filled with students, 
and the cholera among them would have been an awful visitation, 
but by God's mercy the fearful plague came no nearer, and they 
were spared. [See also statements of Silas Johnson and William 
Pickett, and of Elder W. D. Stone.] 


11, 1864. 

The subjoined sketch is so apposite and so well drawn that I 
cannot forbear to transfer it, in substance, to my pages : 

" I came to Indiana, in 1817, with my father, William Smith, 
being twelve years old. He stopped that spring near Garrett's mill, 
on Green's Fork, two miles above Williamsburg, Ind. The settlers 
there were mostly from the same neighborhood in South Carolina 
with my father. David Young had come out in the fall of 1816, 
rented some ground for father, and a little cabin in a new town 
called Salem, in Wayne County, extinct long ago. Father put 
in a crop on that land, and stayed there till August, and then 
went up into Randolph County. The country all seemed low 
and like a river bottom in the jungles. The uncleared land was 
full of ramps, a rank, ill-smelling weed, eagerly eaten by the 
cows, and utterly ruining their milk. They grew early, how- 
ever, and were soon gone. Buckeyes, nettles, gnats and mosqui- 
toes were very plenty. In May, I saw the first Indians. An 
Indian family camped on the bank of the branch near Salem. I 


xras terribly afraid, for all I had ever read or heard of cruel, 
bloody savages came thronging up to my mind. However, I 
ventured up after awhile, and got over my scare. After that, an 
old Indian, called Johnny Green, from whom Green's Fork was 
named, used to come and talk with us. He would get half 
drunk, and then the way he would talk was a wonder. He 
would tell of Wayne's fight with the Indians on the Maumee. 
He said, acting it out as he talked, ' Injun hide in timber, heap 
Injun. White man come, heap white man. Injun shoot, heap 
shoot. White man get in a row. Injun heap shoot, heap shoot. 
Bimeby old Anthony get mad, heap mad ! Gallop horse along row, 
heap halloo, hooee, hoo-ee, hoo-ee.' 

"White man come, heap come, keep come, Antony heap 
holloo, hoo-ee, hooee, hoo-ee, Injun shoot, heap shoot, white man 
keep come, then Injun run, run, run, heap run. Me run, run, 
heap run. Bimeby me come to a swamp, me jump in — yoo ook, 
sink down, hide, night come, me slip away.' It excited me 
grefitly to hear the old Indian savage act out this scene, and tell 
the tale of this battle, and the picture remains in my mind vivid 
to this day. In Julv, 1817, father entered fractional Sections 
5 and 6, Town 18, Range 13 east, near the head of West Fork 
of White Water, now in Randolph, but then in Wayne, just east 
of the new boundary, and two or three miles farther up than any 
other settler, like the Nolan's Fork settlers three years before, on 
the utmost verge of civilization. We laid our corn by, helped 
Uncle George Smith through harvest ^and haying, and then Aug- 
ust 18, 1817, father took his team and'wagon, my two older broth- 
ers, David and Carey, and myself, and went nut to his land, sev- 
eral miles through the woods, to build a cabin. We stayed all 
night at old William Blount's (the Zimmerman Farm), and the next 
morning went on, cutting a road as we went. A little after noon 
we got to the spot, the top of the hill where my father built, and 
where he spent the rest of his days. We cleared the bushes 
away, turned the horses to the feed trough on the tongue, and • 
went to work. In a week we had a cabin up ami covered, and 
had made a fire-place and chimney up to the funnel with dirt 
back and jambs, but the house had no floor. Father and one 
brother went back to bring the family and things, but my other 
brother and myself stayed there and cleared a patch for turnips. 
The next week the Aimily came, and we sowed our turnips. We 
hud a fe« small late ones that fall. We hewed logs and built a 
house in October, and had it floored and ready in December. In 
the winter we cleared two acres in the creek bottom, smooth for 
meadow, and sowed it in timothy ; also six acres, • eighteen inch- 
es and under, ' for corn, and built a smith shop for father to work 
at his trade in. He was a blacksmith. 

" William Blount lived highest up the creek, but one of his 
sons-in-law built a cabin about one-fourth mile above him, and 
another son-in-law lived on the same section. 

'•John Proctor lived just below on Section 17. Evan Shoe- 
maker had the north end, and Griffin Davis the south end of 
Fractional Section 18. 

"John Jordan (and his son, William) lived on Section 19, in 
Wayne County. Thomas Brower and John Gwynn lived below on 
the same section. James Malcom was on the northeast (juiirter of 
Section 17, and Henry Shoemaker lived with hira. Samuel 
Sales, Amy Ilall, and David Jones, lived on the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 17. Isaac Barnes and John C. Hodge (brother.s- 
in-law), from Beaver County, Penn , had entered land and built 
cabins. They went back for their families, and returned in the 
spring of 1818, by boat, down the Ohio to Cincinnati, and thence 
by land. Mr. Barnes' cabin stood on Section 7, across the 
creek from where Blount lived, and where Barrett Barnett lived 
a few years ago. Mr. Hodge's dwelling stood on Section 8, near 
and south of where my father built, and where Emerson Street 
lived ten years ago. So Mr. Hodge was our nearest neighbor. 

" The country was thickly covered with a tall, heavy forest, 
having a dense undergrowth of shrubs, wild grass and weeds. I 
will name the trees most abundant: first, beech, sugar tree, ash. 

three varieties, gray, blue and swamp; oak, five varieties, white, 
red, burr, pin and river; poplar; walnut — white and black ; 
elm — red or slippery, and white or hickory; hickory — white or 
shell-bark, and black or pignut ; buckeye, linn, wild-maple, hack- 
berry, coffee-nut, honey-locust, cottonwood. The undergrowth 
was spice-bush, iron-wood, water-beech, horn-beam, prickly ash, 
dog-wood, kunnekanic (Indian name — tree now extinct), red-bud, 
pr.paw, wild-plum, red and black haw, sassafias. In swamps 
there were black-alder, willow, thorn, crab-apple, young cotton- 
wood. Weeds and. grasses were nettles, pea-vines, may-apple, 
ginseng, ferns, black snake-root, seneca-root, silk-weed, ramps 
(soon extinct), bear-grass, file-grass, skunk's cabbage, pond lily, 

" In clearings, there were butter weeds, thistles, mullen, dog 
fennel ; in tilled lands, Spanish needles and touch-me-nots. 

" The game were deer, squirrels — gray, red and black ; tur- 
keys, pheasants and bears. Other wild animals — wolves, raccoons, 
ground hogs, opossums, porcupines, wild cats, foxes, panthers, 
mink, otters and polecats. Wild bees were abundant. 

" People helped each other roll logs, raise buildings and husk 
corn, often going several miles for that purpose. For milling, peo- 
ple had to go to Milton, or even to Connersville. My father got a 
pair of hand mill-stones, and we ground meal upon them, rather 
than go so far to mill. We also beat hominy in a mortar, and 
used that and potatoes and squashes and pumpkins instead of 
bread. My father finally had his mill-stones geared, and much 
of the corn of the neighborhood was ground upon them. Two 
turning would grind pretty well, but four would rattle it out 


" Our clothing was made of flax, wool and deer-skin, all home 
made. There was no money to buy " store clothes," and very 
few to be bought. Trade was mostly by barter. Peltry, honey, 
beeswax (for there were bees, both wild and tame), etc., were trad- 
ed for salt, iron (which always had to be bought), and some- 
times for leather, though many tanned their own leather, and 
many wore only moccasins. Hides were tanned in great troughs 
made from trunks of large trees chopped out hollow. 

" Winter clothing was coon-skin caps, dressed deer-skin hunt- 
ing shirts, pants and moccasins. Summer wear was linen, straw 
hats, bare-feet or moccasins. We often got moccasins from the 
Indians for corn, butter, hominy, salt, etc. The people, thougli 
now they would be called rough and uncouth, were yet neighbor- 
ly, kind, sociable and affectionate, and intelligent and moral 

" The wild range was good for many years, and we soon had 
plenty of cattle, which furnished abundance of milk, butter and 
meat, with hides and tallow to buy salt, iron and leather. From 
1821 to 1828, a common way to trade was, so many young cat- 
tle for a thing, for (say) a horse, yoke of oxen, piece of land, etc., 
and anything from six months to three years old was "counted 
in." If the parties could not agree, the price was settled by 
referees. Sometimes so many bushels of wheat or corn would be 
the price. In 1826-27, money began to appear somewhat, and 
barter became less frequent. However, in the spring of 1838, I 
traded a large, rather ugly four-year-old horse, and a half-jvorn 
dragon-bitted bridle, for a forty-acre lot a mile west of Winches- 
ter, no price being named in the trade. 


"Clearing land was done thus : " One foot and under," or 
" eighteen inches and under," i. e., all below twelve or eighteen 
inches, were cut, and they and the " grubs " and old logs were all 
burned up. The rest were deadened by "girdling" [i. c, cut- 
ting through the bark, or the sap), or by burning brush heaps 
around the trees. If girdled to the " red," the tree would die 
immediately ; if only through the bark, it would take two or 
three or four years, soonest if deadened in August. The dead- 
ened trees would fall more or less, and the land wihi>4 kw 


to be recleared each season for several years. Many, about tbe 
fourth year, would cut down everything standing, and clear the 
land fully. The trees would be made into proper lengths for 
rolling by "niggering," i. e., burning the trunks into pieces by 
piling large limbs and cbunks across, and keeping fires across 
the tree-trunks. Attending to these fires was called " watching the 
niggers." I have done it many a time, attending sometimes a 
hundred fires in one job. Sometimes, at first, land was cleared in 
the green, but as soon as they could, it would be done by dead- 
ening, and mostly in August, by cutting the undergrowth, with 
stubs a foot or so long ; nearly all would rot or die out the third 
year. The whole might be cleared by cutting and cross-piling 
and firing, with but little labor. 


" When the land was cleared " in the green," the birds, etc., 
for three or four years would nearly take the crop. The trees 
left standing would afford them ample refuge, and they would 
. take heavy toll. In 1821 or 1822, a general inroad of turkeys, 
birds, squirrels, raccoons, and even bears, passed the West River 
settlement toward the South. Much of the crops were destroyed. 
The creatures crossed over the Ohio into Kentucky ; vast num- 
bers were slaughtered as they passed ; I once killed three turkeys 
from one flock, and my father and brothers, five more, making 
eight in all. The little boys used to »be kept going round the 
fields, " hallooing " and screaming, to keep the birds away ; 
sometimes yelling themselves hoarse. 


" In the fall and winter of 1821-22, a pigeon roost was made 
between father's h^i Huntsville, on the southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 33, Township 18, Range 13, and northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 4, Township 18, Range 13. They began in October or 
November, and stayed to lay and hatch the next spring. They 
would begin to come about sun-down, and keep coming till 8 
or 9 o'clock at night ; some flocks would be more than a mile 
long. There must have been millions of the birdi ; on still nights, 
we could hear their noise to our house, a mile and a half. People 
would go there by night and kill them by hundreds, coming from 
Martindale Creek, and even from Green's Fork. The birds 
would lay their eggs in March, two in a nest, hatch and fly 
away, such as were left. I have seen but few for many years. 


" In 1824, a terrible hurricane passed over my father's house. 
It was the second Sunday in July — the regular monthly meeting 
of the Baptist Church at Salem, of which my father and mother 
were members. My brother David and myself had been there 
and were going home ; hence it took place July 11, 1824, at 5 
P. M. As we were going along the Jacksonburg road, near the 
county line, we saw a black cloud rising in the west and we 
stopped in an empty cabin, hitching our colts near by. The 
cloud roared terribly, and the sky became suddenly dark; in five 
minutes it grew as dark as a starlight nigiit ; no sound was heard 
for twenty or thirty minutes but a deep, dead, tremendous roar ; 
I heard no rain, no thunder, no trees falling, nothing but that awful 
roar, deep, dead and loud ; it stopped quite suddenly, and the sky 
grew bright again ; on going out. we saw there had been a heavy 
rain, and many trees, both dead and green, had been blown down 
around us. We started again for home, two miles north ; some 
trees had fallen across the road, but we got to old John Zimmer- 
man's (Blount's) place, with little trouble. He and his boys were 
out fixing the fence to save the crops ; forty or fifty rods of fence 
were flat, and many trees also. John Zimmerman said (he was 
Dutch), " You can't kit home, te trees is all blown town acrost 
te rote." We said, "We will try." David said, "Our colts 
can go through the brush where a wild cat can't." The farther 
we went the worse it got. The thick timber began one quarter of 

a mile above, and for a half mile to the creek crossing there had. 
been no clearing, but it had been dense, unbroken forest. As we 
entered the mass of crushed and fallen timber, we tried to follow 
the track till we got to where Elijah Arnold built, and his widow 
Rhoda still lives (1864). We could get no farther; it was 
nearly dark, and stripping the bridles and old riding quilts from 
the heads and backs of the colts, we shouldered the things and 
put for home. The poor fillies neighed most pitifully as wo 
left them ; we got home before long, they came three days 
afterward. They never told us how they got through, neither 
can I imagine, but they made it somehow; we found the family 
unhurt, frightened at tbe terrible storm, but thankful for safety. 
Most of the roof was blown off, weight poles and all ; some of the 
clap-boards were carried 200 yards or more ; the body of the 
house was hewed logs, and they stood firm. Early the next 
morning, the whole neighborhood set to work, righting up houses, 
buildings, fences, etc., and on Thursday, we got the road opened 
again. Half a mile south of father's, a sound, thrifty-growing 
beech tree was twisted like a hickory withe, from two to eight 
feet above the ground, and was lying down all whole except that 
twist. It would seem that the tree had been bent over, and that 
while falling, it had been ' whirled ' by the tornado, and the tree 
was so tough and green that it would not break, but just twisted 
like a withe. I helped cut the tree out of the road ; it had stood 
west of the track and lay a little north of east. Another 
fact, at John E. Hodge's house, 300 yards south of father's, a 
twelve or fifteen gallon iron sugar kettle had been leaning against 
the southeast corner of the cabin, a low, one-story building. The 
wind moved the kettle three or four feet, and turned it bottom- 
upward. Mr. Hodge's cabin was wholly unroofed, and some of 
the ribs and logs were thrown out of place ; the wind was stronger 
there than at father's, being 300 yards nearer the center of the 
storm. How far west or how high up in the air the storm was 
formed I never knew; it seems to have struck the timber at the 
Randolph and Henry line ; its course was about due east, and 
nearly in a straight line, verging slightly south. The extent of 
the storm was about six miles from west to cast ; it seems to have 
come down to the timber about the county line, and to have come 
nearer and widened for two and a half miles, then to have ground 
and crushed everything in its reach, for about one and a half 
miles in length, and a mile in width ; then it seemed to rise or . 
grow weaker, till at length it appeared to pass entirely above the 
timber. My father's house and the road we traveled were nearly 
a mile west of where its effect ceased, and its crashing track was 
about half a mile wide there, its whole track being at that point 
about three miles from north to south ; not quite a mile west, the 
crashing power was a mile wide, and for two miles farther west, the 
crashing force was a mile from one to one and a quarter miles. That 
whole region was a dense virgin forest, and the storm threw down 
all the timber in one immense mass. Some- four miles west, a 
road had been opened north and south ; that road was utterly 
blocked, and for years was wholly impassable for man or beast. 
This space, four miles east and west, and a mile or so north and 
south, was called the " fallen timber." Some ten years later 
the settlers began to enter and clear the lands and the tract is now 
occupied by fine farms." 

So far as known, no person and no animal was killed or in- 
jured, which is, indeed, a wonderful fact. 

[Note. — It is stated elsewhere that a cow was killed belong- 
ing to Isaac Branson. See Reminiscences of Mrs. Anna Retz, 

URIAH BALL (1817). 

" When father first came west (1817), not being satisfied with 
Warren County, Ohio, he took a flat-boat and floated down the 
Ohio and the Mississippi, stopping first in Tennessee, near Chick- 
asaw Bluffs; he bought out an improvement there and located, 
but sickness soon drove us away from that region, and he went 
across the river to Little Prairie, Mo. Before long he turned 
his face northward again, coming back through Kentucky to 


Warren County, Ohio. The first Indian I ever saw was near 
Chickasaw Bluffs, Tenn. I was afraid of him, and tried to liide 
behind father ; but the Indian (all painted and feathered) would 
' peek ' around father at me, to scare me, I suppose. 

" The great earthquake had occurred a few years before (1811- 
12), and at Little Prairie we would often come to great " cracks" 
in the ground several feet wide. Sometimes trees Would be stand- 
ing split partly open, and " iistraddle " of the crack. Two miles 
from Little Prairie, there had been before the edrthquake a lake 
of considerable size. The earthquake so raised the land fts to 
" spill all the water out," and the bottom was at that lime two 
feet higher than the surrounding land. Outside the lake Wete 
trees and canebrakes, but in the lake ground were only great 
weeds like sun-Hower weeds, called by the French " wample-pihs." 

" The earth had not done shaking yet, for as I lay on the cabin 
floor sick with the ague, the house and the doors, and the dishes 
would rattle with the shaking of the earth ; and as we were on 
the Mississippi, the water would "ripple" As though there were 
a heavy shower, while yet the sky was clear and the air still. 

" In New Madrid the houses had been cracked and twi.'jted by 
the earthquake, and stood so yet when we were there (although 
some years after the earthquake had occurred). 

" I sat on the west bank of the Mississippi and looked across 
the river with a spy-glass at the deer and the bears as they would 
come down to the river to drink, standing upon the eastern shore. 

[Mr. Ball now resides at Union City, aged and feeble.] 


" I was born in Carolina in 1807, and was in ray tenth year 
when father emigrated to Indiana in 1816-17. ' 

"On the first day of December, 1816, a large company of 
emigrants set out from South Carolina, bound for Randolph 
Co., Ind., as follows : 

Paul W. Way and family, five in number. 

John Way and family, si.\ in number. 

John Moorman and family, six in number. 

Benjamin Beverly and family, si.x in number. 

George T. Wilson and family, five in number. 

Armsbee Diggs and family, two in number. 

They were relatives bv blood, or marriage, or both. 

Paul W. and John Way were brothers. George T. Wilson 
had married John Moorman's daughter. 

" Benjamin Beverly's wife was Paul Way's sister, as also was 
Armsbee Diggs' wife. Thus there were six men with their 
wivf- and eighteen children, making thirty in all. We had four 
wagons, to wit: One two-horse wagon, two five-horse wagons, 
one four-horse wagon. John Moorman (with his son-in-law, 
George Wilson), had a two-horse wagon and a five horse wagon ; 
Paul W. Way (with Benjamin Beverly, his brother-in-law), had 
one five-horse wagon ; John Way (with Armsbee Diggs, his son- 
in-law), had one four-horse wagon, making sixteen horses in 

" We overtook families of emigrants in every variety of loco- 
motion ; some had only pack horses, and sometimes there would 
be a whole family with a single horse. I remember one such in 
particular. They had a little knot of a horse piled up with 
goods, with two or three children on top and the woman and 
baby besides. The whole cry was " to get to Indiana," no mat- 
ter how, so as only to reach that paradise beyond the Ohio. 

"As I said, we started from Carolina December 1, 1816, and 
we reached Williamsburg, Wayne County, Ind , February 27, 

•' Our route lay across Blue Ridge, over the Holston, along 
French Broad and Crooked Rivers, through Sawanna gap, over 
Cumberland Mountains, an<l so througli Tennessee and Kentucky 
to the Ohio River at Cincinnati. We camped on New Year's 
night on a very high bluff on French Broad, with steps cut down 
to the river. We saw a live alligator, which to us childien was 
an unusual sight. There was a severe snow-storm as we were on 

top of the Cumberland Mountains, and we had snow and cold 
weather from there all the way through. The Ohio River was 
frozen over, and we crossed on the ice ; boys were skating, and 
ladies and gentlemen were riding in sleighs on the river. Our 
folks were afraid to cross with their heavy wagons and big teams ; 
and the men went over to Cincinnati and got men to come with 
long rojies and haul the wagons across the ice in that way. The 
hind wheels of Paul Way's wagon (which was the last one to 
cross), broke through the ice, and it was hard work to get the 
wagon out and across, but they succeeded. George Wilson (my 
father), was likely to have been drowned. He fell into an air 
hole up to his neck, and came near being sucked under the 
ice ; but he held to the ice and the men pulled him out. 

" We mot a tribe of Indians (I think somewhere in Kentucky), 
going home with their ponies and their squaws. They had been 
to make peace, and to get their pay and their presents. There 
were 500 or more of them, men and women on ponies with 
the chief. Our company were greatly alarmed, but the Indians 
did us no harm. They isked for tobacco and bread, and they 
got what they asked for, so f;ir as our folks had them. We were 
very glad to get along with them so easily aa that. They went 
on their way, and our people passed on toward the Ohio, thank- 
ful to escape so cheaply. 

"That winter journey was a severe one, and to look back it is 
not easy to see how we were able to gdt safely through. But by 
God's mercy we were spared to come safe to our looked-for haven. 
and to reach the friends who had already made the trip, and to 
meet them in joy and thankfulness of heart." 

This is understood to have been the first company of emi- 
grants to White River in Randolph County. 

Paul W. Way, Henry II. Way, William Way, Robert Way 
and William Diggs had gone up White River from its mouth 
through the woods to Randolph County. Paul Way had gone 
back to Carolina to pilot the company through, and the others 
had stayed in Indiana. Henry Way and William Diggs went 
down to Wayne County during the fall and winter, and were 
married, and William Diggs and his wife are understood to have 
been the first family who settled on White River in Randolph 
County. Fannie Hill, of Jericho, oldest daughter of William 
Diggs, says her mother lived there for six weeks without seeing 
a white face (except probably her husband). 

Such moving and such settlement as this would not very well 
suit modern notions of pride and comfort. But such was the 
way of the pioneers, and thus this goodly heritage gained its 
brave and hardy settlers. 

The Ways, the Wrights, the Moorraans, the Diggses, the 
Pucketts, the Hills, and many others were numerous and noted 
in early times among the primitive settlers, and many of their 
descendants still remain. 

[Note. — Truth compels us to state that the romantic travel 
up White River from near its mouth to the neighborhooil of Win- 
chester, is declared by William Diggs, Jr., one of the party who 
is supposed to have made the wonderful trip, to be wholly a 
"myth;" that their journey was simply from Henry County 
over into Rnndolph, far enough indeed, but by no means su&h a 
journey as a trip the whole length of White River would have 

[Note 2. — Jesse Way, who says he, too, was a lad in the 
same company of emigrants, though younger than Judith Wil- 
son, insists that the party saw no company of Indians like that 
of which she speaks. It is difficult to sec how she could im- 
agine the fact, more so than to consider that Jesse may have for- 
gotten the circumstance]. 

[NoTK 3. — Another and perhaps a more serious objection to 
the correctness of her memory, is the question what Indians they 
could have been, and whither they were going. However,' 
Aunt Judith insists that they met the Indians, let them be 
who they might be, and no matter where they had been or 
where they might be going]. 



" Jessup's Mill, on Greenville Creek, was built some years 
before Co.x s Mill was, on White River. 

When I was a little boy, say six" years old, I used to go with 
some older boy to carry dinner to the men who were building 
Cox's Mill, on White River. 

For a long time there were no ministers belonging to Jericho 
meeting. John Jones came about 1835. Benjamin Cox be- 
longed to White River, and he used often to exercise at Jericho. 
Mr. Robinson has been a minister about fifteen years. 

The early settlers were Henry Hill, Benoni Hill, Amos Pea- 
cock, Abram Peacock, Stanton Bailey, Jeremiah Cox, William 
Pickett, Joshua Buckingham. 

The Shockney family did not come for years afterward — not 
till I was grown." 


Asenath (Hill) Thomas was born in North Carolina, in 1815, 
and was brought to Jericho, Randolph Co., Ind., in 1818. Jer- 
emiah Cox entered land in the neighborhood before Henry Hill 
came. Abram and Amos Peacock were the first settlers there. 
They came, also, in 1818, but before Henry Hill did. A Mr. Ken- 
nedy lived up White River, three miles away, near Mount Zion. 
Mrs. Thomas says, " We used to ' neighbor' with them, they lived so 
near us. We went by a ' blazed path' through the woods. An ' In- 
dian trail' passed from the north and west^ through Jericho, and past 
old Benjamin Thomas', east of Newport. The Indians would go 
'n companies, fifteen or twenty pack-horses at one time. They 
would call at father's (Henry Hill's) for bread and milk. They 
thought milk was a wonderful treat. They would bring hickory 
kernels, moccasins, baskets, etc., to exchange for corn, meal, salt, 
etc. One of their chiefs was named Johnny Cornstalk. He 
often passed, and was always friendly. He was a stout, heavy 
man, with large limbs and high cheek bones. He would come in 
and stay and talk and laugh and enjoy himself for hours with 
us. The Indians mostly talked very broken English, but he 
spoke our language quite well. 

" There was one bad Indian ; the tribe had driven him off. He 
skulked round among the whites. Finally he shot a white man, 
and another white man shot him and wounded him, and still 
another man killed him. The Indians would not take him after 
he was wounded. The poor fellow got Mr. Lewallyn, of Ridge- 
ville, to take him in. Mr. L. sent to the Indians to come and 
get him. They said " No ; bad Indian ; don't want him." The 
man whom the Indian had shot, found out that he was at Lew- 
allyn's, and came there and shot him as he lay wounded in bed." 
[This was Fleming. See other accounts elsewhere]. 

"Friends' Meeting at Jericho was established about 1821. 
They built a log-cabin church, no windows, but merely holes, with 
shutters. The seats were poles, with legs. The women's side 
had a big fire-place ; the men's side had a hearth in the middle, 
with a hole above to let the smoke out. They would use coals 
from the fire-place, with bark, etc., that would not smoke much. 

" Benoni Hill, Henry Hill, Amos Peacock, Abram Peacock, 
Elijah Cox and Wm. Cox formed the meeting. The first preacher 
was John Jones, 1835. The first school was in 1822 or 1823, taught 
by Mariam Hill, consisting of twenty or twenty-five pupils, in 
Friends' Meeting House. Father Henry Hill once went to Rich- 
mond to work for money to pay his taxes, $1. He could get work 
at 25 cents per day. John Charles lent him ^1, and he came 
back and paid them. He has taken bacon to Richmond, and 
sold it at $1 a hundred, half in trade. Eggs and chickens, for 
awhile, were no sale at all. Bye and bye we could get 3 cents 
a dozen for eggs, at Winchester. 

" The first mill on White River, in this region, was Jeremiah 
Cox's — a water mill; a corn mill at first, then a flour mill also. 
The first run was gray heads; the other run was buhrs from 
abroad. It was built in 1825, and stood forty-five years. It 
was somewhat famous in its day. 

"The lumber for Jeremiah Cox's house, owned now by Simon 
Cox — house still standing — was hauled fifty-two years ago from 
Richmond, and from Uncle Elijah Thomas' saw-mill, near New- 

" Henry Hill lived in a pole cabin, fourteen by sixteen feet ; no 
windows, but a hole for four lights, with a shutter. He made a 
sash with his pocket-knife, put in the lights, and then we had a 
window, and were grand for a fact ! Our hearth was rock and 
dirt pounded together. Cattle would get fat on the wild pea- 
vines, etc., but they died with what was called the " bloody mur- 
rain." They were fat and full^of tallow, but they would be taken 
sick and die in a few hours. Father had four heifers "come in" 
nearly at one time, and three died suddenly. 

" People tanned their own leather in tan-troughs, made from 
big logs hewed out. George Thomas has a strip of leather tanned 
by Henry Hill forty-five years ago. George has worn it in his 
suspenders forty years, and it is good and strong now. 

" People went to meeting in home-spun — the men in linen or 
tow shirts, and tow pantaloons, and deerskin jackets ; the women 
in check home-spun. All classes would go barefooted. After 
awhile, people began to have shoes, and women would carry their 
shoes in their hands, and put them on when near church." 


" We went to mill at Moffat's, Newman's, or Cox's. Our corn 
sacks would hold four bushels, but we would take two or three 
bushels, and put the sack across the horse. Fruit was abundant 
— gooseberries, plums, etc. Our clothing was linsey, home-made, 
or buckskin. Breeches, jackets, hunting-shirts, were buckskin. 

" To dress skins was a great curiosity. The art is now nearly 
lost. I used to dress many skins years ago, and I will tell how : 


" Soak the skin soft ; take off the flesh 
tedious job, two good skins are a full day' 
up till dry ; take deer's or beef's brains and 
and put them into a sack with warm water, 
like soap-suds ; work the skin soft in this 
hours, wring it lengthwise as dry 
pull it in every possible way till enti'rely 
wring, pull) three or four times, till white, 
flesh and smoke the skin soft and yellow, 
when dry, but when wet it will stick to youi 

with a grain knife (a 
's work) ; hang them 
dry them on a board, 
and squeeze them till 
lather, two or three 
id stretch and 
dry. Do so (soak, 
Then cut off all the 
It is nice and warm 
r hide. 


" Once a child, Mr. Burson's, was lost — a three year-old girl. 
It wandered off three miles through the woods, to Micajah Mor- 
gan's. Mr. M. saw it clambering the fence, and took it in. Mrs. 
M. said, " She looks like Enoch Burson's child." Mr. M. started 
on horseback with the girl, and met Ephraim Bowen, hunting it. 
Mr. B. took the child and carried it home. 


" At one time I hired out, mowing, twenty -six and a half days, 
at 25 cents a day. (Eighteen years old.) We used shin-plasters, 
mostly, for money. We seldom could get silver. The coins were 
commonly cUt up into pieces, called " sharp-shins." Shin-plasfers 
disappeared by and by, but silver was still very scarce. Sugar 
and deerskins were all we had to sell for money. Sugar, §6 a 
hundred; deerskins, from 25 to 50 cents apiece; fawn-skins, 25 
cents ; doeskins, 37i cents ; old buckskins, 60 cents. Land was, 
at first, ^2 per acre ; one-quarter dowD ; not less than IbO acres. 
About 1820, the price was put at $1.25, and 80 acres ; and 
afterward, 40 acres, all down. Many paid entry money and 
could not pay the rest, and lost their land. Afterwards, the law 
was made so as to allow a " floating claim, " i. e., the money paid 
might apply to a part of the land. 

" was civil and peaceable, mostly. No great 
crimes, no big affrays, nor fights, nor murders. 


" There was a mill north of Spartansburg — Jessup's Mill. I 
went there onco. There was no roof; the mill stood open. The 
miller's house was across the creek. from the mill, and a foot-log 
between. He would take a peck measure full over, turn it in, 
come back and talk awhile, and go with another peck, and so all 
night long; just about a peck an hour. 


" next day I killed my second deer. I had killed the first deer 
near Overman's. I shot that first deer, and asked him to help carry 
it in. 'No,' said Overman, ' I can't leave planting corn. You 
just take it on your shoulders, and its tail between your teeth, and 
climb a sapling and hang it up.' I didn't do it, however. But 
for my second deer. I was hunting a horse in the range. As I 
was going round a pond at the head of Nolan's Fork, a deer 
sprang up ahead of me, and I drew up my gun and let fliy, and 
down came the deer. In 1821, 1 was staying with a cousin, 
north of where Spartansburg now is. We had been planting 
corn, and when that was done I went hunting. I saw no game 
till, finally, I came to Beaver Pond. The deer tracks were abun- 
dant, but no deer. Coming to a thick maple-top, I laid my 
rifle in it, and cleared away the twigs, and made a "rest" 
for ray gun. About sundown I saw a deer cross, but too far off 
to shoot. About dusk there stood a rfoe in plain sight, about twenty 
steps away. I shot and she went. I hunted for her, but no doe 
could I find. I went back to my " rest" to watch for deer again. 
Presently along came a big buck, not ten yards distant. I moved, 
and he " bounced." About 11 o'clock, I heard the water go 
" plug-plug." Soon I saw a deer about 20 steps from me, run- 
ning its head into the water, and flapping its ears. I sighted for 
two minutes, and shot, and the deer ran. I got down to load the 
gun, but I had not powder enough ; and so I went to the cabin 
about 12 o'clock. " Where have you been all night?" "Beaver 
Pond." " Shooting deer ?" "Yes." " What luck ?" " Had two 
shots, but haven't found my deer." In the morning we went 
out and found both deer, dead, not ten yards apart. This was the 
year Napoleon died, 1821. 

" Twice I have shot three deer in one day, and two in a day 
many times. Once I was chasing a gang of deer, and the sky 
clouded up and I started for home. AH at once there stood four 
deer gazing at me. I let drive at them. After loading again, I 
went to the place and found the "hair cut" and scattered on the 
snow. I followed the trail and saw blood plenty, and at length 
found the deer, dead, 100 yards from where it had been shot. I 
hurg it up, skinned it, left the meat hanging, and, going back, I 
found another place of " hair cut." I followed that trail, also, 
and the first I knew, there lay the other deer, dead, in a thicket 
of spice-brush. One shot had killed both deer. The carcass of 
the dead buck lay stiff' and cold where it had been shot down. I 
did with that as with the other, and went to the cabin. Next 
morning we brought in the venison, and splendid meat it was, 
too, I can tell you." 


" My grandfather, James Wright, was a Carolinian Quaker, 
who fled to the wilds of the Holston, in Tennessee, to escape con- 
scription into the army, in the war of 1776. My father, John 
Wright, was puny at first, and was rocked in an old trunk-cover 
lined with the skin of a sea animal, the hair on which is said to 
rise and fall with the tides. As he grew up, he gained strength 
and vigor. He married Margaret Reece, in Carolina. About 
1804, the Wrights emigrated to Ohio, to military lands. In 
1814, or thereabouts, the twelve-mile strip came into market, and 
some fourteen or fifteen families, who lost their lands on the mili- 
tary tract through a flaw in the title, came, soon afterward, to 
Randolph County. They had fine improvements in Ohio, but they 
lost the whole. James and Abram Wright moved first of this 
company. My father came out and selected some land, but did 
not move then. James and Abram Wright settled on Eight-mile 
creek. William Haworth came with them. William Diggs and 

Armsbee Diggs came from Carolina about the same time. Will- 
iam Way, Sr., and his sons, William, Paul and Henry, all 
grown and married, came also. I think these came in the fall of 
1815. James and Abram Wright moved soon afterward from 
Clinton County, Ohio. 

" March 10, 1816, my brother Isaac (one of the triplets), and 
myself started, with one horse for us both, from Clinton County, 
Ohio, to go to the woods of Randolph. With a few things in a 
sack slung across the horse (among them, seven or eight apples — 
the last of the season), we set ofi" in high glee, I being fourteen 
years old, taking turns in riding, or, as it is called, " riding an(l 
tying, " a very common practice then. Our route was Waynes- 
ville, Springboro, Eaton, New Paris, Williamsburg, Ind., and so 
on to Randolph. We got to brother James' glad enough. Isaac 
said, " I had to walk nearly all the way. Solomon was so chick- 
legged he could hardly go at all." We went to work on father's 
place to clear and build. One day I had laid off" my coat and 
vest on the leaves, when the fire ran and caught them, and burnt 
leaves, coat, vest and all. As I held up the smoking shreds. 
Uncle Haworth cried, "Save the buttons!" "There are no 
buttons to save," was the curt reply. There was I, a poor lad 
fourteen years old, one hundred and twenty miles from home, 
with no clothes but shirt and pants. I had to wear an old over- 
coat of brother James', a world too large and long, which made 
me the laughingstock at all the log-rollings. In warm weather, 
I gladly shed the old coat and took to shirt and pants. 

" I stayed through the summer, and were turned home: and in 
about a year father and I came through with a load of provisions. 
A year after that, father moved to his land. Cabin Creek was so 
named on a trip we made to David Connor's, below Wheeling. 
Seeing a group of Indian cabins on the bank of the creek, some 
one cried, " Let us call the stream ' Cabin Creek,' and Cabin 
Creek it is to this day. Muncie was so named from Muncie 
[Montzie], an old Indian. The Indians complained of Connor's 
whisky. " Too much ' Sinewa,' " they said. I saw the first lot 
sold in Winchester. 

"Once in school, near Dunkirk, on the last day, the girls got 
behind the chimney and pushed the fire-place and back wall over 
into the house, and scattered the clay- all over the floor — grand 
fun. they thought. 

" My oldest boy, George Washington, killed a bear. He was 
quite young, and people would ask, " Is that the boy who killed 
the bear ?" He skinned the bear and brought it [the skin] home. 

" One day some white men and Indians were jumping near the 
mill pond. One white man jumped with stones in his hands. 
The Indians were angry. One of them threw the stones into the 
pond, exclaiming, " No fair !" 

"Nathan Thornburg came one day and said, " We are starving 
for meat." We went hunting, but found nothing. Just as we 
were going home, a deer started up. I shot the deer and cried 
to Thornburg, " There is your meat; go get it," which he did. 

"One evening a man came and said, " There is a bear over the 
hill yonder." We went, and, sure enough, the dogs had treed a 
bear. Thornburg snapped and I snapped. He stuck in a new 
flint and shot the bear outright. One man said, not very long 
ago, " The telegraph cannot come here ; there is no water- course." 
Once, as we were traveling near Smitbfield, we came upon a gang 
of Indians, lying on the ground under the oak trees. The 
dog barked, and they jumped up and hastily wrapped themselves 
up in some way. One Indian asked me for " big ax, to cut bee 
tree." I told him, "No ; got none." He brought me some 
venison, as black as black cloth, and gave me a piece. I 
took it. The young man with me took none. The Indian was 
displeased, and said, " No good white man." . 

" In 1833, my wife noticed the "stars falling." She went to 
the door and cried, " 0, come and look, quick, or the stars will 
all be down !" While we were moving from Ohio, aa we stopped 
one evening, a young man sat on a stone and sang : 

" 0, when shall I see Jesus, and reign with Him «bove?" 


The occasion was affecting. We felt lonely and sad, and 
wept freely. 

"Between Williamsburg and White River, an old ewe " gave 
out," and we laid her on a tree-root " in the wilderness." Seven 
weeks afterward we found her there, feeding about, and took her 
home. A great many Indians were here then. I used to hop with 
them and shoot at a mark. We lived in harmony till two young 
white men went down below Stony Creek and stole two Indian 
ponies and escaped to Ohio. Shortly, the Indians went after 
them. They said, " No good white man ; steal Indian ponies." 
I always noticed that, in the Indian difficulties, the whites were 
mostly to blame, and that the trouble generally arose from steal- 
ing their horses or from selling them liquor. 

" A while after we came to Randolph, father sent me to mill, on 
the Stillwater below Greenville. I followed the Indian trail 
through the forest, seeing not a living soul, except that I met 
me carry some Indians, who, upon my asking them " how far to 
Greenville ?" held up six fingers, to mean, as I supposed, six miles. 
When I got to Greenville, the old fort was there in decay and 
partial ruin, and not much of a town. Passing on, I found the 
mill on Stillwater, some miles below, got my " grinding," and 
returned safely home. This was probably before 1820. 

Solomon Wright is probably mistaken, by at least one year, 
in his idea of the time when he came to Randolph. It seems 
well settled that William Diggs and the Ways came in the fall 
of 1816, and that the Wrights, etc., none of them till at least 
the spring, or, more probably, the fall, of 1817. They did, some 
of them, certainly arrive that fall, and that was probably the time, 
December, 1817, when William Wright went to White River, as 
told by John Fisher, he thinking that wagon the first to White 

The following reminiscences of Solomon Wright were written 
and furnished by Miss Lillie A. Garrett : 

" About the time grandpa settled on this farm, he saw a young 
fawn floating down White River, rescued it from the water and 
put it into a hollow sycamore ; and when he came back from 
hunting, took it home. He kept it several years. Grandpa says, 
' I put a bell on it, and it would go off into the woods, and wild 
deer would follow it ; and when I would hear the bell I would 
look out for the deer and kill them.' 

" He became awful cross, and when anybody came, he would 
turn his hair back, bow up his neck, meet them at the gate, and 
they had to stand back or be " floored." One day, two boys were 
going to meeting, and " Buck" made them "climb" to get out of 
his way ; and he kept them up their saplings till it was too late 
for meeting. At last he " bunted" over one of the children, and 
grandpa shot him. 

" Jacob Wright and Sarah Wright (?) were the names on the 
first marriage license issued at Winchester. 

" Abram Wright and Isom Garrett were pioneer teachers. One 
taught at Dunkirk and one on Green's Fork, and the schools used 
to meet to " spell" against each other. Those " spelling matches" 
■ were gay times, and were useful, to boot. 

" To persons inquiring the way to Winchester, Charles Conway 
used to reply, " Just go on as far as you can get among the logs 
and brush, and you are in Winchester." Paul W. Way surveyed 
the town plat, and Abram Wright carried the chain for him. 
David Wright " cried" the lots at the first sale. He said to 
David Wysong, "That young man is good-looking, and he would 
look still better it he would bid just a little higher." Hiram 
Mendenhall and others, between 1830 and 1840, joined their pos- 
sessions and formed a " Community" at Unionsport. The town 
still stands, but the " Community" was dissolved long, long ago. 

"In time of the " Millerism" excitement, a deep snow fell, 
which the frightened devotees predicted would turn to brimstone. 

The first teacher at Cabin Creek was Mary Ann Ring. 
Grandpa sent the tv.o oldest children. The little '' chits" hid 
their f'r 'er, tied up in a rag, under the floor before they entered 
the scivjohoom on the first day. 

The Diggs', Littleberry, Marshall and Franklin • taught the 
school in after times, and the " Wright children" grew fond of 
learning, eight attending at one time. And future years found 
them at Winchester, Williamsburg, Liber, etc., and then as 
teachers through the region. Great interest was taken by them 
in temperance, anti-slavery, etc. Fanny, the youngest, now tlio 
wife of Judge R. S. Taylor, of Fort Wayne, used to stand on a 
chair and recite : 

In the " Separation," most of the Cabin Creek Friends left 
the "Body." Amos Bond, J. H. Bond, Solomon Wright, etc., 
were noted Anti-slavery Friends. Gre;^ enthusiasm prevailed, 
and lectures, papers, pamphlets, etc., were the order of the day. 
The underground railroad track passed this way, and " Cabin 
Creek" was one of the chief stations. 

When " Birney's vote" was found to be about 7,000, Hiram 
Mendenhall, who presented the " petition" to Henry Clay, at 
Richmond, Ind., said, " Thank God, there are left yet 7,000 men 
who have not bowed the knee to Baal, nor kissed his image " — 
referring to the rumor that so many kissed Henry Clay. Grandpa 
kept an inn for many years, as this road was a great Western 

The Van Amburg show passed here once, and the men, some 
of them, stayed overnight, and the elephant stood in the yard, 
tied to a young walnut tree. 

Some Mormon converts once camped at the creek ford, and 
their preacher declared they wtre going to Nauvoo, protected by 
the same power that guarded Daniel in the "lions' den." They 
seemed sincere and hearty in their faith. Abram Wright at- 
tended a meeting of Mormons, at which the people wept profusely 
under the words of a speaker who said he had prayed all night 
to be delivered from the devil, whose chains he could hear rattling 
down the stairs. 

" Samuel Peters, a highly respected young colored man, used 
to board with us. He went South, after the war, was cashier of 
the Freedmen's Bank, at Shreveport, La., and had been 
elected to Congress there, when he died in the fall of 1873 by 
yellow fever, which struck that city so- fatally at that time. First 
burial in Friends' Burying-Ground at Cabin Creek was a child 
of Mordecai Bond's, and the next was Jethro Hiatt's wife. 

First mill in Stony Creek Township was built at Windsor, 
by John Thornburg, 1827. The first cooking-stove was owuti 
by Solomon Wright, bought at Newport. 

A criminal with his legs fastened round the horse, once stopped 
for dinner. Two men held the clanking chains upon his ankles 
as he walked into the house. " Look at that and be honest, boys," 
said grandpa to his sons, who were standing by and gazing at the 
poor fellow. 

"Eminent Quaker preachers of the olderv time, in Randolph 
County, were Isora Puckett, Benjamin Cox and others. In later 
years. Martha Wooton, Daniel Puckett, Charles Osborn, etc., 
labored here to some extent, though not residents within the 
limits of the county. 


" I have owned and improved six different farms in this region, 
building six separate houses. When ray father moved here, I 
was too young to go to mill, but my brothers used to go to Solo- 
mon Wright's to mill and get wheat ground, unbolted, and then 
take the meal to an old man who had made a sieve by stretching 
a cloth over a piece of hoop bent round, and they would sift the 
meal through that, and thus make flour. 

" Soon after father settled, the State road was made from Win- 
chester to the State Line toward Greenville, right past father's 
cabin. I saw the men going along blazing " the trees." Judge 
Edwards said that when Paul Way surveyed the road, he had a 
man go along the county road and blow a horn, so as to keep 
him in a straight course. When they reached the "Dismal," 


they hunted a narrow passage for a crossing, and curved the road 
to hit the spot. The State road was the leading highway in this 
country, and, for many years, an immense amount of travel 
passed upon it. I have counted eighty wagons of movers in one 
day, going to Western Indiana, Illinois, etc. My father's cabin 
was a stopping-place, and we have had so many at once that we 
boys often had to go to the hay mow to sleep to give room to thn 

" Years afterward, when the West had become somewhat 
settled, cattle used to be taken east in immense droves. I have 
seen 700 or 800 in a single herd. David Heaston's, James 
GriflBs', and my father's were the chief places for movers and for 
droves. Father used to charge a man for supper, breakfast, 
lodging and horse feed? 37| cents. The old National road was 
another great thoroughfare. 

" An old man, Banta, built a bridge over Greenville Creek on 
the State road, and I helped him do the job. We went out 
there to work, camping in the woods. His folks neglected to 
bring us any provisions, and for three days we lived on bread 
and water. 

" My father lived here six years before he was able to enter 
any land. He got money to enter his first land by hauling 
wheat to Lewallyn's mill, at Ridgeville, for flour ; and by buying 
pork, potatoes, etc., building a flat-boat, and taking the boat-load 
of bacon, flour, etc., down the river to Logansport, and selling 
his load to the Indians. 

" He entered land east of Winchester (Kemp farm). A com- 
pany, of whom Jesse Way was one, went down the Mississinewa 
River with loaded flat-boats, and Jesse lost his boat, and his load 
too, in trying to run the dam at Byles's mill on that river. 

"An Indian "trail" was simply a pai/j through the woods. 
The path would be trodden so as to be plainly visible. Some- 
times the amount of pony-travel would be so great as to make a 
heavily-trodden track. "Trails" passed in various directions. 
One led from Muncie to Greenville, straight as an arrow. One 
from Muncie to Fort Wayne ; one from Godfroy Farm to Fort 
Wayne, etc." 


" When a girl, I went with my mother to a quilting and corn- 
husklr.g. When we got there, nothing seemed ready, but the 
boys went to the woods and got some poles for frames ; the 
women pieced the quilt and carded the tow, and so they quilted 
the quilt, each woman quilting where and how she pleased. Doubt- 
less, the quilt was just as warm, which is the chief thing after all. 
One woman got drunk. She said she was getting her " nats upon 
the taps;" and she would go out and help cook. Whisky was 
everywhere. Still-houses were plenty, and much whisky was 
made and drank. My father settled in Union County in"l817. 
He owned the first mill in that county, and my oldest brother 
built a factory. My father came to Ohio from New Jersey in 
in 1802, to Waynesville, and I was born there. He resided at 
Cincinnati eighteen months, then at Covington, operating a 
woolen factory, and building the first good house in Covington. 
He lived thirty-six years on the East Fork of White Water, and 
then moved to Richmond residing there for four years. He 
died in 1852, eighty-four years old. 

" Some men from Union County took the first (and only) two 
flat-boats down the East Fork of White Water to New Orleans. 
There was a heavy freshet and the water was very high. There 
was a great crowd to see then, start, from all the country round. 
They sold their load at New Orleans and came back all the way 
from that distant market on foot." 


" The first money I ever had, when a young lad, as my own, 
was V2h cents. My brother and I sold a pair of deer-horns for 
2.'} cents, and I had half I managed, afterward, somehow, to 
get 87J; cents, and loaned it to father, he promising to give me a 
sheep. His "sheep" proved to be a lamb, but I raised it and 

traded it for a pig, and then that for a calf, and so on. After- 
ward, I came to be the owner of a colt, which I traded again, and 
60 on from small things to greater, till, by the time I was twenty- 
one years old, I had become the owner of six hundred acres of 
wild land." 

[Gideon Shaw states that Thomas Ward, when a lad, was at 
his father's, in the southeast corner of Randolph County, buying 
furs, etc.] 

" I began very early to trade for things. Father let me have a 
pig or two, and I traded for a calf and then for a motherless colt, 
and so on. I bought my own clothes. As before stated, men 
would come along and hire me to survey and deaden land, ami 
I would do the surveying, and hire the deadening for less than 
what they would give me. At one time I entered an eighty-acre 
tract foi $100, and sold it shortly after for $200. I used to 
trade in furs and peltry, and would make, sometimes, $200 in 
a single winter, or even more in that way. 

" The first land I ever entered for myself I carried the raonev 
in my hand all the way to Fort Wayne, traveling on foot the whole 
distance. There was a nice Indian sugar orchard which I wished 
very much to own. We found out that another party was planning 
to enter it, and I started on foot with money for that tract, and 
also for some that father wished to enter. I had the money tic i 
up, and carried it in my hand the whole way. The " specie cir- 
cular" had lately been issued, and in just three days it was to 
take effect. I got to John Brooks' the first night, gave 
Mrs. B. the money to keep and went to bed. The 
next day I got to Adam Miller's, near Bluffton. The third 
day I tried hard to make Fort Wayne, but the traveling 
was very bad, the snow being nearly knee deep, and I was but a 
boy (eighteen years old, or perhaps less), and I had to come short 
of the mark. In the morning I went to the Registrar's oflice, 
made application for the land for myself and my father, got my 
certificate from that oflice and went boldly to the Receiver. Col. 
Spencer knew my father and knew me, too, for he had stayed at 
my father's at different times. I told him the whole story — the 
paper money, the sudden start, my hard travel on foot, and how 
I had missed by a few hours, and what a disappointment it would 
be to lose my land after such a chase for it. He was a sturdy 
Democrat, and father was a stedfast Whig ; but Col. Spencer 
was a gentleman and a kind-hearted man, and he pitied the poi^r 
boy ; and he said to me, " You shall have your land, and you; 
father shall, too. I am going into Ohio on business of my own 
and I can use the money myself." So he took my money a;i , 
I entered the land. But my piece was some four acres raoi^., 
than a full eighty, and it took $5 extra ; and that was every cen;. 
of money I had. But I was determined I would have the land, 
let come what would; so I paid my last cent and got it. I told 
Col. Spencer what I had done, and he aaked me how I expected 
to get home. I told him I did not know, but that I was going to 
start and risk getting through. " 0, that Will never do," said 
he ; and he insisted that I should borrow of him enough to take 
me home. I finally did so, and tramped home again, sendir g 
his money back the first chance I found. I had an uncle (Danii-1 
Miller), on Robinson's Prairie, and I stayed the first night with 
him, the second night at Portland, and got home the third night. 
When I started in the morning from my uncle's, on my way 
from Fort Wayne, he told me of a nearer way through the woods; 
that I could go by " blazes" to the Wabash, and cut off several 
miles. I took his directions, and followed the " blazes" through 
without difficulty. I thought no more of traveling thus through 
the thick woods, guided only by " blazed" trees, than I wouhi 
now to travel along a beaten road. 

"I have lost great amounts of property during my life. I put 
two hundred and forty-five acres of land near Ridgeville, and one 
thousand acres of Iowa land, into the north and south road through 
Ridgeville, when it was first worked on, and lost it. I did more 
for the road than anybody else, living or dead. Others managed 
I to secure their stock, but my loss by the road was $30,000 or 


more.' Mr. Lewallen's mill, at Ridgeville, was built, probably, after 
1819. My father, Joab Ward, commenced building boats about 
1835. When the country along the Wabash, etc., began to settle 
up, the fact made a market for several years, and the people of 
Wayne and Randolph tried to supply it by sending their prod- 
uce down the Mississinewa to the Wabash, and thereabouts. 
Boats were needed, and Ridgeville was the head of high-water 
navigation, and so father took to building boats and selling them 
to people to take their produce down the river on. He 
would build a boat forty feet long by ten feet wide, at 62i 
cents a foot, i. e., $25 for the boat, all ready for floating. He 
would cut the timber green, from the woods, have two 
heavy side-pieces sloped rounding upward at both ends, cut a 
"gain" in the lower edge to receive the ends of the planks which 
formed the bottom, pin the bottom planks to the sides and the 
middle piece, fasten on some pieces of plank at the top of the 
gunwale, so as to increase the depth of the boat (making it, per- 
haps, two feet), stop up the cracks, and she was ready to receive 
her load and to float along her downward way. This flat-boating 
could be done only in times of flood. 

High water was mostly during the winter and spring. The 
business lasted perhaps ten or fifteen years. The river floods be- 
came less, and the markets in that region ceased or were supplied 
in other ways. 

Father built, in all, a large number of boats — thirty-seven in 
one spring. He used to hire hands to work for him, and board 
them at 12| cents a meal. ' 

One spring, several boats started down the river, loaded with 
apples, potatoes, cider, etc. At the first mill dam below Marion 
(McClure's), one boat, belonging to Hampton Brown, who lived 
below Newport (Fountain City), in going over the dam, ran under 
and sunk and lost the whole cargo, and the boat was ruined. The 
men swam out to the shore and were saved. 

At one time, a raft came plunging down upon the swift-rush- 
ing flood. They contrived to land a cable and tied it rOund a 
tree ; but the raft broke in two and went over the dam. There 
were two men on the raft. One came ashore, but the other shot 
under the water and was never again seen alive. His dead body 
was found afterward, some distance below." 


" William Edwards came in 1818 ; Jonathan Edwards came 
in 1818; they lived north toward town. 

David Wysong lived three-fourths of a mile east. 

John Elzroth lived near the "poor farm," coming in 1818. 

Thomas Jarret came in 1818. He lived one-quarter mile 
away. Peter Lasley bought his land at private sale, but unim- 

In Winchester there were a few log cabins, and a log court 
house. David Heaston came in 1811i, a little southwest. In 
Winchester were Paul W. Way, Charles Conway, John Odell, 
John Wright (blacksmith), John Wright (Judge). 

" I cleared off' the public square in Winchester ; there were 
three and one-half acres ; it took me three months, working al! 
day and half the night, and I got $35 for the job. Moorman 
Way got more than double that sum ($75) years afterward for 
putting in new trees. It was. all " in the green," there came a 
snow and the heaps Avould not burn well ; much was sugar-tree, 
three feet and over. A very large elm stood right in the cross 
street. The timber in this region was sugar-tree, beech, hickory, 
walnut, oak, elm, etc., etc. Oak was scarce, sugar-tree most 
abundant of all. There was much wet land in the region that 
nobody would have, that land is now the best in the county. I 
helped make a big cross-way on the State road west of Winches- 
ter, three-quarters of a mile long. The logs were many of them 
eighteen inches through. Two of us built it in three months, 
getting $10 a month, boarding ourselves. Poles had to be put 
in between the logs at the top, and the whole was covered with 
dirt six inches deep. We had to cut many of the trees, standing 

knee-deep in water, and the logs often floated as we hauled them, 
making the work of drawing them to the track much easier." 


" We used to grind our corn on a hand-mill. My father 
had one, and the neighbors were in the habit of coming and 
using, it. It was hard work ; a few quarts would tire a 
man completely out ; you had to turn with one hand and 
feed with the other (a few grains at a time). The mill worked 
very slowly, and we generally ground only enough for a meal or 
two at once. The way the mill was made and worked was this : 
The lower stone was laid flat and fast; the upper stone was fixed to 
turn upon a center piece in some way, and was made to revolve 
by a pole, fastened (loosely) in a beam above, and in the top of 
the stone below, near the edge of the stone, in a shallow hole 
drilled in the surface. This drilling into the stone was hard to 
do, for there were no tools, and there was no way to fasten any- 
thing to the stone. These stones were about two feet across, 
home-dressed and home-made." 

SIMON cox. 

" When I came to Randolph, Charles Conway lived half a mile 
south of Winchester. John Wright (blacksmith) lived on the 
north side of Winchester. Paul Beard and Jesse Johnson (and 
perhaps others), were on Greensfork, near Lynn. There were 
some settlers down White River, but I did not know them. No 
settlers were on White River above us. John Cox, my father, 
came in 1818, with eight children ; none are now living but myself. 
He died forty years ago. White River meeting was set up about' 
1820. The members were Benjamin Cox. John Wright (black- 
smith), Jonathan Hiatt, Simon Cox, Thomas Ward, Joseph 
Moffatt and may be others. Jericho meeting was begun soon 
afterward. The first school was about 1823; Isaac Pearson 
was the teacher. George Cox, born 1820, remembers riding 
home from school on his Uncle Pearson's shoulders ; George was 
perhaps three years old. 

" The first mill was on Salt Creek, north of Winchester, water- 
mill, built by Solomon Wright ; it ground very slowly, being in 
use some years. Jeremiah Cox's mill was the next — a flour 
mill — bolt run by hand. The first meeting-house was the White 
River Church, warmed by coal in the middle, 

" The first doctor I knew of was at Winchester. The first 
store I knew of was there too. The first frame house was Jere- 
miah Cox's, built about fifty-five years, and standing yet in good 
repair. The first child born in our settlement was my son, 
George Cox, born January 6, 1820. 

"Benjamin Cox and myself once started to go through to the 
Johnson settlement below Lynn, after some grain to take to mill. 
One had to go ahead and cut " a road " for the wagon to pass. 
We had to " camp out," and a deep snow fell in the night." 


" Meshach Lewallyn and Joab Ward lived near Ridgeville 
when I came; they had been there not long. James Massey 

and Massey cam ; the same fall that I did, and settled 

near Saratoga. (James Massey was here in 1818, before B. P. 
came). George Ritenour came two weeks after me and settled 
across the river. Meshach Lewallyn built a small mill in 1819 
(I think), a water-mill ; it would grind two or three bushels a 
day ; the meal would come by " spurts." A dog came in and 
tried to lick the meal ; now he would get some meal, and now he 
wouldn't; it did not suit him, and he would throw up his head 
and howl, and then he would try to lick the meal again." (This 
story has been told us of four different mills in the region, as 
also of one in Pennsylvania.) 

" Mr. Lewallyn afterward built a better mill, which became a 
noted point in those times for many years; he built a saw-mill 
also. David Connor built a log shanty two miles east of Deerfield, 
on the Mississinewa, and traded with the Indians. He sold them 


flour, and salt, and powder, and whisky, etc., for furs and peltry. 
He took loads of furs and skins in " pirogues," down the Missis- 
einewa, up Wabash, up Little River, across the portage nine 
miles to St. Mary's, and so to Toledo and Detroit. He hauled 
his goods across the portage on wagons with three yoke of oxen. 
Brother Thomas and I went with him once. He had otter, musk- 
rats, beaver, coon skins, minks, etc., a heavy load. He got his 
pay in silver, and bought a pony to bring the silver home. (This 
was in 1822.) He stayed at that point a year or two or so, and 
moved down the river to near Wheeling, and later, to below 
Marion, where he settled, built mills, and spent the rest of his 
life. He died rich a few years ago. I took hogs to him, which 
he bought and butchered. He showed rae half a bushel of silver 
money. He was a "smart" man, and a man of his word; but 
he would have his own way in a bargain. He made a "power" 
of money. He did not like to sell to settlers, because he could 
not charge them enough. He commonly sold to Indians, and 
his price to them was very high. 

" Lewallyn's son, Shadrach, shot an Indian in their yard. A 
patch of corn had been planted, and the boys were gathering it 
on a sled (as most of the hauling was done then). The Indian 
had bought some powder and whisky at Connor's, and he " cut 
up " and scared the boys. They unhitched the horses, and one 
of the boys ran, and the Indian ran after him and pointed his 
gun at the boy. Shadrach called out, "What is the matter'?' 
The boy said, "The Indian is going *o shoot me." Shadrach 
caught his gun and undertook to shoot the Indian. Shadrach's 
wife tried to pull him away for 100 yards, but he shot and killed 
the Indian right there in the yard. This was in the evening. 
Shadrach went to his father's that night, and in the morning 
they covered the body in the hollow of a tree turned up. Old 
Meshach went to Muncie alone, and told the Indians what his son 
had done and that he should be tried fairly, and suffer the pen- 
alty. He also told the Indians to come and bury their comrade 
and they did so; fifteen or twenty came and buried him on the 
river bank, on my farm. The young man was tried, but he was 
acquitted ; and that made the Indians ho.stilc. I went to Con- 
nor and talked with him, and got him to intercede with the 
Indians. Connor had great influence wich them, and they would 
do almost anything he wished. He told them that I was his 
cousin, and that he wished they would be reconciled. I had 
come into the county after the shooting and before the trial. 
The Indians had torn up the floor in the cabin I was to live in, 
and I fixed it. We sent some boys to get the cabin ready, and 
we expected to move up from Joab Ward's. While the boys 
were at the cabin, six or seven Indians came in. One of the 
young men set them a puncheon bench, and they sat down. 
Presently one of them. Big Nose, drew his knife, and caught 
my brother Thomas, and cried, "Now I kill you; you killed my 
cousin." Brother said, "No, I wasn't in the country then." 
"You are a liar," Big Nose cried. He held Thomas a long 
time, but let him go at last. Another young man, who was with 
Thomas, ran away 100 yards and caught up his gun. The Indian 
caught my brother again, but finally said, "I let you go. I no 
kill you this time — next time I kill you, sure." The other In- 
dians smiled like, but said nothing. The Indian turned my 
brother's face toward him and said, " Look, next time I kill you." 

" The boy came and met us and told us. Joab Ward said, " Fol- 
low the Indians." I said "No." Then he said, "Go back with 
me." My wife stood there with the child, and she said, " Let us 
go on," and we started again. We went, and my wife followed, 
trembling, but when we got in sight of the cabin, all fear left her. 
We got to the cabin and unloaded, and there came along a big, 
burly fellow, and offered to stay with us. " He was not 
afraid,'' he said. He stayed. There was a big stump of a tree- 
root near by. Before bed-time he looked out and said, " I see 
an Indian out there. I see his blanket and his eyes. He is going 
to shoot." The fellow got his gun and his axe, and stood ready 
a good while. I said, "I am going to see." " Oh no, he will 

shoot you." I did go out; there was no Indian, only the stump 
and some snow. In the morning we went out to cut up the tree. 
I said, " It would not do for an Indian to come and cut up like 
that one yesterday." I looked up, and there stood an Indian I 
He heard what I said, but he smiled and was friendly. 

" In about a month my brother went back to Ohio. He had 
not been long gone when six Indians came and hallooed from 
across the river, wishing to come across. Big Nose among them , 
I took my canoe, and brought them across. I charged hiru 
with his mischief He said, "No, me civil," "Yes, it was 
you." " No, whisky." They went up to Connor's, and by and 
by, returned. (One was called Killbuck). One was so drunk 
that he could not walk alone ; two of them were leading him 
across waist deep. When they had come across, Killbuck said, 
" We not been saucy." I went into the house, but presently he 
came back, foaming with rage. " You go and get your gun," 
said he. "How do you know," said I. "What did you come 
back for?" " To show you I no coward, give me some bread," 
said he. I did, and he went away pacified. That poor drunken 
fellow lay there all night with his feet in the water, dead 

"One night an Indian hallooed. "What do you want?" 
"To come in and warm." I let him in. "Me civil," said he. 
After he got in, he began to curse, and swore he would kill the 
first man that came into the cabin. I quieted him down, and 
then he began again. He went on to Connor's, and in the morn- 
ing he came back, and said, " Connor told me ' No,' and Iwon't 
hurt anybody." 

"In boating, flat-boats would jump the dams four feet high. 
People would bring fruit from Wayne County in wagons, and 
boat them down to settlers on the Wabash and elsewhere. 

"After Fleming was killed, about twenty-five Indians came 
and had a ceremony over him. They had guns, and marched 
up very solemnly. One old Indian made a speech. He spoke 
a long time; Killbuck interpreted. He said, " Don't be scared, 
he was a bad Indian. We will be friendly." As the man stood 
there speaking, he seemed much aftected, and the tears streamed 
down his cheeks. 

" We used to goto mill at first to Richmond. David Wysong 
made a tread-mill (for oxen). One day I went with a grist, and, 
in the night, while I was there, the oxen slipped through, and 
stopped the mill, but they could not get out and were just hang- 
ing by their necks. 

" The first school was taught two or three years after I came, in 
a log cabin, kept by Mr. Stevens, at $1 per scholar. There 
were perhaps twenty scholars. Half of the patrons could not 
pay. There were only two or three books in the school. The 
teacher wouM write letters on paddles to have the little fellows 
learn. I once drove thirty head of hogs to Ross County, Ohio, to 
have them fatten on the "mast." The Indians began to shoot 
them. I talked to them. ' Big Jim ' said, " Fat hog make good 
soup," and laughed. When I came to the county, a big brush 
heap lay where the Winchester Court House now stands. 

"John Cox settled near Winchester in 1815 or 1816." 


" Settlors when .1 came, in 1821 : John Sample, at Sample- 
town (Mill), Paul W. Way, William Way, Henry Way, William 
Diggs (old), William Diggs (young), Littleberry Diggs, Armsbee 
Diggs, Tarlton Moorman, Robison Mclntyre, Wjilter Ruble, 
John Wright and others. 

" The Claytons came nearly when I did — perhaps two or three 
years afterward. 

" Tarleton Moorman is the bro±er of James Moorman and the 
father of Stephen Moorman." 


"Benjamin Bond, my father, lived, at one time, just west of 
New Garden Meeting-House, in Wayne County. 


" In building a house, he bought nails at 25 cents a pound, 
and paid for them in cord-wood at 25 cents a cord, chopping the 
wood on his own land, and selling it on the ground at the rate of 
four cords for $1. 

" In Western Pennsylvania, in early times, a man gave a horse 
for a barrel of salt." 


" The settlers, when I came (on the Mississinewa, 1822), were, 
Riley Marshall, east of Deerfield; William Massey, James Mas- 
sey, Robert Massey, north of Miller's ; Frank Peake, north of 
Mississinewa River ; Samuel Emery, on the south side of the 
river ; Burkett Pierce, west of Deerfield, north of river ; George 
Ritenonr, west of Deerfield, south of the river ; Martin Boots, 
between Deerfield and Ridgeville. He was the first blacksmith 
in that region. He moved to Fairview, afterward. 

"I was single, and came on horseback from near Cincinnati, 
via Richmond and the " Quaker Trace," to Riley Marshall's. I 
bought eighty acres of a non-resident owner, andboarded eighteen 
months at Riley Marshall's, going then to Wayne County to be 
married, and bringing my wife with me, on horseback, into the 
woods of Randolph. Judge M. thinks James Massey was the 
first settler in Ward Township, Some of the Masseys were there 
in 1818. Burkett Pierce says James and another Massey came 
the same fall he did— 1820 or 1821. Judge M. thinks, also, that 
Philip Storms came to Allensville after he (Miller) came to Ran- 
dolph, and that Connor stayed on the nver above Deerfield, five 
or six years after 1822. 

" Lewallyn's mill ground very slowly. They said a pig crawled 
into the trough and licked up the meal, and that he would squeal 
because the meal did not come fast enough for hira. This is 
probably another version of tho " hound" story, so often repeated. 

"Meetings were held for a long time at private dwellings, 
i. e., at Riley Marshall's, and also elsewhere." 


" John Gass had settled at his place, southwest of Winchester, 
and was keeping tavern there when the Wavs, etc., came from 
South Carolina, in the spring of 1817. 

" The first entry in Randolph County used to be said to be 
three miles east of Winchester, where Miles. Scott now lives. That 
land was entered by Jeremiah Motfett, in December, 1812. 

•'Anti-slavery societies began to be formed between 1836 and 
1840, or sooner. The U. Q. R. R. had a sort of organization, 
though not a very elaborate one. Lists of the stations, of the 
routes, of the men who would entertain and who would forward 
fugitives, etc., were kept for reference along the route. 

At Winchester, Eli Hiatt was a chief promotor of the work. 
Others, were .Tames P. Way, Frank Diggs, Jesse Way, Moorman 
Way, Dr. Cook, M. A. Reeder and others ; George Biiiley and 
others, at Huntsville ; Zimri Bond, John H. Bond, etc, at Cabin 
Creek. Large numbers were in sympathy with the work ; some, 
in fact, who would hardly have been expected to do so. One 
man, a landlord in Jay County, who was then, and has always 
since been, a stanch Democrat, was nevertheless a constant and 
reliable helper in the U. G. R. R. 

At one time, a company of twelve stopped at Eli Hiatt's. 
The pursuers came to town while the fugitives were still here. 
They knew the fugitives were not far off, but not that they were 
in town. 

Dr. Cook went early toward Ridgeville, and, returning, met 
the man-hunters — giving them such information &s caused them 
to suppose their prey was ahead, and they pressed vigorously on- 
ward (four men, all armed to the teeth).. The slaves were taken 
back to Huntsville, from there to John Bond's and thence to 
Caraden, and so on toward Canada. 

"During the war of 1861, Mr. Reeder and his wife went as 
nurses in the hospital, etc., spending more than a year in that 
service, and going wholly at his own expense. He was at Wash- 

ington City, at Gettysburg and elsewhere, witnessing many sad 
and fearful scenes of terrible suffering, and doing his utmost for 
its relief. He bore a commission from Gov. Morton, and recom- 
mendations from President Lincoln, which enabled him to go 
anywhere he pleased in the prosecution of his loving work, and 
he feels thankful for the degree of success which attended his la- 
bors in his country's cause. Gov. Morton's name was itself a 
" power," and, of course, President Lincoln's " sign manual" was 
omnipotent, and both together became irresistible." 

The following was printed in a Winchester paper in 1875; 


Last week, Mr. Harris AUman and his wife returned, afler an 
absence of forty-five years, to visit their former friends and com- 
rades in this vicinity — now, alas, but few. His father, Matthew, 
Allman, was a very early settler here, and in 1830 removed to 
White Lick, between Plainfield and Indianapolis. Since that 
removal, a wonderful change has taken place ! 

Winchester was then a solid forest. About eight families 
were at that time residents of the place, scattered here and there 
over the town plat, in small log cabins. The heavy timber was 
near on every hand. The streets could not be seen. Only three . 
houses now [1875] remain standing that were here when Mr. All- 
man left, and one of them has lately been reconstructed. 

The old settlers are mostly gone. M. A. Reeder has been . 
longest a resident of the town, including, also, his mother, who 
is still living. Mr. Allman passed through the city (in company 
with M. A. R.), searching, almost in vain, to find the spots of 
familiar interest of the early olden time. Mr. A. pointed out many 
locations of objects then important, now to the younger genera- 
tion unknown. 

The old schoolhouse, on the site where now stands the resi- 
dence of A. Aker, Jr. : the old spring at which the scholars 
slaked their thirst, located on the east bank of Salt Creek, about 
a rod south of the Washington street bridge ; the old Aker Hotel, 
partly standing, just east of the City Hall ; the Odle storeroom, 
the first dry goods store, afterward the. residence of D. Haworth 
and of Jacob Elzroth, Esq., and now occupied by George Isom j 
Haworth 's cabinet-shop, now occupied by J. W. Diggs as an un- 

The big oak tree, seven feet through, which stood where now 
stands Col. H. H. Neff's elegant mansion ; the " old fort and 
mound," near and in the " Fair Grounds ;" the " Ring Spring," 
one hundred yards west of the toll-gate on the pike leading west- 
iTftrdv; the big walnut tree, six feet through, standing where now 
Hon, E. L. Watson resides; the old Quaker (or Richmond) 
Trace, leading from the Wayne County settlements into these 
northern woods, which ran out the south end of East street, which 
trace is noW nearly obliterated — these, and other landmarks un- 
known to the present inhabitants, were full of interest to one who 
spent his boyhood in our vicinity when all was rough and wild, 
full fifty years ago. 


Came to Randolph County, Ind., in 1822 (or sooner), entered 
land in the southern part of Stony Creek, in 1822 [Section 10, 
19, 123, being the farm afterward owned by Abram Clevinger. 
This land he sold to Joseph Rooks, about 1825, and entered land 
again in the southern part of Nettle Creek Township [W. N. W., 
15, 18, 12], near Mr. Burroughs, March 26, 1816. They sold 
out again and moved to Delaware County, becoming pioneers in 
that region. 

They raised a large family of children, enduring great hard- 
ships and peril. Mr. Branson died many years ago, but " Aunt 
Patsy" Branson, as she is called, resides. with one of her daugh- 
ters, in Muncie, Delaware County. She is nearly ninety years 
old, but very spry and strong, walking a mile or two without dif- 
ficulty or fatigue, and retaining in memory the events of her old- 
time life with remarkable tenacity. 


They had peculiar hardships when they first settled in Ran- 
dolph. They came into the woods with one horse of their own, 
though somebody's two-horse wagon moved them there. In less 
than a week after they arrived, her husband cut his knee with a 
frow, while splitting clap-boards for a roof to his "camp," and 
so badly that he could not step on his foot for six weeks;, and 
much of that time he lay helpless on the puncheons of the floor. 
About the same time, his only horse died. The horse was not 
very good, but it was better than none, and it was all they had, 
and they had nothing to buy another. 

They came in February, and brought four large iron kettles 
to make sugar in. Mrs. Branson and her husband's brother, a 
lad of seventeen, who came with them into their forest home, took 
hold and opened an immense sugar camp that stood ready to their 
hand, and and actually cut the wood, carried the water, made 
the troughs, and produced about three barrels of excellent tree- 
sugar, all nice and dry, as good as need be. This sugar was in- 
deed a "God-send" to the poor, afflicted family in the wilderness. 
Mr. B. hired a " plug" pony of his uncle in Wayne County, and 
contrived to do his work. After they got corn planted, he took 
sugar to Richmond and exchanged for corn and other necessaries. 
But their corn and vegetables grew splendidly, and long before the 
year was out, they had plenty of corn and potatoes and such 
things. They took to the corn as soon as it came to " ro.isting 
ears," potatoes as soon as they would do to cook, and squashes as 
soon as they got large enough, and ^ on. 

They had a cow, and the pea-vines were up to her back, and 
she gave abundance of milk, and grew fat on her keeping to boot. 

When Mr. B. went to Richmond with his sugar, he borrowed 
a wagon and a yoke of oxen, and took grain and things, also, for 
some other neighbor settlers, and the trip took a week or more. 

Mrs. B. thinks they came in 1819, which may possibly be 
the fact ; but if so, they must have resided here more than three 
years before they entered land, since that took place in the fall 
of 1822. And that, too, may have been true, as Mr. B. seems 
to have been very poor, and it may have been three years before 
he could raise the money for an entry. 


" Once, when T was a boy at school, the teacher would sleep in 
" books." There was a boy in school who was rather " simple" 
and greatly given to " pranks," just because he " did not know 
any better." 

One day, a mouse came running across the floor, and the 
" simple" boy went to chasing it. .'The teacher was asleep, but 
the noise waked him. He looked up and saw the boy capering 
about the room. As he spied the lad, he caught his whip and 
chased the little fellow, whipping as he went. The poor chap 
gave no heed to the slashing of the teacher, but went dancing 
ahead after his mouse. At last he " grabbed" with his fingers, 
clutched the " varmint," and turning short round, facing the 
master, cried, " See, teacher, I ' cotch' him !" 

What the teacher did thereafter is not remembered. The 
laughing that the school accomplished just then was past all con- 
trol, and the picture of that "simple youth," grinning in glee at 
his success in grabbing that quadruped, is a vivid thing in the 
minds of all who then beheld the performance of the feat." 


" Settlers at that time were Joseph Hollingsworth, Albert 
Macy, Jesse Ballinger, Joshua Wright, William Stansberry, and 
others. Daniel Worth lived on the John Hunnicutt place ; John 
Bunker was where John Charles now resides ; Morgan Thorn- 
burg lived near White chapel. Some of these had been on their 
places for several years. 


" Eli B. Barnard says he was twenty-seven months old when 
the tornado took place. Their roof blew off, and they 
shoved the cradle with him in it under the bed to keep him from 

drowning, and he says he remembers that. This was where 
widow Ballinger lives northwest of Charles W. Osborn's. 

A horse was hemmed in with the fallen trees into a place 
only a few feet square, and yet the horse was not hurt ! One 
man, scared nearly out of his wits, had yet sense enough left lo 
pray ; and he cried, " Lord, if thou wilt spare me this time, I 
will get away just as soon as I can go !" And he kept his wor>!, 
the people say, and the next morning, picking his way to the 
nearest standing timber, he left for parts unknown. 

Squirrels were one year so poor that they were not fit to eat 
William Smith's mill was built before 1819." [Doubtful.] 


" I have been a miller much of my life. I helped Jeremiah 
Cox build his mill on White River, in 1825. It was a watc 
mill and stood on the place I now own ; Jeremiah Cox died soo. 
after. Joseph and Benjamin Pickett bought the mill, Benjam.- 
Pickett built a saw-mill, and in 1853, I bought the farm, 103 
acres, and the two mills. The mills ran till the "five dry years," 
1864—69 ; they were pulled down in 1870. The river hat, far 
less water now than formerly. I worked as a miller three years 
at White Water, afterwards off and on at Winchester, dressing 
buhrs, etc. A steam mill was built there about 1835. 

" When we were tearing down my saw-mill, a big post fell on 
me. While taking a sill from the second story (the mill was built 
double), a post, a foot square and eleven feet long, knocked me 
down and fell on me. I was confined several weeks. They 
thought I could not live: but that was ten years ago and I am 
here yet. 


" Great numbers of wild hogs were in the woods, descendants 
of tame ones, brought by early settlers, that had become wild. 
The males would stay wild for years. They would get with 
droves, and in a short time the whole drove would become so 
wild that you could hardly get them back again. Wild hogs 
would attack people when hard pressed. John Chapman, Allen 
County, was attacked by a wild boar when out after the cows. 
He climbed a big log, and had to stay till the creature left. Hf^ 
had a fisto with him ; the hog chased the dog and then took after 
Chapman himself. He had to stay on the log till some time i 
the night. 

An immense male hog once attacked a cow, in Thomas 
Coates' lane. He stuck his tusk into her breast, and the bloo'l 
spurted right out. He then struck another cow and knocked li. 
down as if she had been shot. His tusk was broken, or he would 
probably have killed her. The children were in the lane, they 
saw the hog, and climbed the fence. The men chased him more 
than half a mile, and shot him again and again, and at last killc<! 

This animal belonged to one of the neighbors, but the creature 
had gone wild. On theMississinewa hogs were found wild in abun- 
dance when the settlers first came there, as people would let their 
swine run in the woods, and after a while hunt them up again, to 
get them home, or to kill them for meat. They would go out and 
find the " range," and when snow would come several men would 
go on horseback, and shoot the hogs as they could find'them. 
Sometimes the creatures would be four or five miles from home. 
After they were shot the hogs would be hauled home, by the nose, 
or on a sled or on a wagon. Once in a while people would make 
a fire out in the woods, and scald and dress them before taking 
them home. 


" Deer sometimes have thirteen prongs. At first the straight 
" spike " grows, the next year one prong on each horn, and so 
on. A straight horn is called a "spike;" one prong, is called a 
"fork;" more than one, "snags," three-snagged, four-snagged, 
etc. Deer were fat in the summer and fall and poor in the 
spring. I have often killed old deer that had no honib. Horn' 
of old deer would be perhaps two feet long, when fall grown. 


" Amos Peacock and Henry Hill once took a load of smoked 
bacon to Kichmond, and got only $1 a hundred. 

I have bought salt that cost me ^11.37 a barrel. I had flax 
seed to sell. I paid for hauling the seed, and the salt back from 
Dayton, and the whole cost me as above, f 11.37 per barrel. 

" As I was cradling wheat, a cloud gathered south of east, 
taking several hours. It covered nearly the whole sky. There 
was much lightning and thunder, and a little rain ; I did not 
stoj cradling. The body of the storm seemed to pass south. 
Shortly after I smelt a strong smell of burning sulphur, the 
smell lasting perhaps half an hour. It made me feel sick and 
faint, and I came near falling to the ground. Shortly after that 
the cholera broke out terribly at Lynn and other places." [See 
statements by Frazier, Johnson, Stone, etc.] 


"I was born in Grayson County, Virginia, in 1806. My 
father, Zachary Hyatt, came to Wayne County, Ind., 1814, 
and to Randolph County in 1817. Winchester, when I first 
saw it, October, 1819, had a court house and jail, and three 
houses. Once father lay sick, and I was weaving. Suddenly I 
saw through the open door a deer crawling through a crack in 
the fence. There were two crooked rails, one up and the other 
down. The deer had one hind leg broken. I sprang out with 
my little thread-knife, and my sisters and myself, with the dog, 
chased the deer one-quarter of a mile to a pond about knee deep. 
The dog caught the deer by the throat, and we waded in and 
killed it with clubs. We dragged the deer from the water, cut 
the leaders of the legs, and tucked the others in so we could 
carry it with a pole, and in that way we bore it home in triumph. 
The men were away, except father, and he was sick. Once the 
men were shooting turkeys, and one lit down into the yard and 
tried to crawl through the fence. My sister and I caught it and 
killed it. 

"I used to spin and weave a great deal. I have woven many 
a yard of tow, and linen, and woolen. I wove coverlets, etc., 
for the whole region, Richmond, Mississinewa, Wabash, etc. Mr. 
Lewallyn from Ridgeville, once brought fiye coverlets. I told 
him, " I can't weave them, I have more than I can do." " Don't 
say a word," said he, " I shall leave the work, and you must do 
it, though it should stay here five years." So, he left the work, 
and in due time I wove them. We used to card and spin raw 
cotton, and wool too. My price for weaving coverlets was, ?1 

"One day mother went away to be gone ten days. The flax 
was on the ground rotting. We girls took up the flax, dried, 
broke, swingled and hatcheled it, carded, spun and wove it; and 
by the time mother came home, the cloch was in garments, and 
on the children's backs. 

" We used pewter platters, dishes, etc." [Mrs. Pickett showed 
a large ancient pewter platter, about a foot across, and heavy and 
thick, that her mother bought in 1818. It had never been 
molded over, and was about as good as new.] 

"My father sold his placL- in North Carolina, and got ready to 
move to Indiana. Everything was packed and loaded, ready 
to start in the morning. The boys got up before daylight, and 
fed the horses, and got the harness to "gear up. ' Mother said, 
"you need not do it, father is sick." In ten days, father died. 
Mother married again, and in a year or two, came to Indiana." 


"When we first came, Richmond was our place of trade. We 
would go with the front wheels of a wagon, taking out the king- 
bolt, and fixing clapboards on the bolster and the "slider," pul- 
ing on our coon skins and deer-skins and ginseng, and wheat if 
we could spare any, and the corn to be ground. The trip could 
be made as handily as you please. With only the two wheels, 

one could turn and twist almost any way around and among the 
trees. The " truck " would be traded for " store tea," and cot- 
ton yarn, and powder and sole-leather. If a barrel of salt were 
needed, father would go with the whole wagon. 

" The first mill I ever saw, was Sample's mill, a corn cracker. 
The mills then were small affairs, but we boys thought them 
something wonderful. 

" Our folks made large quantities of tree sugar. Two springs, 
we made, each season, two barrels of grain sugar, 100 pounds of 
cake-sugar, and forty or fifty pounds of molasses. 

"The third spring of our residence in Randolph, Samuel An- 
thony, father of E. C. Anthony, Esq., of Muncie, came to that 
place with a store of goods. Father needed some things. He 
said to my mother and myself, " you go to Muncie with a sack 
of sugar apiece." We filled the sacks; mother took hers before 
her, but I took a heavy sack. We got there in due time (twelve 
miles), and traded the sugar at 6| cents a pound for coffee at half 
a dollar, and other goods as high as they could well be. When ^ 
father built his mill, coffee and whisky had both to be furnished, 
or the men would not work. I had to go to Judge Reese's dis- 
tillery in Delaware County, for the whisky, which when a lad, I 
have often done. Father and I once went to Richmond with 
two yoke of oxen and the wagon, carrying flour and ginseng 
and sugar and deer-skins and coon skins, perhaps $35 worth in 
all. The trip took four days, (thirty-five miles). A man named 
Brightwell was in company. As they were about to start for home, 
Brightwell said, "take a drink," handing a bottle of "ginger 
pop," and as he drew the cork the "pop" flew clear to the loft. 
Father drank and gave me some. As we came to a big hill, 
father said to me, " you tend the hind cattle, and I will see to the 
forward yoke," locking the wagon, as he spoke, but taking the 
forewheel instead of the hind wheel. We went down the hill, but 
it was a terrible "go," neither of us knowing what the matter 
was. Just as we reached the bottom, I saw what he had done, 
and said, " what made thee lock the forewheel ? " " The dogs, 
I did, didn't I?" said he. I told my brother, and he remarked, 
" father was pretty tight." However, he was no drinker, but he 
got caught that time." 


" My uncle, William Simmons, cameearly to Randolph County, 
Ind., and, I think, as soon as 1821. He lived just at the line 
between Jackson and Ward Townships, directly on the Missis- 
sinewa River, south of New Pittsburg. He died in middle life, 
but was the father of twenty-one children by the same wife. They 
were all raised " by hand," the mother being unable to " suckle" 
them. Twelve became grown, and ten are still living. 

"James Simmons (my father) worked one harvest for Chief 
Richardville, near Ft. Wayne. One day an old man passed along 
tiie road having a tall hat on his head and a bundle on his back, and 
being otherwise odd looking. The boys began to " poke fun " at 
him. Suddenly he laid down his bundle, took off his bat, whirled 
round and faced them. Said he, " Do you know the eleventh 
commandment ?" " No, what is it? " " Mind your own busi- 

" That was a " center shot," their battery hushed, and without 
another word the old man went his way. 

"When he was a boy at home, during the " squirrel year," 
James shot squirrels for weeks, throwing them to the hogs out- 
side the field, and leaving them to decay upon the ground. It 
was a hard task, but they saved their corn by the means. 

" Daniel B. Miller and his wife came on horseback to their 
forest home, and she stuck a black locust riding switch into the 
ground in the door yard. It grew and became a fine, large tree, 
and a few years ago was there still. 

"James Simmons was a great hunter. It may be safely said 
that he killed more deer than any other man in Jackson Town- 
ship. When he was building his log house, he set himself 
to cut and hew four logs a day, and besides that to kill one deer, 


and he did it. They lived at first for two or three months in a 
"camp " made of rails. 

" He has killed six deer in one day. At one time he ran a 
deer till away after dark and got lost, and in the night he kept 
wandering round and firing his gun. His wife heard the firing, 
and, thinking that he might be lost, she took the ax and pounded 
as hard as she could upon a " gum " there was in the yard. He 
heard the pounding, and the noise guided him home. 

" In winter time, after supper he would sit and tell deer stories 
as long as anybody would listen. He used never to think about 
gluing home from hunting as long as he could see the " sights " 
upon his gun, and often he would have a " time " to find his way 
to his cabin." 


"When I was a little girl, my brother (a little bit of a fellow), 
and myself were playing by a creek near the house, and a bear 
came and sat watching us from the opposite bank, a high bluff 
ten or fifteen feet high. I thought it was a dog, and was not 
scared. Presently mother saw the old fellow, and "hissed" the 
dog, which came and " tackled " the bear. She called to us, and 
we heeled it for the house. While the dog and the bear were 
" tussling," Jacob Harshman came along with his gun, hunting, 
and he shot and killed the bear. ■ 

" They used to have some fun in those days too. Cameron 
Coffin, a gentleman land-owner, came out to see to his land ; he 
was not used to the woods, and the "bushwhackers " made game 
of him. One day he was at James Simmons' sugar camp, and 
the boys were making wax. Coffin was 'green ' upon the subject 
of wax making, and they made some very hard and sticky, 
and got him to take a great chunck into his mouth to eat it ; he 
chewed the wax till his teeth and jaws were all stuck fast to- 
gether. He worked and worked and clawed and dug at the wax 
till he was nearly choked. Finally the stuff softened and melted 
somewhat in his mouth, and he made out to get clear of it; but 
he had a terrible time, and the boys nearly died laughing at the 
fun. At another time, they were walking a foot log over the 
river, and he undertook it, too; he did not know hov/ to keep 
his balance, and the boys pretended to come near falling off, and 
shook the log so that he did fall ofi" into the water waist deep. 
He was not used to such life ; the backwoods boys were too much 
for him, and he " got out of that," and went back to the settle- 
ment where he came from, and left the jolly blades to play tricks 
upon themselves." 


"Father left North Carolina when I was seven years old ; we 
were six weeks and three days on the road, reaching William 
Arnold's (now Noah Turner's), May 5, 1826. I rode a horse 
(that pulled one of our carts) all the way. Father put me on 
the horse the evening we started, and I rode clear through. 
We had two carts, and father led the other beast. Mother also 
walked a great deal ; we camped under a tent through the whole 
journey ; several families were in company : Joseph Copeland, 
wife and four children ; Isaac Cook, wife and four children ; 
father and mother and four children, eighteen in all. 

" Father lent Isaac Cook $25 to come with (which he paid af- 
terward). Father bought eighty acres of Benjamin Puckett, 
agree'"' to give $250 a" 1 a cart valued at 51;.15. He afterward 
enters 1 eighty acres, and mother lived on it till she died in the 
fall of 1881; we settled in tho wilderness. William Arnold and 
Fred, .-:.'• Fulghuir. -r- j just before father did. Fred Fulghura 
had come back to Carolina and told us what a grand place Indi- 
ana was, and father wes not satisfied till he moved out there him- 
self Deer used to come into father's clearing, and they were 
so tame that they would not run away ; father had no gun, and 
never shot any of them." 


" The first school I went to was held in a little horse stable 
made of slabs set endwise. David Semans taught the school. 

The seats were slabs with legs in, no backs, of course. The first 
church in the town was in 1837, on the ol.i church lot, now (a 
part of) the graveyard. Three camp-meetings were held near 
Spartansburg (in 1838-40 probably). The rowdies disliked 
Preacher Bruce. He was pretty " sharp " on them. They had 
planned to flog him. They were swaggering round with peeled 
canes. He disguised his dress, got a " peeled cane," went down 
to the spring among the rowdies, and heard all their plans. He 
then went back, opened meeting, and told the astonished trick- 
sters from the pulpit all their plot. The rowdies did not whip 
him. There were great revival meetings. At one time one hun- 
dred members joined. 

" The first Disciple meeting was held near old Mr. Stewart's, 
a mile or so west of town. Several persons joined. The Baptists 
held meeting at Mr. Cartwright's. He was a Baptist. 

" When I was a boy, people hired me to hunt their cattle. I could 
go anywhere, and not get lost, day or night. When twelve 
years old, I used to grind bark for the tanner at eleven pence 
(12 J centa) a day. Wild hogs were plenty in the " timber." I 
have been treed by them many a time. As I would be after the 
cows, the hogs would be in the woods, and they would see and 
chase my dog, and he would run to me, and they after him. 
Then the hogs would see me and chase me. I would begin to 
climb right sudden, you may guess, a high log or a tree, and 
there I had to stay till tliey would leave, which sometimes would 
not be anywise soon. The hogs would boo-boo around, and then 
seem to go away, and suddenly be back, and try to get at 
me again. These wild hogs had sprung from swine that had 
been tame, and had bred in the woods, and so their offspring had 
grown to be wild. My grandfather would let his swine run in the 
woods, and by-and-by he would find where they slept, and build a 
pen partly round their nest, and watch and shut them in. Then 
he would catch the pigs and mark them, and let the whole 
" pack " go again. At killing time, men would go out and track 
and shoot them wherever they might chance to be found. When I 
was twelve years old, grandfather was chasing up and killing his 
hogs. The men would shoot them, and I hauled them to the 
road with a horse. I forget how many I hauled that day. 
Grandfather marketed that pork at Richmond for $1.50 net. 

" A big poplar tree stood in front of Mrs. Hammond's house, 
and another large tree stood on my lot. When I was a boy, I 
had a young bullock, perhaps a two-year-old, that I worked. It 
was a tough job to catch him, the only way being to run him 
down ; and we would have a tedious race. One day I chased 
him a long time, and finally he plunged into a pond, and I after 
him waist deep. He stopped ; I gathered him by the horns, 
Frank Morgan waded in with a rope, and we roped him and 
brought his lordship out of the pond in triumph." 

[Mr. Clark reckons himself to have been longest a resident of 
Spartansburg, since 1826, or fifty-six years ago. Frank Morgan 
and he were boys then together, but Frank spent many years of his 
youthful life elsewhere, and, moreover, he died in 1880 at Spar- 
tansburg. Still, Mr. C. is by no means an old man, but is active 
and vigorous aa in former days.] 


" The settlers when father came, 1828 (near father's), were 
Bezaleel Hunt, Nettle Creek ; Joel Drake. Nettle Creek ; Mark 
Diggs, Nettle Creek ; Joab Thornburg, Stony Creek ; Jonathan 
Finger, Stony Creek ; Job Thornburg, Stony Creek ; Abraham 
Clevinger, Stony Creek ; David Vestal, Stony Creek ; George 
W. Smithson, Stony Creek; Joseph Rooks, Stony Creek (large 
family boys) ; Jonathan Clevinger, Stony Creek ; John Diggs', 
Stony Creek ; and in the colored settlement, Richard Robbins 
(blacksmith), John Smith, Benjamin Outlan, Richard Scott, 
Jerry Terry, Isaac Woods. 

" I have been to fifteen log-rollings in one spring. The first 
show I ever went to was an animal show at Mttnoie. I walked 
fifteen miles and got there by 9 A. M. My f»t-her was a member 



of the Christian Church, and a Democrat. He voted for Jackson 
the first time that Jackson was elected, just after he came to Ran- 
dolph County. 

"He had just money enough to «nter 120 acres. He had one 
old horse, and it died in the spring. He had no way to buy any, 
and he did without, borrowing snmctimcs, which was hard to do. 
He cleared ground, and tended it mostly with the hoe. By next 
season he got an ox-team. We plowed our corn with an ox, put- 
ting harness on it like a horse, and one boy would lead the ox 
and one hold the plow. 

"Father and his boys have cleared more land than any other 
family in Randolph County — more than six hundred acres. Father 
had no wagon for years. He hauled everything on a sled. He 
never owned a good wagon. He bought an old one for ^30, and 
got "bit" at that. That was about 1836. He used that seven 
or eight years, and never owned any other. He made one crop 
with no team, and two crops with oxen. Then he traded the 
oxen for one horse. The oxen were young, and we could not 
"break" them well. We did mostly with one horse. Some- 
times in the winter we would have a boy behind the sled with a 
rope hitched to hold back with. We had no wheat bread till we 
raised some wheat to make it from, for a year or two, at least. I 
remember when there were only three wagons in two miles square 
among twenty-five or thirty settlers. Once we put liorses to a 
wagon with twenty bushels of corn and wheat, and started to 
mill (Economy). The hoi-ses knew nothing of pulling together, 
and the wagon got stuck fast before half a mile. Six men took 
a horse and sack apiece and went ten miles to mill, and left four 
or five to get the wagon out. The mill was owned by Nathan 
Proctor. Nathan Proctor, Elijah Arnold and others were 
charged with counterfeiting, thieving, etc. They were said to 
have a " rendezvous " in the " fallen timber." Some were 
convicted, and the gang was broken up at last. One of them, 
arrested for passing a counterfeit bill, asking to see the bill, took 
it and swallowed it. 

" My father got his meat thus : He had a dog that would 
catch any hog. He helped his neighbors catch their wild hogs, 
and they would pay him in pork. The hogs were so wild they 
would not eat corn. 

"How to build a cabin with weight poles: Build the 
square, let the top end logs project a foot or so, put the 
butting pole farther out than the body of the house, have it 
split and notched and pinned with the edge upright, so as to 
catch the ends of the boards ; lay logs to build up the gables, 
with their ends scafed off to allow the roof boards to cover them, 
and the supporting poles so arranged as to give the proper slant. 
Put on the first course of boards, and lay a pole on the course 
far enough from the butting pole to receive the second course, 
keeping the " weight pole " up by " knees " between it and the 
butting pole. Put on the second course and another weight pole, 
and " knees," and so on to the top. 

" Mother never got a meal of victuals on a cook-stove in her 


" Father came from Tennessee in 1829. He was a Methodist, 
and took great delight in the religious services of the olden time. 
When camp-meeting opened, he would move down to camp to 
stay while the meeting lasted, on a rude wagon with truck wheels 
made by sawing them from the end of a huge oak log. He had 
no wagon, and for home purposes used a sled. When father 
landed in "Randolph," he had just 37 J cents, one old horse, and 
five children. Pork was high afterward, and he sold four hogs 
for $50, and entered his first forty acres of land. 

" Swine would run wild, and often, while we were hunting them 
and the dogs were trying to catch them, the wild creatures would 
cut the poor dogs' throats with their sharp, strong tusks. 

" Once while some men were hunting wild swine, the savage 
beasts undertook to run into Dolph Warren's cabin, and scared 
the family inside well nigh to death. Squirrels would be so 

thick and would make such havoc in the corn that the children 
had to be set to scare the greedy " varmints " away. 

"The pea vines would grow as tall as a man's head, and as 
thick as they could grow, so that one could track a horse or a 
cow through the tangled masses of pea vines almost as readily , 
as through a snow-bank. 

" Wild plums would grow in the thick woods, loaded down with 
as nice fruit as one would need to see; gooseberries, raspberries 
and blackberries would grow in the '•clearings" and open places. 

"The State road through Dcerfield to Ridgoville, etc., was cut 
out about 1830. Mr. Andrew Key helped cut it out from the 
State line west, and assisted in opening it, too. 

"Mr. Key entered forty acres at first (with that hog money), 
and afterward forty acres more ; still later, he bought out Collins 
(his brother-in-law)." 

"Andrew McCartney, born in 1804, in Virginia, came first 
to Jay County, in 1837. He has been married several times ; 
once, and the last time, to John Key's sister. He had had a 
large family, was a rough, harsh, cruel man, with whom no one 
could live in peace. He would boast of his scrapes and exploits, 
and, in fact, would readily find and plunge into enough of them to 
answer any five ordinary men." 

" Riley Marshall lived where Judge Miller did afterward. 
Mr. Miller bought Mr. Marshall out." 


In 1824, Daniel B. Miller lived in Jackson Township. In a 
few years, the Harshmans came, and soon afterward, John Sheets 
settled on the Mississinewa, and built a saw-mill. Benjamin 
Devor, Ezekiel Cooper, Thomas Devor, Christian Nickey, Dr. 
Diehl, the Mikesells, Baileys, Moses Byram and the Debolts, 
also moved in before very long. 

March 24, 1824, Wa"rd (including Franklin) Township had 
seventeen families — Meshach Lewallyn, Benjamin Lewallyn, 
George and Henry Renbarger, Daniel Badger, Burkett Pierce, 
George Ritenour, William Odle, Elias Kizer, Allen Wall, David 
Connor, Reason Malott, William Massey, Riley Marshall, Daniel 
Mock, Jeremiah Lindsey, -loab Ward. Lewallyn had a mill that 
would crack five bushels of corn in twenty-four hours, if every- 
thing was in order. In 1829. he put in a hand-bolt and ground 
wheat, each customer bolting his own grist. A saw-mill 
was built about that time, near Deerfield. At the Presidential 
election in 1824, five votes were cast in the township of Ward. 
At that precinct D. B. Miller was Inspector and Riley Marshall 
Clerk. Persons could vote anywhere in the county, and most of 
the voters went elsewhere to cast their ballots. 

In 1829, Ward received a large reinforcement from Tennes- 
see, Key, Fields, etc., etc. 

In 1836. George Ritenour built a grist-mill one mile west of 
Deerfield, with two run of buhrs, which did pretty good work. 
Samuel Helm built a saw-mill two and a half miles east of Deer- 
field. Collins & Fields also put up a saw-mill half a mile east of 
Deerfield. The village of Deerfield was laid out in 1831, but did 
not improve till 1837, when Edward Edger came and brought a 
store, and from that time it grew and a great amount of business 
was done there. 

A long time after the first settlement, William P. Charlton 
built a steam saw-mill at Ridgeville, and William Addington re- 
built the grist-mill, which were of advantage to the county round, 
but no town was established till years afterward. 

There were but few settlers in Green Township before 1835. 
John Life and Samuel Caylor, Bennet King, the Orrs, Cyrus 
Reed, Philip Barger, Elijah Harbour, Thomas Hubbard, Nathan 
Godwin, the Garringers and others came about that date or soon 
after. Fitzpatrick, Evans, Haynes, etc. lived at Fairview. 

Antony McKinney built a mill in 1839. Cyrus Reed built 
a saw-mill near the grist-mill, causing trouble and a tedious law- 

In 1824, Winchester was a field of stumps, with one store on 


the northeast corner of the square, owned by George Burkett. 
The old log court house was on the north side of the street, which 
lay north of the square. Charles Conway lived in a log cabin 
between the store and Salt Creek, and there was a log cabin still 
nearer the creek. On tho northwest corner of the square was a 
double log cabin, occupied as a hotel by John Odle. There was a 
small log cabin in the southwest part of the town, and the new 
log jail stood on the jail lot. Those were the buildings in Win- 
chester in March, 1824. In 1825. Thomas and Joseph Hanna 
put a stock of goods into a new building on the north side of the 
square, and before many years Michael and Andrew Aker bought 
them out, and sold goods a considerable time. Meanwhile the Man- 
sion House was built, and Jesse and William M.Way put a store in it. 
The brick across the street was built, and Jere Smith built the 
Franklin House. A. B. Shaw erected a brick on the northwest 
square. Moorman Way built the brick west of the Mansion 
House. Rush and Kizer put up a brick building on the east of 
the sqare. 

In 1836, Elias Kizer and David Haworth put up a steam grist- 
mill east of Salt Creek, the first steam engine in Randolph 
County. This mill was of great importance, as there was none 
north of it nearer than Fort Wayne. The new (second) court 
house was built in 1826, or thereabouts. 

Some of the early settlers in the region now called Monroe 
Township were Andrew Devoss, John Henenridge, Jesse Ad- 
dington, Mr. Sloan and others. It settled very slowly. The 
region had no conveniences, no thoroughfare, no mill, no village 
nor town of any sort, until 18.52. The southeastern and 
southern portion of the county had been long settled ; the 
Bowens, the Fraziers, the Johnsons, the Hocketts, the Hinshaws, 
the Beards, the Hunts, the Botkins, the Smiths, the Arnolds of 
famous memory and many others had filled up that region. But 
in 1824, Nettle Creek and Stony Creek were still in the deep, 
unbroken forest. Nathan Mendenhall built a mill on Cabin 
Creek, which was a great convenience. John Thornburg put up 
mills near Windsor for both grist and sawing. 

Among the facts of old times, it may be mentioned that there 
was not a shoe shop in Randolph County before about 1830. 
People made their own or got some neighbors to do it for them, 
and there was not a boot made nor worn in the county before 
that date. 

A man by the name of Hartley made the first pair of boots in 
Winchester, for Michael Aker, and Aker, after exhibiting them a 
while to a curious crowd, wore the boots himself 

During the winter of 1824-25, an imitation of a school was 
had at Deerfield, on a grade from arithmetic down, and the 
teacher could not spell the word "highest" any better than to 
say h-i-e-s-t, nor tell how much salt $l.l2i will buy, at U-'^li 
for fifty pounds [a rather snug little mental problem, by the 
way]. I never saw a blackboard in a schoolhouse in Randolph 
County, except at the seminary. 

The people in the early days were full of hospitality. The 
settlers were from all quarters — Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia,Kentucky, Tennessee 
and Carolina — and all classes vied with each other in generous 
hospitality to strangers sojourning in the region. 

None were ever allowed to suffer, and men would kill deer 
and give the flesh away. And so with turkeys and pheasants 
and fish. The way to catch fish was peculiar, and worth a de- 

If the ice was thick enough to stand on, we could cut holes, 
and drive the fish to the holes and spear ..them.- Sometimes, in a 
sunny day, we would tie three hooks back to back, and haul the 
fish out that way. In the spring, they would bite freely ; later 
in the season, we would take torches of hickory bark, and spear 
the poor fellows as they lay in the ripples of the streams. Some- 
times, wo made a "brush-drag" by taking a grape-vine of suffi- 
cient length, laying strips of thin hickory bark across the vine 
under it, and then piling brush on till there was as much as we 

wished, tying the brush to the grape-vines with these strips of 
hickory bark ; and, when the drag was completed, it would be 
hauled through the water, and the fish would move along in front 
of the "drag," and so they would be caught. 

There were several ways to kill deer. One way was simply 
to shoot them from the ground ; another was to climb a tree, and 
shoot them as they were drinking from a spring. Another, and 
a very cruel way, was to bleat like a fawn, and decoy the does to 

s very sly v 

3 they s 

death. Hunting turkeys 
wonderfully sharp-witted. However, in the "gobblin 
you could call the "gobblers'" to you by making a kind of pipe 
of the center bone of the wing. Fox hunting and coon hunting 
were great sport, though chasing the foxes and chopping the trees 
for the coons made a pretty hard task ; yet the fun of it made 
the work seem light. 

The tools for farm work at first were exceedingly simple. An 
ax, an iron wedge, a mattock and a maul, and a big " nigger 
hoe," an old-fashioned single shovel plow, and a barshare plow 
with an iron share, a coulter in front and a wooden mold- 
board, and a harrow made of wood, teeth and all. These were 
all they had till about 1829. About that time, John Way began 
to make the front part of the moldboard of iron, some of which 
would scour, and these were used till about 1834, when Ilorney, 
of Richmond, made a cast-iron moldboard and share. And, in 
1845, Beard & Sinex brought forward the steel moldboard. About 
1830, John Mansur, of Richmond, sold cast-steel axes, and about 
1835, the Collins' patent came About 1840, Gaar & Co. pro- 
duced the four-horse power chaff-piler threshing machine, and 
later the eight-horse power separator came to hand — the Pitts, 
from Buffalo, for instance. 

In 1836, there was only one open buggy in Ward Township, 
and one top buggy, Edward Edger having the former and Widow 
Kinncar the latter. Reapers and mowers, hay rakes, corn 
planters, nor even simple corn-markers, had any of them come into 
use in 185.5, when Mr. Mock left Randolph County for the West. 
The first cook stoves in Randolph were brought by Edward Edger 
to Deerfield in 1838, one for himself and one for Mrs. Kinnear. 
They weighed 600 pounds each and cost $50, besides the hauling 
from Cincinnati, which was a large sum. Roads there were none 
in those early times, only perhaps that they were cut out some- 
what ; and the travel went anywhere among the trees and stumps, 
with mud in the wet season two feet deep, even as late as 1855, 
when he left for Illinois. Mr. M. started from Deerfield June 10, 
1855, in a wagon with as good a span of horses as could be found 
in the county, with himself and wife and three small children and 
two trunks, perhaps 600 pounds in all, and it was all they could do 
to get through to Winchester. At least a mile of the corduroy 
was afloat or under water. There were too "little showers" 
that day, in which the rain fell five inches deep. 

Mr. Mock relates that he once shot a horse belonging to one 
of the settlers by the name of Cox in the White River Settle- 
k,nent, east of Winchester, in mistake for a deer. Mock was 
young, and he was greatly alarmed. He went to Mr. Cox and 
told him. "So thee has killed my horse." "Yes." "And 
thee thought it was a deer." " I did." " And thee wishes to 
pay me for the horse." " It would bo no more than right that I 
should, I suppose." "Well, John, I guess I'll not charge thee 
anything for the horse." And then Mock felt mightily relieved. 

One of the old settlers (who might be named, but will not be, 
as he is yet alive) came to mill one morning and bought a drink 
of whisky. In undertaking to swallow it, he threw it up twice, 
but, catching it in the glass, he kept turning it down, exclaiming 
the third time he swallowed it (with an oath), " Stay down ; 
whisky costs too much money to be wasted that way." And it 
stayed at last. 

Jacob Voris was a butcher and a grocer and a baker. He 
made great quantities of gingerbread, that wonderful " nick- 
nack " of olden time. The chaps had a song about it, one 
stanza o*" which ran thus : 


" Of all the birds that fly ia air, 
The white, the blue, the red; 
Of all the cakes that Voris bakes, 
Give me the ' gungerbread.' " 

At one time they had a spelling match at the school west of 
Deci-ficM under William Shoemaker as teacher. They spelled 
from the dictionary, which was the first time Mock had ever seen 
a book of the kind. It scared him out. He thought it was of 
no use to try to spell from that. 

The best teacher in that region in those days was James Ed- 
wards, from Cincinnati or thereabouts. He taught a term or two 
and left again. 


When we moved to Hancock County, Ohio, there was but one 
house within three miles of where we built our cabin. It was 
January, and the snow was eight inches deep in the woods. My 
family stayed at that house, and we (brother and myself) tramped 
back and forth night and morning, to build my cabin, and we 
could get only two other men (four in all) to help raise it. It 
wag small, fourteen by sixteen, and just high enough to stand 
up in. When we moved in, it was chinked, but not daubed ; had 
neither chimney, nor floor, and no door (only a hole for one). 
We built a big log-heap fire to cook and warm by for two or 
three days, till we got a fire-place and chimney made, and we 
hung up a quilt for a door. There were only throe or four houses 
then at Fort Findlay. There was one store ; the two men that 
kept it were so poor that they had only one coat between them, 
and they brought their goods on packhorses. We were as happy 
then as ever in our lives. The Indians lived on their " Reserve," 
between Findlay and Upper Sandusky (about twelve miles 
away). They used often to pass as they were hunting — Wyandots 
and others. They are gone now, except some who live like 
white people. I have stayed many a night with the Indians. 
They lived well; the half-breeds, especially were intelligent and 

" For some years, we had to go to mill to Perrysburg (Fort 
Meigs), on the Maumeo River, across the "Black Swamp." 
That "Black Swamp" was a terrible place. We would take 
three yoke of oxen, and twenty-five bushels of grain, and cross 
the swamp, eighteen miles, and then go fifteen miles farther to 
the mill. The trip would take us twelve days, sometimes going 
only two or three miles a day. We crossed at what was " Hull's 
Trace," and the places were still there where Hull's soldiers cut 
brush, and little trees, and fixed and wove them together, to 
make places to keep them out of the mud and water as they slept 
at night The mud was black and deep — how deep I do not 
know. Large rocks were scattered in many places through the 

"At another swamp in that country, there was a "crossing " 
made of rails, for a road, and the swamp would shake for several 
rods on each side, as a wagon passed along the track, and if a 
horse or ox got off the rails, he would sink into the mire so that 
he could not get out, only as he was hauled out. The " Black 
Swamp" has since been drained, and the farms there are among 
the very best. This swamp exteuded a great distance, perhaps 
150 miles. As we traveled across it, we slept in the wagon, and 
would tie one ox to the wagon, and turn the rest out to feed. 
The surface away from the track was firm enough for cattle to 
walk on, and feed upon the weeds and bushes. I was at Lower 
Sandusky when the cholera prevailed. The emigrants going 
West died there in great numbers. I saw them lying dead 
around, I cannot tell how many. I got a load of salt to take to 
Findlay, and as I went to get some buckwheat straw to stuff 
round my barrels, I found several corpses lying covered in the 

"We lived in Marion County, Ohio, when the "stars fell," No- 
vember, 1833. Some people that worked the next day in a deep 
well saw the" stars falling " all the next day also. In a deep well 
in Baltimore County, Md., eighty-four feet deep, which I cleaned 

out, I saw distinctly the stars from the bottom of the well. In 
Hancock County, Ohio, Mrs. Crist saw a "ball of fire" fall to the 
ground, and explode in all directions. I, myself, saw, one night, 
one fall not fifty yards off. It struck the ground aud burst, and 
the fire flew every way. The light was bright enough te see to 
pick up a pin. It seemed as large as a man's hat, and burst as 
it struck. I have bought cornmeal at |1 a bushel that was so 
musty it was green, and that smelt so strong you could smell it 
several feet from the wagon, and we were glad to get even that ! 
I used to split rails at 20 cents a hundred, and to work at 40 
cents a day. 

" The first spring, I cleared up five acres for corn. A good 
crop grew, but tiie birds and "varmints" mostly ate it up. I 
used to kill squirrels, and coons, and turkeys, so many that I 
did not take the trouble to pick them up. The turkeys would 
come twenty or thirty in a flock." 


" I came to Indiana with $3 and a rifle-gun. I have been 
greatly afflicted ; had much sickness. Have seven times been sick 
expecting to die ; yet I am eighty-one years old, and in moderate, 
though feeble, health. I have paid thousands of dollars for doc- 
tors' bills. I sick, when a boy, and I am sick in the same 
way yet. My back was hurt when I was a small child, and it 
hurts me still. I have had the piles and the gravel from early 
youth. I was ruptured in 1826, which remains till now. Dr. 
Ruby made thirty visits from Bethel at one time. I took my 
wife and walked and led the mare to Richmond. My wife stayed 
six weeks, and got no relief. She came home and lived till Octo- 
ber. My second wife was visited once a day for seventy days. I 
once sent for Dr. Warner, who prescribed for my case. Said he: 
"When this medicine is gone, come and see me."^ I went, and he 
charged me ^l.^O, and said : "You can't be cured. Some doc- 
tors will say: 'We can cure you,' but all they wish is a big bill ; 
they can run that up on you fast enough." I was at one time 
greatly troubled with the gravel, and Dr. Morgan tried to ease 
me. He injected morphine into my side, which seemed to give 
relief. I had been almost raving and wild with pain from 
Wednesday morning till sometime Sunday. 

" Thus many and severe have been my afflictions from my 
youth even till this day, but I have trusted in the Lord, and 
trust Him still." 


" Dr. Silvers used to live near Ridgeville. He and his cousin, 
when small boys, were captured by the Indians, and lived and 
traveled with them for many years (1811 and onward) from Vin- 
cennes to Muncie, Greenville, Ft. Wayne, etc. 

" When the Indians captured the boys, the clothes were thrown 
on the bank of a creek to make believe the children had been 

" The Indians often passed through portions of Randolph 

"Dr. Silvers used to say there was a spot on Nolan's Fork, 
under a knotty walnut tree (he thinks on the farm of John Thomas, 
oneof the first settlers), where the Indians had buried money. The 
doctor has gone, in later years, and dug to find it; whether he 
succeeded or not, probably no mortal knows. 

"At another place, near Richard Corbitt's, he said metal had 
been found. 

" On Green's Fork, he said, an old Indian buried a lot of 
money, and the doctor spent months in hunting for it, but whether 
he found that or not no one ever knew but himself. 

"The Indians used to ha /-e copper kettles (gotten in trade with 
the English or the French), and settlers have found some of them. 
Mr. Frazier, on Green's Fork, found one in early times." 


"The first preaching appointment at Spartansburg was started 
by Ohio preachers at Brother William McKim's. The Methof^ 


ists built their first church there, in 1837, and their present one 
in about 1869. 

" The first preaching was about 1833. We joined in 1834, in 
Mr. McKim's barn. Camp-meeting3 were held a little west of 
town three different seasons. The preachers in charge were Revs. 
Hall, Bruce and Smith. Large numbers joined the church. 

"A Mr. Manning died near the camp ground. He had been 
sick, and was feeling better, and he wished so much to attend 
meeting, that he went before he was able, and by the excitement 
and the night air ho took a relapse, and was dead before they got 
him home. 

"There had been a little mill where Jessup's mill was after- 
ward built, but it was gone. The " Quaker Trace " had been 
cut out, but as you went farther north, the track went " all over 
the woods," over saplings, round logs and ponds, etc. 

" John Alexander used to tell how, in high water, the cattle 
would get on the bridges, and the puncheons would be floating, 
and the oxen would get their legs between the puncheons, and 
the teamsters would unyoke the cattle and let them swim out. 
How the wagons were got across cannot be stated. Old Thorn- 
ton Alexander and his boys (colored) used to wagon regularly to 
Ft. Wayne." 


" When I was a lad, thirteen years old, Iwent with father to Fort 
Wayne, with two yoke of oxen and a wagon ; and he worked there 
two weeks. When about to start for home, father found a man 
who was going to Logansport, and father waited, went with him, 
taking the oxen and wagon, and sending me home by the "Quaker 
Trace," alone. It took me five days to make the journey. It 
was a lonely trip, and I camped out several nights. Father, in 
coming home, lay out the last night. There was a heavy snow- 
fall, and he spread the blanket over him and raked the snow on 
and around him to keep him warm. 

"At one time, Thomas Shalor, whose home was near Camden, 
Jay County, Ind., came to mill, and after bacon, etc., with a 
wagon and two yoke of oxen. As he started home, in passing a 
drain bridged with poles, an ox got a leg between the poles, and 
broke it. Mr. S. came back for help, and hired me (a boy four- 
teen years old) to take a yoke of oxen and help him through. As 
we were crossing the " maple slash," in Jay County, the ox- 
tongue broke. It was in winter, and the snow was six inches 
deep. Shaler went to Mr. Welch's, four miles off, to get help 
and tools. He returned after dark with an ax and an auger and 
two men. Joseph Hawkins (another boy, fourteen years old) and 
myself took the " back tracks" of the men, getting to Mr. 
Welch's after midnight, nearly chilled through. She got up (the 
woman was in bed), and gave us some " corn dodger," and it was 
good, sure. The men came with the wagon and team, near day- 
light, with feet badly frost-bitten. After breakfast, Shalor and I 
went on, getting to Philip Brown's for dinner (corn bread and 
venison) — near Liber — and staying at Judge Winters' that night. 
In the morning, we cut the ice and crossed the Salimony, and 
went on thrpugh the thick woods, there being no road ; and away 
in the night we got within half a mile of Shalor's cabin ; but 
there was a creek and ice, and the oxen would not cross ; so we 
tied them to the wagon, and, shouldering some meal and bacon, 
footed it to the cabin. But that cabin was a sight. No daub- 
ing, no chinking, no lioor, no fireplace, no chimney ; fire in the 
middle of the cabin, and the iiouse filled with smoke. The woman 
got up, cooked us some meat and gave us some dodger, and we 
lay down. That woman and her four little girls had been there 
alone for more than a week, and were out of food. [See J. Haw- 
kins' statement.] The next morning I started for home with the 
cattle. I bad passed Judge Winters' about 1 P. M., when I met 
father, with Mr. Lewallyn and Mr. McCartney, hunting me. We 
got home about midnight, I having been absent five days. 

" At another time, a horse had strayed. He was " spanciled," 
and I "trailed" him. I had on a rimless straw hat, and no coat 
nor vest, but simply tow shirt and pants, and was barefooted. I 

followed the trail to near Huntsville, stayed all night with a 
" Dunkard," and ihe next morning went with him to a " woods 
meeting." The preacher made inquiry, and a man came and 
told me he had seen such a horse, and where. The horse had 
been raised at Connersville, and seemed to be heading thither. I 
went to Connersville, Cambridgo City, Milton, Jacksonsburg, 
Waterloo, etc., but no horse could I find, and so I set out for 
home. I met father near Maxville, hunting for me. I told him 
what the man had said, and he went and found the horse in that 
neighborhood. I had somehow missed him. My travels had 
been one hundred miles or more, and lasted seven days. At 
Waterloo they thought rae a runaway apprentice, and were about 
to arrest me as such ; but a man there happened to know my 
father and myself, and they let me go. And truly I was a sight 
to behold, and my story, though true, was entirely unlikely, and 
people would not believe me. 

" Flatboating was a great business in those times. We used 
to steer the boats down the river over the dams, etc., to the Wa- 
bash, or elsewhere, and then go home on foot. Once, five of us 
were hired to take five boats down, all la.shed together. We got 
through all safe, got our pay twenty miles below Marion, and 
" put" for Randolph. We struck south for the road (what there 
was), and so to Marion. Billy Gray said, " Boys, this makes ray 
thirteenth trip. I always had plenty of company at the start, 
but none when I got home." We set forth that day for " keeps." 
The next day, Billy Gray was not well, but ho warmed up and 
left us. We had to wade waist-deep that day to cross a stream. 
The nextJay he went ahead again, but we passed him before he 
reached Fairview. Gray stayed at Elijah Thoma-s', south of Fair- 
view. Addington stayed at Caylor's Tavern, Roe came home, 
three miles from Ridgeville, and I got home to Ridgeville at mid- 
night, having traveled that day more than fifty miles, often wad- 
ing, and in places waist deep." 

[Note. — Arthur McKew died at his home, in Ridgeville, Jan- 
uary, 1882.] 

" George Porter, ray brother, came out in the spring of 1829, 
and raised crops, and then came back and moved his family to 
Randolph, three or four weeks before I arrived there. 

" There was a mill at Ridgeville, when I came. Henry Hinchy 
built a water-mill on the Mississinewa, after a while, for corn and 
wheat, bolted by machinery, in (about) 1844. 

" The first school was taught by George Porter's wife, about 
one-half mile west of our house (in Ward Township), about 1836. 

" We used to go to meeting (M. E.), at Riley Marshall's house, 
near (what is now) Prospect Meeting-House. Mrs. P. used to go 
afoot and " tote" the baby — three miles. Mrs. Porter used to 
be greatly afraid of the Indians, though they never injured her. 
Travelers would often pass from Winchester to the " Quaker 
Trace." We were glad to see them and have them stay over 

" The Brockuses would drink and fight. Their wives were fine 
women, but the men used them badly. They would not work, 
but would go off hunting or running about. The women would 
be at home with nothing to eat. 

" I went three times to Cincinnati to enter land — forty acres 
each time — afoot, except, partly, the second time. Then I rode 
a colt to Harailton, and sold it there for $35 cash, to enter land 
with. I had been offered $100, credit, for the horse at home, but 
I was in a hurry to enter my land, for fear somebody else would 
get it before rae. I went afoot to Cincinnati, and home again. 

" Thomas Shaler lived in a cabin on this place (and his brother ; 
but they moved off). He had been here three or four years. Samuel 
Emery came in 1826. He lived in Ward Township, two miles 
down the Mississinewa. Allen Wall lived close by Emery's. 
There were no more between here and Deerfield, on the Mississin- 
ewa. Daniel B. Miller and Riley Marshall lived near Prospect 
Meeting-House, east of Deerfield. Philip Storms lived near 
" Sockum," at the crossing. He had been there some time. An- 


drew Debolt lived at Mount Holly. William Simmons had been 
here, had gone away to Blue River, and he came again in 1330. 
Messrs. Keys, Hodge, Manus and Fields lived south of here. 

" Thomas Devor and Mr. Beach, Jacob Johnson, Joseph Sut- 
ton, James Wickersham, Amos Smith, Thomas Wiley and John 
Hoke came after a while. John Skinner and James Skinner 
came also." 


" Before I was five years old, I remember being at my grand- 
father Harrison's; I was with some black boys tramping clothea 
in a big trough. My uncles made me popguns, and gave me 
slices of toast from the plate before the fire. When five years 
old, father took me to his new home, and my new mother. 

" As I got to the gate, I ran into the house, and the first thing 
I knew I was in my stepmother's lap. Father settled among 
the Blue Ridge Mountains. A part of the farm was creek bot- 
toms, the rest was on the mountains. Some of the surface was 
very steep, so that it could be cultivated. The sloping land had 
to be plowed one way, and some could not be plowed at all ; 
and that which was too steep to be plowed was cultivated entirely 
with the hoe. The stones and the hoe would often meet, and sev- 
eral hoeing together would make lively music. The mountains 
were full of bears, wolves, panthers, wild cats and snakes. Rat- 
tlesnakes and copperheads were the most dreaded. Our nearest 
neighbor was a mile distant. We could see no house but our 
own. Many days would pass with a sight of none but our own 
family. The pasture was fine in the mountains and ravines, 
and ready in March. The cows would come to their calves for 
three or four months, and then they had to be hunted. I was 
the cowboy, and often night would find me in the mountains call- 
ing the cows. The hair would well-nigh stand on end for fright 
while driving them over rocks and hills, and through laurel thick- 
ets, not knowing when I might meet a wild beast or tread on a 
snake. One night, two of my brothers, out coon-hunting, came 
home at daylight, and said the dogs were baying a bear in the 
mountain close by. We went with the gun to find the den. I 
walked to its mouth, the bear met me and passed without a word 
of " How-d'ye," or " Good bye." I crawled in and captured 
three cubs and took them home. 

Another night, John and I were hunting in a strange place. 
John fell from a cliff; I hugged a tree. At dawn we were at the 
edge of a precipice over a stream. 

One time, going home from picking whortleberries, we came 
upon three huge rattlesnakes lying in the sun. We cut three 
long forked sticks, and put them over their necks, and I held 
down their heads with a short fork, and cut them off with my 
pocket-knife. We did this to prevent their biting themselves, be- 
cause we wanted the oil. We dragged our snakes two and a half 
miles to get them home. When I was skinning one of them the 
headless neck drew back and stood in the attitude to strike, ai 
gave a forward blow as if to bite. My brother laughed at r 
years afterward for being bitten by a rattlesnake without 

" In the valley where I was born, in the Blue Ridge, the si 
would shine far up the western heights long ere we could s 
its disk above the eastern hills, and long before night, moreover, it 
had sunk behind the mountain tops. In that rugged country, 
work began at daylight, and at 9 A. M., the horn blew for break- 
fast, and at 2 or 3 o'clock for dinner, which was the last meal. 
The work kept on from dawn till dark, and in winter cotton had 
to be picked till 9 or 10 o'clock at night. 

The hills were very steep, so much so that often we were 
obliged to " tote " things a long way to where they could be 
"hauled." One day I was driving a cart, and, though several 
were holding it, over it went — load and all. Luckily the "over- 
turn " did little damage, so we loaded up again and went on. 

People here can have little idea of the hardships of such a life 
in 80 rough and rugged a land. 

Yet there were some advantages even there. The clear, cool, 

bright springs gushing from the hillsides, and the pure, fresh, 
bracing mountain air were a delight to behold and to breathe. 

" I had even in my boyhood resolved that this hard and broken 
land was "not the land for me." I had beard of that fair, level, 
rich country in the Northwest, beyond the beautiful Ohio, and I 
determined to find it, and view its glories for myself. And in 
due time the opportunity came. Father liad met with losses and 
went to Ohio to find a new home. Meanwhile, I remained be- 
hind to settle his business, and a hard and tiresome task it was, 
indeed. In performing the work, I walked more than a thousand 
miles, and rode hundreds of miles besides. 

Once we ' ran off' a tract of land overflowed by a violent rain, 
riding on horseback and using poles instead of pegs. The survey 
had to be made, and the surveyor would not do it, and so we did. 

When all was done that I could do there for father, I moved 
stepmother with eight children to the "Great West," Ending fa^ 
ther in Gallia County, Ohio, in which region he made his new 
home. So here I was in the wonderful Northwest, and I had 
come to stay. I had bidden the rough and rugged mountains a 
long, long farewell. I had found the forest plains of which I had 
dreamed so often and so fondly. In Ohio I married, and, after 
four years, made my way to Wayne County, Ind.; and after a 
brief sojourn there, we pitched our tent under the green beeches 
of Randolph. 

" But the West was not without its hardships also. Workwas 
wearisome, and money was scarce. Twenty-five cents a day (cash) reckoned fair wages. Fifty cents in " dicker " was easier to 
get than half that amount in money. 

I chopped and split rails from heavy oak timber for 25 cents 
a hundred and my board. Everything (that farmers produced) 
was low. The first cow (and calf) I bought was for ?6..50. She 
was three years old and very small. When I got home with her 
and the calf, I called to my wife, " See here, I have brought you 
two calves." She looked and cried out, " She can't raise a calf." 
She did though, and both of them made splendid milkers. 

We bought pork at $2 net, delivered, and corn was 12| cents 
a bushel. I boarded a teacher, Samuel Godfrey, in Wayne 
County, about 1830, for 75 cents a week. 

" November 17, 1831, we moved into our cabin, and the next 
day it snowed. I had managed by years of hard work to get 
money, with which I had entered IdO acres of land, and I felt 
richer than a king, and hoped and e.xpected to prosper. But, 
alas, disease and affliction were speedily my lot. I was doomed 
to crutches for life. In less than three months I was prostrated 
with the " cold plague," and I have never stood upon my feet 
unsupported nor walked without crutches since that hour. 1 lay 
a long time helpless, my wife rolling me over in bed. Nobody 
thought I would live. But here I am ! When it became clear 
that I could not regain strength, I was alarmed at the prospect. 
What was to become of us ? But these fears were at that time 
taken away, and I clung to the promise, " Sefek first, etc." \Ve 
resolved to hold together as a family, which we have done. To 
pine, would avail nothing. How we lived is hard to tell. " God 
delivered us," is all [ can say. The wheel and the loom did a 
brave part. When the calamity came, I was engaged in preach- 
ing to two churches. Of course I stopped. But when I had re- 
covered so as to go on crutches, though not to sit up, I was sent 
for to see a sick man. The house was crowded ; I lay on a pallet 
and pointed them to Christ. Since then, often have I, lying on a 
couch, in the congregation, invited sinners to repentance, and bade 
Christians God speed ! The followers of the Lamb would meet, 
and sing, and pray, and I would try to preach, and the Lord was 
well pleased for His gracious name's sake. And many a time we 
were fed on heavenly manna ! 

My worldly prospect was indeed dark, but God comforted 
me, and blessed be His holy name ! 

I had grace to trust Him, and He sustained me. We had kind 
friends, and we always had enough ; sometimes the bitter tear 
would fall, but I lifted up the eye of faith to Him who sent the 


ravens to feed Elijah, and to Him who, though He rules all 
worlds, yet had not where to lay his head I I was not disap- 
pointed. My friends have been many and kind, and with them 
would I live and die ; and may we all rise to light, clothed in the 
garments of Sftlvation ! 

" I was converted and joined the Baptists in 1821, was licensed 
in 1825, and ordained in 1830, and in 1839, when we moved to 
Winchester, a Baptist Church was organized for that place and 
region, which stood many years. 

There was, at the time, a Methodist meeting-house, and there 
was no other. The Presbyterians began before long, and kept 
up an organization for ten or fifteen years, building a house for 
their worship, but the church was always weak, and at length be- 
came extinct. 

" After I moved to Winchester, at first I wrote lying on a nar- 
row straw bed, but mostly on my knees. The Recorder's office 
then was worth but little ; an able-bodied man could have done 
the work, but I had to hire a deputy, and the profits were small. 
In the summer of 1847, my disease' returned, and in May, 1848, 
I was hauled between two feather beds to where I now live. I 
was confined to my bed at that time for more than two years ; 
since then I have been several times snatched from the jaws of 
death by the same hand which has led me all my journey 
through. Like the Jews before Jordan, 1 look across the river 
and behold the blessed Canaan. 

Like Moses on Mt. Pisgah's top, I view the heavenly land- 
scape o'er, and humbly wait the appointed time when God shall 
set my happy spirit free, and receive my blood-washed soul to 
the blissful mansions of eternal rest. 

" For some years I trusted in the sweet Bible promises, and 
was upheld in the midst of my sorrow. But, as my family cares 
increased, after a time I became somewhat disheartened ; my way 
seemed hedged up, darkness was on me, and I felt gloomy and 
pad. When I looked at my wife and children, and thought of 
their needs and my own, and my helplessness, my soul cried, 
" What will ijecome of us ?' 

But one Sabbath, after having been to my appointment at 
Concord (for I could preach though I could not stand, and had 
been greatly helped and strengthened in the Lord's work), I came 
home, and at night, when in bed, a burden of distress rolled upon 
ray heart, and it seemed that I should be crushed ; I was not 
asleep, it was no dream ; but I saw myself struggling through 
deep water, and suddenly my Savior was walking by my side, 
and He sweetly held me up as I bufi'eted the waves. Deep peace 
fell on me, all trouble and doubt and sorrow fled, and my soul 
was bathed in joy unspeakable and full of glory. The holy bap- 
tism of that midnight hour has never left me ; but I have been 
enabled to walk in the strength of the grace I then received, even 
to this blessed day. 

A cripple bodily 1 have continued to be to this moment, but the 
ecstasy of spirit which my poor soul has many a time received 
from the Lord, human tongue in this world can never tell. And 
the good Lord is with His unwortliy servant still. 

The prayer of the Psalmist, '"'When I am old and gray- 
headed, Lord, forsake me not," has with me and mine been 
wonderfully answered ! Near fifty years ago, I Lay feeble and 
helpless, waiting for death to do its work upon my wretched 
body; and yet, here I am still, tarrying in this tabernacle of 
clay, patiently expecting the hour, now surely near at hand, 
when I shall be, " not unclothed, but clothed upon ;" and mor- 
tality shallbe swallowed up of life — when I shall be permitted to 
see the King in His beauty; when my crutches and my poor old 
frame shall be laid aside together, and my freed spirit shall go 
shouting home !" 

We will priiiae Him again when we pass over Jordan." 
Since the Baptist Church spoken of above went down, Mr. W. 
has stood outside of special church relation. But he is in full 
and blessed sympathy with God and all good men, and feels that 

all humble, penitent, God-fearing, heaven-seeking souls are his 
brethren and sisters. He feels too, that — 

" The church on earth and all the dead, 

But one communion malie. 

They nil have life in Christ, their Head, 

And of His righteousness partake." 

Through the glass of faith he views from the tops of the " De- 
lectable Mountains" the glorious sights and scenes in the New 
Jerusalem ; and feels that the time will not be long till he shall 
be among them, till he shall join the ecstatic throng; till with 
the spirits of the just made perfect, with the " church of the first- 
born, whose names are written in heaven," he, too, cleansed and 
purified, " washed in the blood of the Lamb," shall take up the 
heavenly song, and swell the hallelujah chorus that rises ever 
from the hosts of the saved in the courts of glory on high ! 

" When I taught school, I did bravely, taking pupils through 
arithmetic, etc., where I had never been myself! The firnt 
school was by subscription, eight weeks, taught in an old log build- 
ing in Frederick Davis' field. It had once boasted a clay and 
puncheon fireplace, but that had been pulled down, and the 
chimney-place was open, like a barn door. The hooka were what- 
ever each pupil brought — Bible, Testament, Life of Washington, 
Life of Marion, History of England, spelling books, and so on. 
Each one used whatever he brought, too; "uniformity of text- 
books " was not in vogue in that institution, sure; of course, 
classification gave no trouble, but each tow-headed urchin was 
head, and foot too, of his own class. I had, perhaps, twenty 
pupils. My school was liked ; my government was somewhat 
unique, and certainly original. One day I had two lads standing 
face to face, two or three feet apart, with a stick split at both 
ends and one end on each boy's nose ; another mischiev- 
ous ten-year-old I had thrown astraddle of the naked joist-pole 
overhead ; and a fourth luckless wight who had fallen under my 
magisterial displeasure, was expiating his crime by standing with 
his hands behind his back and his nose plump against the wall ! 

Just at that supreme moment of the endurance of penalty for 
transgressing tlie majesty of violated law, in popped a neighbor and 
patron of the school, more noted for bluntness than gentility, 
through the open door. He stared, first at one, then at the 
next, and so on, till at length as the whole ridiculous gravity of the 
curious situation dawned upon his mind, suddenly he broke out 
with a rough expression, and, sinking with his ponderous weight 
upon the puncheon floor, burst into a loud and uncontrollable fit 
of laughter. Was not that school-room a sight ? " Wholesome 
discipline" was at a discount at that moment of supreme ridicu- 
lousness ; and teacher, pupils and visitor all gave way together, 
and laughed in concert till they got tired, and quit because they 
could laugh no longer.'' 

At another time, the same " school visitor " " cut a shine " 
in that (or some neighboring) school, which fun-loving teachers 
will wonder at when they read : The school was in session ; all 
were at their "books," and studying "for keeps." One young 
man was sitting, face to the wall, engaged in writing, as he sat 
in front of one of those old slab or puncheon writing-desks, fast- 
ened against the side of the house. 

All at once, in popped "that same old coon" with a meal- 
sack slung around his neck. Paying no special heed to what 
was going on in the room, he strode straight across the floor to 
this young man aforesaid ; and, before any one had the slightest 
idea of his intention, the old sack was slapped violently round 
the young man's face, the other exclaiming, " Tend to your 
books, you or-na-ry cuas." Teachers generally say they like to 
have visitors : doubtless this teacher had often said the same. 
But probably thereafter his desire for visitors contained at least 
one mental reservation. 

Mr. Cadwallader's school was liked, perhaps all the better 
for his attempted "new departures" and original methods. At 



any rate, he was engaged again for the winter school, with an 
enormous increase of wages from ^7 to §9 per month — a growth 
of well-nigh 30 per cent, and an increase worthy of especial 
notice and remembrance; conclusively showing that the employers 
in that backwoods school-district thoroughly understood the 
appropriate method and means of renderin-; suitable encourage- 
ment to corresponding merits ; and that they put their knowledge 
earnestly into practice, much to the satisfaction of the worthy 
subject of the present sketch. 

"That winter furnished some interesting experience. The 
big boys took me at Christmas, and ducked me through a hole in 
the ice up to my chin, till I would agree to " treat," which I 
finally did. They let me out, and I sent for some apples, for the 
" treat." The sequel came near being tragic, for the apple boys 
stayed so long that the others thought I was "shamming," and 
had sent for no apples ; and, so they caught me, and went to duck 
me again. Luckily, the boys came just at the nick of time, and 
I was let go, and we had a gay " treat." Thus went school life 
(not very) long ago, when I was young and in my teens." 

During Mr. C.'s term as Senator, an event occurred, so curious 
and vexatious, and so apt an illustration of the evils of hasty 
legislation, and, moreover, of the importance of careful and 
exact expression, that we cannot forbear to state it somewhat in 
detail. He had resolved that Indiana should have, like her sis- 
ter States, a law regulating the movements of railroad trains, a 
thing, in fact, greatly necessary. So, he drew up a bill, mostly 
like the Ohio law ; presented it to the Senate, and it was " tee- 
totally " passed in fifteen minutes ; in fact, before he sat down. 
It was read, once, twice, ordered to be considered engrossed, 
read the third time, and finally passed, all in the same transac- 
tion. Not an objection was raised, not a word was changed ; it 
went through "clean." It passed the other House much in the 
same way, and nothing more was thought of it. On the day in 
which the law was to go into effect, the whole State of Indiana 
was "waked up" by the unearthly screeching of every engine- 
whistle on every railroad of the State. Especially were the ears 
of our Senator, whose residence is close to the railroad depot in 
Union City, greeted with whistling fit to "wake the dead." 
When the railroad men were asked, " what does this mean ? " 
they replied, " Senator Cadwallader's whistle-bill requires it." 

Mr. C. resolutely denied the allegation, but on examining the 
"Record," there it stood in black and white — " Every engineer 
shall, within eighty rods of any crossing of any street or public 
highway, sound the whistle continuously until he has passed said 
crossing." Cities were allowed to regulate the matter as they 
chose ; but as no town had done so, the law was binding in town 
and country alike. Here was a racket indeed. Mr. C. was non- 
plussed ; but knowing the bill was not so when he had it pass the 
Senate, he got hold of the copy thereof, and found this curious 
fact, to wit : The section, as he wrote it, stood thus : * * " shall 
sound the whistle and ring the bell continuously until, etc., i. e., 
sound the whistle once, at first, and then keep on ringing the 
bell, etc. Somebody had drawn a pencil mark across the words 
"and ring the boll," making the clause road, "shall sound the 
whistle continuously," and thus it stands on the " Record." Who 
made the alteration, Mr. C. has never been able to find out. But 
it shows very stri'viug'y how important it is to have the words of 
a law just exactly right, and how great a change a slight al- 
teration will make. The bill, as it was presented, commanded 
(though the idea is not very clearly expressed), a proper and 
need Tul thing. As it stands on the Record, the thing required 
would be an intolerable nuisance. 

Probslly no man was ever greeted with such a howl of indig- 
nation as uom every corner cf the State met the astounded ears 
of the Senator from Rcu^.elph. Examination, however, soon 
quieted the clamor, and showed his intention and his action to 
nave bei.a proper, and that he was simply tho victim of a strange 
and, thus far, unexplained mistake (or, possibly, of a trick on the 
part of some truckler to the favor of railroad corporations). 

Mr. C. has had the satisfaction of witnessing the Indiana 
Legislature pass the " Railroad Whistle Bill" in an amended form, 
i. e., in the shape that he put it through the Senate originally, 
and of having the Senate pass, unanimously, a Resolution that the 
"blunder" of the previous "act" was in no way chargeable to him. 
One would have supposed that Gov. Williams would have 
seen the absurdity of the bill in the form in which it seems to 
have come into his hands, but it appears he did not ; and "Gover- 
nors" are not always " sharp" in the matter of language, any 
more than other people, as the Hoosier State, in common with 
others, has had occasion to discover. 

I should not do justice to my feelings were I to omit to state 
that Mr. C. is himself an eminent specimen of an honorable and 
high-minded citizen. Though economical, he is not penurious; 
though desirous to make money, he is not oppressive to the poor 
and unfortunate ; though not, in name, a professor of religion, 
yet in heart he delights in all things good and lovely, and^aasiatj 
liberally in building up every worthy enterprise. He is a hearty 
and earnest friend of the temperance reform, and an active and 
uncompromising Republican. He possesses the unqualified re- 
spect of all his fellow-citizens, and is an honor to the town in 
which he resides, and to the county which, for well-nigh fifty 
years, has claimed him for her own. Although highly honored, 
thus far, by his fellow-citizens, the State will never know^what 
she has lost by neglecting to advance him to the post of State 
School Superintendent, for a genius so decidedly fresh and vig- 
orous when in the inexperience of untutored youth, as shown by 
his original inventive powers, in the way of penalties for violation 
of school law, would infallibly have wrought out radical and thor- 
ough reformation in all school appliances and methods, so that 
lads and lasses both in the near and the remote future would have 
revered and blessed his name as the ceaseless ages roll. 


" William McKira laid out Spartansburg. William Dukes 
lived in the house where Taylor now lives. Elias Godfrey and 
Thomas Hart kept a grocery in the house now occupied by John 
H. Taylor. Mr. Fires built the house where John Wiggs now 
lives, and sold it to Stephen Barnes, who completed it, and occu- 
pied it till he died. In the war of 1812, many men went from 
our region to Norfolk or Portsmouth. We lived 200 miles from 
Norfolk. People used to drive their hogs thither to market. 
The country where we lived was level and sandy. The upper 
counties were broken, and the soil was good for wheat and 
tobacco. We lived east of Raleigh forty miles. We could hear 
the cannon roar at Raleigh on the Fourth of July. We were six 
weeks and two days on the road coming West. My oldest son 
and myself walked nearly all the way. We camped out every 
night but one. Jesse Jordan had come to Indiana, and stayed 
three or four years, and returned to Carolina for some money 
that was due him, and he came back to Indiana with us. We 
were well and enjoyed the trip first rate. We had two one-horse 
carts to haul our luggage in. We had a tent, and would throw 
our beds down on the leaves. We slept one night at the foot of 
the Blue Ridge. We started the last Sunday of April, and 
arrived at Arba June 8, 1836. We came the mail stage 
route a long way, then through Powell Valley, Cumberland Gap, 
etc. We crossed the Blue Ridge at Good Spur and Poplar 
Camp, and carae through Crab Orchard, etc. We traveled 
nearly a week on the Blue Ridge. We could see houses on 
points of hills and away down in valleys where we could not 
guess how anybody could ever get to them. One place called 
Dry Ridge had no water for a long distance. We crossed the 
Ohio at Cincinnati, which seemed to me to be quite a large town, 
the largest I had ever seen. We did not stop long there, but 
drove through, and camped for the night. As we came through 
Raleigh, they were building the new State House. Jesse Jordan 
had $1,500 in North Carolina currency that he had to exchange 
because it would not pass in Indiana. He got United States 


bank notes, the only bills that would pass. I had ray money in 
gold. I paid for my land in half-eagles — seventy half-en -les. I 
had in North Carolina 125 acres. I went back to Carolina once 
and stayed six weeks. Jesse Jordan's widow also went back 
a short time ago. She said tho people seemed to be doing 
very well." 


" Settlers when we came, in 1833, were Jacob Chenoweth, in 
Ohio; Hezekiah Locke, on the Bailey place; Mason Freeman, 
on the Marquis place. John Foster came on the Griffis place a 
year or so after we came. [This is not the Joshua Foster who 
was in that vicinity many years before.] Mr. Farms had just 
put up a cabin on the James Ruby place ; had not moved into it 
yet. Smith Masterson lived on the Downing place, north of 
Dismal. James Griffis lived on the Williamson farm, and moved 
not long afterward to the Griffis place, on the Greenville State 


" In June, 1832, in a race, molding brick with Silas Connell, 
I molded, from sun to sun, 25,148 brick, and he, 23,365. I 
was about twenty years old. My father-in-law scolded me ; told 
me I should not have tried it, and that I could not stand it. He 
stood by me and kept me from working full speed, till 2 P. M., 
when he told me to "go it." Silas led me all the forenoon. A 
great crowd were looking on, and they bet two to one on Con- 
nell. By and by, the tide turned, and the bets became five to 
one for me, and I beat. People after that offered to bring men 
to beat me, but they never did. I had a man on his yard and 
he on mine. They set their watches just alike, and we begun 
to a second. Wo worked till dinner. I had my dinner brought 
to the yard ; took a few bites and went to molding again. Men 
said I molded forty-eight brick the last minute. They carried 
me to the house, washed me in whisky, and would not fet me lie 
down till near morning. I went to work the third day after. 
The bet was only $10 on a side. Isrura Engle, of Union City, 
and Ezekiel Clough, of Jackson Township, lived at Cincinnati at 
the time, and know that I did what I claim to have done." 

Mr. Martin was a brick molder, and has been for many years. 
He owns a good farm south of Winchester. 


" I had to go to mill at Ridgeville, from near Antioch, Jay 
County, Ind., generally on horseback. I had to do the milling, while 
the older boys carried the mail from Winchester to Ft. Wayne. 
Thomas Shaler, who used to live near, but had moved to near 
Camden, came to mother's on his way to mill with a wagon and 
oxen. He persuaded her to have rac go with him and get fifteen 
bushels of corn, and said he would bring home the meal for her; 
so she sent me. Brother Ben had raised the corn at Joab Ward's, 
and I shelled it; got a horse there and took it to mill, and had 
the meal all ready. But Shaler had been getting drunk and 
fooling round, and he stayed three days. I determined to walk 
home and bring a horse and get ray grist that way. But at last 
he got ready and started. (Sec Arthur McKew's Reminiscences.) 
He left my raeal at William Welch's, and I took the grist home 
from there (John Adair's place south of Liber). Shaler was away 
about nine days, and his wife and family were at home 
starving. He was a drunken, shiftless fellow, boasting of being 
half-Indian. His wife was an excellent woman, with four chil- 
dren; all girls. She was there in the woods, ten miles from any 
settler. Their cabin had no fire-place, floor, nor chimney, no 
daubing nor chinking, and the snow was eight inches deep; 
everything was frozen up, and they had nothing to eat. She had 
burned some coal in one corner of the shanty, had made a sled, 
and was intending to take an ox, the sled, her four children, and 
a kettle with coals in it to keep the children from freezing to 
death, and to start for Mrs. Hawkins' cabin fifteen railes off, the 
nearest settler she knew. But her husband and young McKew 

got to the cabin that night about midnight, with the provisions. 
Shaler and McKew cut the ice and crossed the Big Salamonie, 
near Judge Winters', but there was a stream called Big Branch, 
up which the water had set back from the Big Salamonie, over a 
wide space. The water had suddenly frozen, and then had sunk 
away, leaving the ice, and they could not get the oxen across in 
the night." 

[Note. — This Tom Shaler was the same that James Porter 
found •' squatted " on the land that Porter entered afterward, 
northwest part of Jackson Township, Randolph County. Shaler 
moved from there near to Liber, and soon after that to near 
Camden. This incident took place about 1833. Joseph Hawkins' 
father moved to Jay County in 1829. He died in 1833, and 
they were " roughing " it up there in the Jay County woods, 
a poor widow with a large family.] 


" The first resident of Jackson Township is supposed to have 
been Philip Storms. He " squatted " on a piece of land east of 
my farm ; but a Mr. Fager entered the land from under him, 
and he then moved to Mississinewa crossing and remained there 
several years. It is also said that another person entered Mr. 
Storms' land there ; that he was very angry and threatened to shoot 
the intruder, but that they finally settled the matter amicably and 
that he moved elsewhere. He was living in the region in 1830, 
how much later is not now known, and if he had lived elsewhere 
in the township several years, he was certainly the first comer. Mr. 
Jacobs is- thought by some to have been the first permanent settler 
in the township, but these things are " mighty hard to find out." 
Ishmael Bunch was a very early pioneer also. 

" I (Johnson) lived in e rail-pen from May 3 to June 22. Our 
family were myself and wife and nine children, and we were as 
happy as need be. We made the floor of the rail-pen of bark, 
and renewed it twice. When the water would splash up through 
the bark, I would put in a new floor of the same sort. 

The State road to Portland was laid out about 1838, only 
forty feet wide ! 

The first Justice in Jackson Township was James Wicker- 

The first couple married were David Vance and Sally Smith 
by Esq. Wickersham. 

The first mill was erected by Jones, on Lowe's Branch, one 
and a half miles above me. 

I built a horse-mill, then a water-mill, and afterward a saw- 

The grist-mill was run twenty years and the saw-mill ten 
years, but they are all rotted down now. 

The graveyard on my place was begun about 1840. 

The Indians were all gone but one, "Old Duck." He 
hunted and trapped and took his skins and furs to' Greenville. 
He used to stay with Jacobs, at Harshman's, and with Andrew 

Note. — This " Duck " is spoken of in Jay County History 
as being familiar with the early settlers of that county. He 
seems to have been a clever, civil, honest Indian. At one time 
he Wiis at a church trial, and when the witness began to testify 
" crosswise," he rose to leave, saying, " Me go; no much good" 
here, too much lie." 

The author of Jay County History says (in substance) : 

All early settlers are familiar with the name of the old In- 
dian, Doctor Duck, who remained in the county a long time after 
his tribe had moved to Kansas. He showed much skill in the 
treatment of diseases. * * * He was religious and often ap- 
peared to be praying to the Great Spirit. He attended meeting 
for preaching at Deerfield and the church trial afterward, which 
he left as stated above. He tried to cure John J. Hawking, 
a pioneer of Jay County, but did not succeed, though he 
lived with Mr. H. six months. About two weeks after Mr. H. 
died (March 15, 1832), the Indian visited his grave and spent 


nearly half a day there alone, apparently preaching and perform- 
ing wild ceremonies." 

Settlers (that Mr. Johnson remembers) when he came were : 
Daniel B. Miller, Ward Township ; Jacob Harshraan, two miles 
west of Johnson's ; Abram Harshraan, same neighborhood ; Reu- 
ben Harshman, same neighborhood (died lately in Union City, 
Ohio) ; Andrew Debolt, Mount Holly, dead ; James Reeves, 
near Castle P. 0., dead ; Amos Smith, near New Lisbon, gone 
long ago ; Samuel Skinner, near New Lisbon, gone long ago ; 
John Skinner, near New Lisbon, gone long ago ; James Willson, 
James Wickersham, etc. 

John Johnson, his brother, came when he did, dying a year 
or so ago, aged eighty-eight years. 

William Warren, James Warren, James Simmons, came soon 
after Mr. Johnson. 

James Porter was living near New Pittsburg, and others had 
settled near Allensville, on the Mississinewa River. 


" My trade as a merchant was extensive and various. I used 
to buy every commodity that was salable at that day. I bought 
produce of all kinds and shipped it on flat-boats down the Mis- 
sissinewa, sending sometimes two or three boats at once, loaded 
with flour, bacon, apples, etc. We went to Logansport, Lafay- 
ette, etc., selling mostly, though not entirely, to Indian traders. 
Sales would be made on credit, and then we would go down at 
the time of the Indian payments, which were made once a year, 
generally in August or September, and get the money for the 
goods sold to them. The last time I went we had three boat loads. 
The boats were made by Joab Ward, who kept a boat-yard near 
what is now Ridgeville. He would make a boat all complete for 
an amount varying from $25 to $30, which would carry about 
one hundred barrels of flour. 

" I lost my sight about 1836, and sold goods till 1838. 
I worked twenty-five years at pump-making. I had worked at 
it when young, and, trying it again after blindness came on, I 
found that I could do the work with success, and resumed the 
business. I have made and sold great numbers of pumps, work- 
ing all through the country, making forty at one time at Re- 

" Thomas Hanna kept a store at Winchester when I came 
there. Esq. Odle had owned a store before that ; Hanna's store 
was quite an extensive establishment for those days. 

Paul W. Way set up a dry goods store afterwards, and Will- 
iam and Jesse Way began also. Michael Aker bought out my 
stock and followed me in the business, though he did not continue 

The court house was up and covered when I came to Win- 
chester; David Wysong furnished the brick, and the lime was 
obtained at New Paris, or at Middleboro ; lime was not burned 
in this county till afterwards. 

Joseph Hanchy had made puinps, hauling his tools with an 
ox team, and making them from farm to farm. He is the same 
man who planted nurseries in various places through the coun- 

"Soon after I came here I bought 108 acres of John B. 
Wright and 100 acres of Charles Conway. I bought the Daniel 
Petty land east of town, of Oliver Walker, as also a lot in every 
square in town. I traded the lot in tlie north front with a build- 
ing on it for the farm I now live on (108 acres). 

I traded 180 acres with a good house and barn and orchard 
and 50 acres cleared for 400 acres, and sold that in four or five 
years to Joshua Bond for $1,100. 

" Ernestus Strohm began a cabinet shop, and I was in partner- 
ship with him for awhile. We made a sideboard worth $175 
about 1838, the first costly piece of furniture made in the county. 
It is a splendid article — large, square, rather low, with a large 
framed glass at the middle of the top. I have it yet in a good 
Stat© of preservation ; in fact, almost as nice and good as new. 

It was the first thing that was made in that shop, and it was 
made to show what kind of work the shop could furnish. 

" Some amusing things would take place in those primitive 
times. Some such incidents occurred in my own experience. 

Curtis Voris and a half-brother of his had moved out here 
from Greenville. He had some money to spare and he asked, 
" Who would be safe ? " The person told him, " Andrew Aker." 
So he came to me : "What percent?" "Six." "How long 
time?" " A year." "All right," said he, "and I will trade 
out the interest." "Better yet," said I, "I will' take your 
money. How much can you spare?" "Two dollars and a 
half," was the rejoinder. That I was astonished is simply the 
truth. However, I took his money, the whole of it, and he kept 
his bargain by trading out the interest, all of it. 

"A man from out North was trading one day, and having 
made a bill of (perhaps) $2, offered in payment a $5 bill. It 
was a base counterfeit, and I told him so. " Why," said he, "it 
is good; I got it from Hell." "Take it back there, then, it 
will not pass here." He meant a man with that name. 

" One day. Old Samuel Emery, from the Mississinewa (who 
died only a short time ago), came in with a roll of deer-skins. 
He was truly a rough-looking customer. His pants were buck- 
skin and ripped up nearly to the knee. He wore a straw hat, 
with the rim half torn off; his shoes were ragged and tied up 
with hickory bark ; and altogether he was as forlorn as one often 
sees. He wished to " trade out " his roll of buckskins. He got 
several articles, I reckoned up the account and the trade was 
nearly .even. He then said, " I wish to get a few more things, 
powder and lead and some flints, and I would like to get trusted." 
I spoke to Charlie Conway at the back end of the stove. " 0," 
said he, " Sam Emery is all right, he is one of the substantial 
citizens out on the Mississinewa." He got his powder and 
things on credit and paid for them promptly according to agree- 
ment. After that time he did a large amount of trading at my 
store, always dealing fairly, like the honorable man that he was. 
But when I first set eyes on him as he entered the store with his 
roll of buckskins on his shoulder, he was a strange-looking cus- 
tomer indeed ! 

" The same man who loaned me the $2.50 also bought a cow of 
me for $8. He agreed to pay me for the creature in two or three_ 
months. He paid me, though it took a much longer time than 
that. He made the payment in small sums, sometimes as low as 
12J cents, and never more than 37| cents at any one time. But 
he paid me fully after a while. 

Shortly after I came to Winchester I built a brick house, 
getting the brick of David Wysong at $2.50 per thousand deliv- 
ered. Mr. Wysong died only two or three years ago, about 
eighty years old. 

The pump business is carried yn at present by my sons-in- 
law, Knecht and Thomas. They do not make now, but buy and 
sell, purchasing sometimes as high as 4,000 pamps at one time." 


"Joab Ward and Meshach Lewallyn lived near Ridgeville. 
There were no houses from here to Winchester. Thomas Add- 
ington (not Rev. Thomas) occupied a cabin near where George 
Addington now lives. William Addington had come on in Marcli, 
and had settled one mile north. There were no settlers east or 
west that I know of. 

Benjamin Lewallyn and a Mr. Jones, as also James Addington 
(uncle to Jesse), had settled on the Mississinewa, below Ridgeville. 
That town was not begun till long afterward. People used to 
bring flour, bacon, apples, potatoes, apple-butter, etc., to Ridge- 
ville to Ward's, and buy of him a flat-boat to send them down 
the river to market. Mr. Addington has bought of Mr. Ward 
apples supposed to be spoiled for trade by being frozen. We had 
to go to White River or Mississinewa to get help in raisings or 

"Thomas Addington (cousin of Jesse, son-in-law of Joseph 


Addington, on Sparrow Creek) had moved out here just before, 
had built him a cabin and his family (and we. too) moved in with- 
out chimney or floor. We stayed there, cooking outdoors, for a 
month, till ours was built. We moved in as soon as our cabin 
was covered, having nothing but log walls and a clapboard roof. 
We cooked by a log-heap fire for several weeks, till a chimney 
was built, some time in August. 

" Religious meetings used to be held in private dwellings 
around the settlement by the Methodists. There was no school for 
several years. There were several other Addingtons, father and 
uncles of Jesse Addington." 

" The county was new. Very few settlers were here in 1834. 
James Griffis lived on the Williamson place; Smith Masterson 
lived west about a mile ; William Kennon lived on State road, 
near Bartonia (fatlier of Thomas S. Kennon); John Dixon lived 
one and a half miles northwest of me ; Green resided on the State 
road. Kennon and Griffis had been here two years. Masterson 
came the same year but earlier than I did. 

There were no roads, only " blazes." There were paths, 
tracks and "blazes." Hill Grove and Spartansburg both were 
towns, but few houses in either. 

For milling, we had to go to Richmond or Stillwater. There 
was a mill at McClure's, which is standing yet. In dry times, the 
water would fail. We had to go to Piqua, or Trey, or Dayton, for 
salt. Andrew Kennedy (Congressman) once said that the time 
would come when a bushel of wheat would bring a barrel of salt. 
No one believed him, but the dny has come. 

I once tried to go to the first house in Union City (there was 
only one) to appraise some property there (Star House). I struck 
the railroad track and went on east. Coming to a house, I in- 
quired, " How far east to Union City?" " Half a mile west," 
was the repJy. 

We had to cut up corn and haul it to the barnyard to keep 
the squirrels from taking it in the field. 

There were no mills near, not even a corn-cracker. Cole's 
mill and Dean's mill (Ohio) were there. There had been one at 
Sharp Eye. A dam had been built, but the people thought it 
made them sick, and it had to be taken down. When I first 
came I moved into a cabin near by. 

I came in March, 1834, and cleared seven acres and put it in 
corn that spring. I cut, rolled and burnt what I could, and the 
rest I killed by piling and burning the brush around them. I 
hired 2,000 rails made and fenced the land. 

I have never bought in all, during forty-six years, ten bushels 
of corn. Two grists of corn and three bushels' of wheat is all I 
have bought in that time. 

I moved with three wagons, and afterward brought another 
load of bees, grain, etc. I had wheat in Darke County, and 
after harvest I hauled the wheat home. 

I worked for one man (Mr. Teegarden) in Darke County one 
year, at $7 per month (some of the time at 31 cents a day). I 
have worked many a day at 31 cents a day. I never hunted or 
fished much. They must bite quick or show themselves, or I was 
o-p-h. I have killed only two deer. One night, fishing in a 
" riffle," in the " Dismal," we caught a basketful of suckers with 
our hands, many of them a foot long. One year, the creek froze 
and then raised above the ice with great numbers of fish, and the 
water froze again and fastened the fish between the ice in great 
quantities. We could have caught lots of them, but we thought 
freezing the fish spoiled tiiem. 

I found a steel-trap in Darke County, and sold it to an Indian 
for six coon-skins to be brought at such a time. The time came, 
but no coon-skins, and I thought " Good-bye steel-trap, good-bye 
coon-skins," but he came and brought them afterward, and said, 
smiling, "Too good sugar-making — couldn't come." Sugar- 
trees were plenty. We made all the sugar we needed, and some 

The first school in the neighborhood was, say, in 1838. The 
first meeting-house was at South Salem. 

I used to be a Presbyterian, but have joined the Protestant 

The following is a list of old men residing in Wayne Township - 
(age, 1880): John Hartman, 7G ; Jacob Baker, 70; Joel Elwell, 
75; William A. Macy, 71 ; Ezra Coddington, 73 ; Francis Frazier, 
79; Robert Murphy, 75. Isaac Clifton, 73; George Huffnogle, 
80 ; William Pickett, 79. 

Mr. Murphy is growing old and somewhat feeble and de- 
crepit, but no more so than might be expected at his age. 


Settlers when Mr. Hoover came: Robert Murphy; John 
Dixon came the fall before and bought out Mr. Kennon ; James 
Griffis, William Kennon, Smith Masterson. 

" People were sociable then. Men would go seven or eight 
miles to a raising or a log-rolling — to Sheets', north, or to Griffis' 
or Camahan's, south, or even farther. People worked then. 
They did not oat and sit around. Twenty to thirty men were a 
large crowd. The first election (for Jackson and Wayne Town- 
ships together) was held at Peyton's west of Union City, in, say 
1836, and only seven votes were polled. The rest went to other 
polls to vote. A person could vote anywhere in the county then. 

Mrs. Teeter came early ; her husband had died in Pennsyl- 
vania. She raised a large family and died about 90 years 

p. FIEI,DS (1833). 

"Settlers when I came — some of them were Burkett Pierce, west 
of Deerfield, very old and living still ; George Ritenour, across 
the river, near Pierce's, an early settler, but is now dead ; Will- 
iam Odle, Curtis Butler, living along the river below town, moved 
away long, long ago. 

There were none above (east of) town till a mile above me. 
Samuel Emery lived a mile up the river. He became very old 
and died a year or so since. 

Mr. Bragg came the fall before I did, in 1832 ; he is dead. 

Allen Wall was on the north side of the river, opposite 
Bragg's ; he, too, is dead. 

James Mayo, north of the river, also dead. 

Aquila Loveall lived near Mayo's; he is not living. 

Daniel B. Miller, up..the river on the south side ; he is quite 
old and resides at Winchester, having his third wife (he is now 

Robert Parsons lived a mile below Deerfield. He owned a 
corn-cracker; he is dead. Deerfield had not "started" yet. 
One shanty stood there, but no town had been begun. A school 
shanty was standing one and a half miles above, on Congress 
land, on the north of Deerfield and Union City road. 

There was one also near the> Id (Chapel) meeting-house west 
of Deerfield. 

The Chapel Meeting-House was built about 1835, and is the 
oldest one in the region. 

Prospect Meeting-House was not built till several years 
after I came, perhaps about 1840. The cemetery at the Chapel 
is the oldest one in this part of the country. 

When Lewallyn came to settle near Ridgeville, they unloaded 
their goods into the brush. Some stayed and went to building 
a " camp," and the others went back to get the rest of the " plun- 

Lewallyn's daughter married one Mr. Renberger, who used to 
live near Ridgeville, and she may perhaps be living nbw. 

I came from Hawkins County, Tenn., sixty-four miles up 
Holston River from Knoxville. I sold 100 acres of land there 
for $100. We came here with one four-horse wagon and a car- 

Lancelot Fields, my brother, had moved to this county before 
me, and had settled near New Pittsburg, not far from James Por- 
ter'';. He had returned to Tennessee on business, and, when he 


came back to Indiana, wo came along, too. There were thirteen 
in the company. 

Deerfield & Union City road had been laid and " blazed," 
but it was not yet opened through. I helped open it to Middle- 

One Indian, called "Old Duck," lived in Allen Wall's 
yard, in a litLle shanty. 

Cabins were made with " knees " and weight-poles and latch- 

The people were social and friendly. We used to go six or 
eight miles to raisings and log-rollings, and to Richmond to 

Deer were plenty, though I did not care for hunting. I 
never killed but one deer in ray life. 

But venison was very easily gotten. There were plenty of 
hunters who were only too glad to shoot for us all the deer we 
wanted. George Porter and his boys were hunters, and had no 
land. Zack Key, brother of Andrew Key, lived near us, and if 
we wished any venison, all we had to do was to speak to him, 
and he would shoulder his rifle and bring one down in a hurry. 
He would hang it up and tell me where to find it, and I would 
go out and bring the carcass in. The hunters cared nothing for 
the flesh. All they wanted was the skins, which would sell for 
from 25 to 50 cents. 

Once I was hunting my horse.i. They had wandered far, and 
in looking for them, I came to Ephraim Bowen's. It was per- 
haps in 1836, not long after I came to the county. The settlers 
were far more numerous in that part of the county, but farther 
north it was wild enough. Mr. Bowen and his folks were very 
kind and hospitable. They could not tell me where to find my 
horses, but they did another thing which was first-rate for a tired 
and hungry man. They would not take ' no ' for an answer, but 
insisted that I should stop and take dinner with them, which I 
did, and went on my wandering way much refreshed. 

Horses had a wide range then, when running out, and some- 
times gave immense trouble to their owners in hunting them." 


"Settlers when I came were Daniel B. Miller, on the Miller 
place ; Samuel Helms, two miles north of Saratoga ; Andrew 
Key, three miles north of Saratoga ; William Pogue (father of 
Robert Pogue, Union City), near Andrew Key ; John T. Evans, 
west of Saratoga ; Edward Evans, west of Saratoga ; Abrara 
Harshman, east of Saratoga; Alexander, near llarshman's; 
William Bragg, below Andrew Key; Daniel Mock, west of 
Saratoga; Georgii W. Barber, one mile west of Saratoga; Will- 
iam Simmons, on Mississinewa River; Samuel Sipe, near Perry 
Fields; John Sipe, came shortly after I did. 

The first school after I came was near Daniel B. Miller's, 
about 1840. 

The first meeting-house was the one at Prospect, 1840. 

The first grist-mill was west of Deerfield. 

The first smith shop was kept by Jo Locke, north of Sara- 

There was but one house in Deerfield. 

A man told me I would not know when I got there." 


"When I came to Deerfield, just three families resided there, 
viz.: Henry Taylor, Henry Sweet and Jonathan Thomas. 
Henry Sweet was a blacksmith. Henry Taylor had a few gro- 
ceries in a log cabin there. He also sold some whisky, and pro- 
fessed, besides that, to keep a hotel, too. 

Curtis Butler had been doing business there, and had been 
Acting Postmaster at that place. Deerfield was by no means an 
unimportant place, in fact, small though it was, and deep buried in 
the thick forests of the Mississinewa. Although that valley had 
been settled more than twenty years, yet along its whole course. 

that little Deerfield was its only town, and its only post office, 
and the only one, it may also be said, between Winchester and 
Fort Wayne. 

But Mr. Butler had moved to Marion, and left the post office 
in the hands of William Odle. The amount of business may be 
judged of when it is stated that the salary of the office was $1.75 
per quarter. It rose afterward to $40 per quarter. I was ap- 
pointed Postmaster soon after my removal to Deerfield. Short- 
ly after that, and for two or three years, an immense business 
was done in Randolph and Jay Counties in the entry of land, es- 
pecially in Jay County, and vast sums of (silver) money were 
sent by John Connor, the mail carrier, to Fort Wayne. 

He used to have two horses — one for the mail and one for the 
money sack. He would have, sometimes, as much money (silver) 
as two of us could well throw upon the horse's back. He would 
lead the horses and walk, sometimes. 

People would "look land" and leave the money with me, 
and I would send it by Mr. Connor. 

He has taken thus as high as $6,000 or $7,000 at one trip. 
We used to hide it in a bole in the ground, beneath the puncheon 
floor, under the bed. 

We handled in that way, in all, many thousand dollars. I 
would receipt for the money, and take Connor's receipt, and ho 
would pay it at Fort Wayne and obtain the patents, and bring 
them to me, and I would deliver them to the parties concerned, 
and they would pay at the rate of $1 for eighty acres. 

Though Mr. Connor was poor, he was faithful and honest, 
and, during my whole course of business with him, for nearly 
twenty years, I never suff'ered a cent of loss. 

He carried the mail for some twenty-eight years, up to about 
1861. His appointment began about 1835." 

" The mail routes were as follows: Richmond to Fort Wayne, 
via Winchester; Greenville west to Winchester. 

There were perhaps others. The mails were carried once a 
week from Winchester to Fort Wayne and back. Connor had 
to lie out in the woods one night on his trip going to and coming 
from Fort Wayne. The operation would not be considered very 
safe now, especially with hundreds and sometimes thousands of 
dollars in conveyance, but Johnnie Connor was never molested. 

Between Winchester and Deerfield was a dense forest and 
much swamp. 

There were only two settlors between Elias Kizer's (one mik 
north of Winchester) and Deerfield, viz.: Samuel Cain and John 
Kinnear. Mr. Cain's was two miles, and Mr. Kinnear's throi 
and a half miles, south of Deerfield. 

A large part of the land on both sides of the road northward 
from Winchester to Deerfield was held by James G. Birney, a 
non-resident, and the country remained unsettled for many years. 

Deerfield became an important trading point, and it was fo 
years a lively place. 

David Conner, the Indian trader, left his post east of Deer- 
field some years before I came, though I think not very long. 

" I traded with the Indians for furs, as also in succeeding years 
in cattle, hogs, etc. I traveled extensively, to Green Bay and 
the northwest for furs, etc., and in general trading, visiting every 
northern State and the South also. 

The trade at Deerfield at one time extended over Jay 4ind 
Blackford Counties, and even much farther than that. I have 
sold as high as $15,000 in a single vear, and have taken in as 
much as $700 in one day. One day"l bought 160 saddle hams 
that had been killed the day before. There had fallen a snow 
several inches deep, a tracking snow, so called, because the hunter 
could track the deer in it. 

George Shaneyvelt, of Jay County, killed nine deer in one 

The furs were coon, mink, muskrat, wild cat, catamount, etc. 

Wolves and bears and wild cats were common, and deer were 
very plenty. 

Deer-skins were of difi'erenfc prices, from 50 cents to $1. 


" Short-blues " were $1, i. e., deer killed in the fall whose hair 
was short and whose skins had a bluish cast. 

In early times great quantities of tree-sugar and molasses, and 
of venison hams used to be wagoned to Cincinnati ; and salt and 
iron kettles, etc., would be hauled back. I sold four tons of 
sugar kettles in one winter. The cost of hauling was great. At 
one time a quantity of salt that was worth $18 in Cincinnati, cost 
$20 to get it hauled from there to Deerfield. 

Four-horse teams would take two or three days to get from 
Winchester to Deerfield. 

Teamsters would cut out a road and then throw brush across 
to hide it so that nobody else would see the track, that the ones 
who made the opening might have the use of it for several trips. 

" I had the first cook-stovo in the county. It was brought from 
Cincinnati. That and another cost $100 in silver at 10 per cent 
premium, equal to $110 in currency. The other one was sold to 
Mrs. Kinnear, south of Deerfield. 

" Considerable flat-boating down the Mississinewa was done 
after I came to Randolph. 

At one time the task was undertaken to take several loads of 
coal down the river. 

A German named Keizer, who was poor, wished me to advance 
goods to him and take the coal for security. I would not, but 
Mr. Searl let him have the goods and took Frederick Miller as 
security. The coal was burned, the boats were built and caulked 
with tow, and the coal was loaded upon the boats, as also the 
goods which Mr. Searl furnished to Keizer upon Miller's security. 

I had about two wagon loads of furs which I put upon one of 
the boats, and I steered the boat on the trip down the river. 

Mr. Holly steered another of the boats. 

We came' to Mr. McKinney's dam below Fairview, and Hol- 
ly's boat got fast on a bar. 

Mr. McKinney came out with his rifle and threatened to 
shoot if we attempted to jump his dam. We did attempt it, how- 
ever, and he did not shoot. 

But the boats could not cross the dam, and the merchandise 
was a total loss, except my furs, which I sent back by wagon to 
Deerfield. Mr. Searl lost about $2,000, which came near break- 
ing him up. These boats were loaded at Ritenour's mill below 
Deerfield, a point at which many boats received their cargo. 

At another time Joseph Ilinchy and I took a boat load of 
flour and salt, etc., down the river. He and I built the boat, and 
we loaded it at Ritenour's mill. I steered the boat, and we 
jumped four or five dams. One of them was Connor's, which 
wa-s only a brush dam, and not hard to pass. 

When we got to the " Feeder dam " for the canal, they asked 
$10 to go through, and it would have taken all day to clear out 
the logs. so as to permit the boat to pass. I offered $1.00 for a 
man to come on the boat with me and help me jump the dam. A 
man accepted the offer ; we performed the feat and got the boat 
over safe. The boat was taken to Logansport, and the cargo 
was sold mostly to the Indians. This was done in 1839. 

This Joseph Hinchy was a very eccentric man. He owned 
land in many places, and set out orchards far and near, planting 
and grafting the trees; and some of his old orchards arc standing 
yet. He set out trees at Joab Ward's, at Wheeling, at Marion 
and many other places. He was a pump-maker also. [Mr. Aker 
says he hauled his tools for pump making on a sled with oxen. 
He wore only buckskin clothes.] 

He used to have plenty of money, and would lend it to almost 
anybody that wanted it. 

" Deerfield was for years a place of large business. At first 
the trade was to and from Cincinnati by wagon, afterward to the 
canal at Piqua. We used to trade largely in swine. T once 
drove a herd of hogs from Kentucky to South Carolina, begin- 
ning to sell them in North Carolina, and so onward till they were 
all disposed of. 

Once in driving swine from Deerfield with 2,000 in the drove, 
there came a terrible freshet (about Nev,- Year's). We swam 

Greenville Creek twice. The hogs swam the creek. We lost 
none, but some we had to pull out by the ears. The trip to Cin- 
cinnati took twenty-one days. There were about ten hands with 
the drove. I got for the hogs $6 net. Pork, however, was very 
variable, and sometimes fell very low, and many have been bank- 
rupted thereby. 

" I once traveled six weeks in Kansas, sleeping in a wagon the 
whole time. My companion most of the time was an Indian, who 
was a trusty, faithful man. 

When a young man, I traveled through the South, working at 
my trade ; as also I was pilot on a steamboat from New Orleans 
to Louisville, spending five or six years in these ways. During 
these trips I passed through parts of North Carolina, South Car- 
olina, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. 
When a boy sixteen years old, I went as an apprentice with my 
master, Benedict Thomas, to Texas, from Georgetown, Ky., with 
a flat-boat load of furniture and saddles and bridles and dry goods. 
We took them on a flat-boat to the mouth of the river, on a keel- 
boat to Natchitoches, and thence by wagon IGO miles to the old 
Spanish fort.betweenthetwo Trinity's (rivers). He traded his goods 
for mules and horses and for Spanish hides. He stayed in Texas, 
and sent me to New Orleans to exchange the animals and hides 
for mahogany, coffee, molasses and sugar, which I did and re- 
tured home on foot. Another man came with me. We bought 
knapsacks and started, being twenty days on the road, and sleep- 
ing in the w lods or with the Indians. One place was 140 miles 
(from French Camps to Fort Columbia on the Torabigbee) ; thenco 
we came to Tuscumbia, and so, on home. We got provisions of 
the Indians — jerked meat, bears flesh and venison, and also hom- 
iny and sweet potatoes and corn bread. \Ve passed through the 
Chickasaw and Choctaw nations. 

My brother Archibald walked from New Orleans sixteen 
times, and my brother William twelve times, from 1809 and on- 
ward. They would go down with flat-boats and return on foot. 
The flat-boats would cost $150 and would have to be sold at New 
Orleans perhaps for $10. They generally made two trips a year. 
One of them once tried three trips, but he got sick. They com- 
monly traveled " Carroll's Trace," from Lake Pontchartrain to 
Colbert's Ferry, on the Tennessee River. The " trace" .stretched 
for miles and miles through deep, tall cane-brakes, a clear well- 
trodden path with thick canes on both sides of the path nearly 
impenetrable. The canes were sometimes thirty or fort feet high 
and as thick as they could grow. 

In 1847, I went to New Orleans for hemorrhage of the lungs. 
Recovering my health, I returned home, and have lived since 
that time thirty-five years, enjoying still a reasonable degree of 
health and strength." 


The settlers in 1830 were, west of Union City, Wayne Town- 
ship, Thomas Peyton, Converse place ; Jacob Emerick, William 
Anderson's farm ; John Emerick, Weimar farm ; north of Union 
City ; John Sheets, Smith fai-m ; Eli Nofsinger, north of Smith's 
farm, on Little Mississinewa; near New Lisbon ; Amos Smith, 
west of New Lisbon ; David Vance, William Cox, Isaiah Cox, 
Thomas Wiley, at New Lisbon ; Andrew Debolt, at Mt. 
Holly, all sons-in-law of Amos Smith; Jacob Johnson, west of 
Mt. Holly, 1833; Seth Macy, one and a half miles of John.son's 
(west); James Skinner, one mile west of New Lisbon ; John 
Skinner, near his brother James ; James Reeves, father of the 
Reeveses, one-half mile north of Skinner's ; James Wickershara, 
one mile south of New Lisbon ; Nickum, where Eli Man- 
gas lives; Thomas Devor, one-half mile north of AllensviUe ; 
John Thomson, north of Devor's ; Jacobs, near Alfensville, north 
of Mississinewa; Simmons, west, on Mississinewa ; James Porter, 
south of New Pittsbui-g ; Philip Storms had been at Mississinewa 
Crossing, but had gone away ; James Warren^ near Middletown, 
one-half mile south ; John Warren, three miles west of Middle- 
town ; William Warren, laid out Middletown. 


I think these settlers had been here from two to five years. 

For awhile people used hand-mills to grind corn-meal. 

Mr. Skinner had a mill perhaps the first, in about 1840. It 
was a corn-cracker and stood a few years. 

Mr. Hinchy had a saw-mill and a corn-cracker one-half mile 
east of Allensville. They stood a long tipae, 

Others, perhaps, had mills that I do not now call to mind. 
The Allensville mill was the first important and extensive mill in 
the region, and it is there now. 

The Indians (Wyandots) used to come and hunt on Gray's 
Branch, but they had mostly stopped coming there two or three 
years before I came. A few came afterward. 

The first settlers did little but hunt. They thought the 
country would never be filled up, but would remain a superb 
hunting-ground. Settlers began to come in and go to clearing 
farms, and then they began, too, somewhat. Hunters would 
come through my clearing, and say: " Are you going to clear out 
a farm?" "Yes, I thought I would." " Well, maybe that's the 
best way. " The land at first was a good deal wet ; half of it stood 
in water much of the time. Clearing and draining has dried it 
out pretty well." 


" I entered 131 acres and bought, second-hand, 158 acres. I 
now own 150 acres. We came in a four-horse wagon, cutting 
our own road from White River, ten or twelve miles, taking two 

A man, Neselrode, had a cabin and we took the cabin. I paid 
for my land and had $.50 left. There was a cabin or two stuck 
around in the woods between here and White River. We came 
the road to Maxville, thence to Fairview. I did but little hunt- 
ing, since I could get plenty of deer hams for 37i cents a pair. 
I had to take a sled (I had a good team) to White River for corn, 
staying all night and till late next day. I bought the corn and 
got it ground on White River. Corn was 50 cents a bushel. I 
raised the first wheat in the settlement. I got a man to put in 
three acres for me, and when I came, in October, the wheat was 
up and looked nice. The crop was sixty bushels. 

Flat-boats and pirogues were used to go down the river with 
pork, flour, apples, etc. One spring, five boats went down loaded 
vith charcoal. The boats were "stove in " near here, and the coal 

was lost. Tie 


e broke 

II going over 

McKinney's mill-dam ; the others were " stove in" before thi 
Searl, of Deeriield, owned the coal, and he was nearly broken up 
by the loss. They intended to take the coal to New Orleans 
(about 1840). 

We bought the trees for our orchard of Joab Ward, of Ridge- 
ville, in 1840. There were 120 budded trees, and they made a 
good orchard. We gave §9 a hundred, and we brought them down 

Mrs. Hubbard remembers seeing the soldiers at Chillicothe, 
guarding the British prisoners in the war of 1812. Her father had 
just moved from Pennsylvania, and he was poor, and her mother 
baked buscuits an3 pies, etc., for the soldiers, sometimes cooking 
all night to supply their wants. 

A Methodist quarterly meeting was held in our house before 
the floor was laid. The sleepers were used as seats. Afterward 
the children played holding meetings, singing, praying, preach- 
ing, etc., going through the whole exercise in quite a business- 
like manner." 


" We had a splendid spring in a ' gum ' seven feet deep. We 
lived on the " Sample Trace," leading from Sample's mill, on 
White River, to Lewallyn's mill on the Mississinewa. And our 
spring was a noted point. We came February 20, 1837. The 
snow had been deep. The waters were high, and, in 
White River, we lost a bunch of keys. We never expected 
our keys again, but some one found them two or three years 
afterward, and they were returned to us, and we have the keys 

yet. My husband built a cabin on his land before we moved to 
it, and we lived in that cabin more than twenty years. He im- 
proved his own land somewhat, but he worked out a great deal, 
mowing, clearing, etc., on White River, in the older settlements. 
I wove, braided straw hats, etc. 

New Dayton Church was built in 1877, but the graveyard 
has been there forty years or more. 

The Methodists formed a society seon after we came, and 
meetings have been held, in dwellings, etc., from that day to 

There was no school for some years after our settlement be- 
gan. The people were poor and " hard run," and lived far 

William Wright taught once, and so did George McPherson. 

Asenath Wright taught school about 1840 in a little old cau- 
in on Reese Wright's farm, that had been a dwelling. 

For fifteen years no teacher in this neighborhood could go 
beybnd the •' Single Rule" in " Old Talbot." 

George McPherson was an oddity in the schoolroom. He 
would call " to books," sit down to read and let the school run 
itself. If anybody passed, the children would pop up and run to 
the window to see, and so on." 

[Mrs. Sherman and her husband. Pardon Sherman, died in 
the winter of 1881-82, within a few weeks of one another, she 
going befor , her husband to try the realities of the unseen Spirit 


" David Robison and Peter Hoover were here when I came ; 
Ezekiel and George GuUett came when I did. The woods were 
alive with wolves and bears and turkeys and deer. We once killed 
two bears before breakfast. They came along down the furrows as 
we were passing back and forth. The dogs were called and they 
tried to catch the bears, chasing them and treeing them, and at 
length they were shot and killed. 

We used to go to Moffat's mill near Richmond. I entered 
forty acres of land and bought forty more." 

[Mr. Dixon died in the spring of 1881.] 


'• I followed brick-making in Cincinnati, also wood-sawing. I 
was unfortunate and lost all my property and had to begin anew. 
I sawed wood for several years in Cincinnati. One day I sawed 
and handled ten cords, sawing it once in two, and tossing it into 
a cellar. I was not especially tired, and thought nothing partic- 
ular about the matter." 

[Note. — I. H. E. is the best wood-sawyer and saw-sharpener I 
ever knew or heard of.] 

•' I have been a church member for more than sixty-five years, 
and an exhorter and Class-leader for thirty-five years. The re- 
ligion of Chiist has been a wellspring of joy to my soul all that 
long time. I have had deep trials, but the Lord has given mo 
triumph over all ! I have taken every number of the Cincin- 
nati Christian Advocate, now Vol. XL VII, No. 2,500, and be- 
fore that the New York Advocate for several years. I have had 
abundance, and have been brought low ; but ray treasure is in 
Heaven, and my heart is there also; and soon, full soon, I shall 
see the King in His beauty, and He will give me the riches of 
the glory-land !" 

[Mr. Engle has moved to Jay County to reside with one of 
his sons, and his aged wife died there in the spring of 1882.] 

" The county was all woods. A fe\y settlers were scattered 
here and there, but they had only cabins with small clearings 
that hardly made a "break " in the vast wilderness. 

Settlers when Philip Barger came here: 

Alexander Garringer, opposite Fairview, across the river; 
Martin Boots, opposite Fairview, across the river. 

A Mr. Porter had lived where Fairview is, but he did not 


stay. Daniel Culver bought him out, and he had gone ; Culver 
was living there when Barger came. 

Neselrode lived where Hubbard is now ; Hubbard bought Ne- 
selrode out in 1837, and lives there still. 

Alexander Stevens settled in the east part of Green Township 
in 1830. 

John Bone lived below Fairview (living still). 

Anthony (Wayne) McKinney came in 1837. 

His son, J. B. McKinney, lives now opposite Fairview, and 
owns 1,400 or 1,500 acres of land. 

Nathan Godwin came in 1837. His son, Thomas Godwin, 
lives in Fairview. 

John Garringer was here in 1836, where Baldwin now lives. 

Martin Smith bought Garringer out in the fall of 1836. 

Bennett King lived in the northwest corner of the county. 
He is father of VVilliam 0. King, near DcerGeld. Bennet King 
went to Missouri and is living there. 

Elijah Harbour lived west of Samuel Caylor's, fall of 1835. 

The Browns lived across the river; Thomas Brown and three 

Jonathan Green married a Brown. 

The Browns had been there two or three years when he came. 
They sold out to Zebulon Cantrell in 1839 and left for Iowa. 

Israel Wirt entered land south of the Browns about 1836, 
and moved fall of 1837. He died August, 1880, eighty-four 
years old. 

I'unis Brooks lived on Brooks' Prairie; had been there two 
or three years. 

Samuel Caylor, 1837. 

John Life came spring or summer 1838. 

Fairview was begun in 1837. 

Alexander Garringer had a store across the river (at his cabin). 

" The first mail route was from Deerfield to Granville, Dela- 
ware Co., once in two weeks, out and back, on horseback. I got 
the fifth number of the Winchester Patriot [H. H. Neff], and 
have taken the paper from that ofSce ever since. 

The first mill was built by Antony McKinney on the river 
below Fairview, where Wolverton's mill now stands. 

First he built a saw-mill, then he added a corn-cracker, then 
a grist-mill. He was putting in the dam in 1838. He started 
the saw-mill in 1839, the corn-mill in the fall, and the wheat-mill 
in 1841 or 1842. 

The first smith-shop was by Martin Boots, he had a shop and 
was a smith himself. 

Alexander Garringer had a smith shop, and Perry worked 
for him. 

First school was winter of 1837, in a little round log cabin 
near the bridge, on the river bank at Fairview. 

Horatio Pace was the teacher, aud the school was very small. 

First meeting was before I came, perhaps in that round log 

First meeting-house was a log house in Fairview (about 1839), 
Methodist Episcopal. 

About 1844, a quarterly meeting was held at Thomas Hub- 
bard's. Their house was new and had no floor, and the sleepers 
wore for seats. Bruce was the preacher. 

Methodist meetings used to be held at Nathan Godwin's. 

New Light meetings were held at Martin Smith's. 

Churches were afterward built at Fairview. 

The schoolhouse now standing is the third, log, frame, brick. 

The first brick house was cither Samuel Caylor's or William 

First brick-kiln was by Thomas Hubbard ; 30,000 or 40,000 ; 
for chimneys, $3 per thousand. 

First reapers. J. B. McKinnev and Philip Barger. Barger's 
started first. They were the Kirby reaper, 1855 or 1856. 

First threshing machine run was by Philip Stover, of Dela- 
ware County — "falling beater," "chaff piler." He thra.shed 
first for old Elijah Harbour, and then for Philip Barger. justice was John Garringer, 1838. They say he kept 
his docket on slips of paper, and stuck them in the cracks of his 
cabin. Nobody else could read thorn. After him were Jona- 
than Green and then Thomas Harbour. 

First grave in Fairview Graveyard was that of an old lady, 
Mrs Shirley, mother-in-law of Reuben Eppart. Mr. Godwin 
laid off the graveyard. 

" Thomas Rowell was buried in what is now J. B. McKinney's 
pasture lof, but the exact place is unknown. It was before 1838. 

Elijah Harbour, though a clergyman and an excellent citizen, 
was also a great deer hunter. He has often shot them from his 
own cabin door. One night three wolves chased some deer round 
his house through the ,snow, making paths in the snow as they 
went round and round. 

The wolves were chased away, being followed down the river 
to Fairview. But father Harbour would never molest the deer on 
the Sabbath, and the deer would come on Sunday and graze 
quietly on the prairie as though they knew they would not be 
liarmed on that day. 

Mr. Harbour was famous also for holding meetings for wor- 
ship and preaching, and many a Christian soul has been cheered 
by his warm and loving words and his fervent exhortations and 
prayers, and many a sinner convicted and converted through the 
blessing of the Spirit upon liis earnest warnings and appeals. 

His funeral was attended by a very large concourse of people, 
showing thus their respect and esteem for so useful a citizen and 
so loving and ardent a Christian." 

"Deerfield was a small town with two little stores and a few 
log houses. 

The settlors were (1838) Isaac Cherry, on David Harker's 
place ; Samuel Bryson ; George Ritenour, near the old chapel 
on the river, west of Deerfield ; Burkett Pierce, across the river, 
west of Deerfield. 

There were doubtless others, but they are not now recollected. 
I was a boy thirteen years old when father came to Randolph. 
There were a large family of us, and we had a hard, rough time. 

Father died the same year I was married, and mother was 
left with a family of seven or eight children, several of them be- 
ing small and dependent. The family was raised successfully, 
however. All but one lived to be married, and all but two are 
living still. Some of them are getting to be pretty well along in 


"Settlers in 1838: Daniel B. Miller, near Prospect; Abra- 
ham Ilarshman, near William Warren's ; Reuben Harshraan, 
Jackson Township, now Union City ; Jacob Harshman, Jackson 
Township, dead ; Andrew Key, Ward Township, dead; James 
Porter, Jackson Township, near Pittsburg ; William Simmons, 
dead ; James eSimraons, dead ; Joseph Lollar, near Saratoga, 
dead ; Simeon Lucas, near Saratoga ; Joseph Lucas, near Sara- 
toga ; Sam Emery near J.ay County, very old, dead ; George 
Clianeyvelt, one mile west of Pittsburg, dead; William Sizemore, 
near Middletown, nearly one hundred years old, dead. 

There was an old settler, Mr. Nunnamaker, at Pittsburgr 
eighty-four years old. He was a soldi'^r in the war of 1812, and 
has received a pension for many years. He died in 1880." 


■• I came to Randolph County, Ind., in 1842, twenty-eight 
years after the first settlement. Prices then were almost noth- 
ing. Wheat was 25 cents in trade, 32 cents in Cincinnati. It 
had to be hauled in wagons through the mud — though there were 
some pikes in Ohio. 

Men would go with four-horse teams, hitch their horses be- 
fore and behind the wagon to feed them, and sleep in the wagon. 
I was oficred pork (hogs weighing 200 pounds net) at 75 cents 
per 100 pounds, for money to pay taxes, and I did not take it. 


Myself and wife went over to the Miami, helped butcher thirty- 
seven large hogs, cut the meat, chopped the sausage, stuflfed 
them, rendered the lard and salted the pork. They gave us half 
a barrel of stuffed sausages, one large h^m, one keg of lard, ribs, 
back-bones, etc., all we to carry home. We brought away 
meat enough to last till the next fall, all for two days' work of 
my wife and myself. 

William Hill, father of Aaron Hill (now living south of Arba) 
made a pestle-mill to pound hominy. He fenced it and ran it by 
horse-power, getting some custom. Another man, having a corn- 
cracker, also made a pestle-mill, but did not fence it. He would 
let the mill run itself. In pounding, some kernels would scatter 
out, and sheep would come and pick it up. One day, when the 
mill was " going it all alone," a flock of sheep came picking 
around, till a big buck, smelling at the log, climbed up and stuck 
his head into the mill-hole. "Crack!" came the pestle, and 
knocked the buck dead. The sheep climbed up, one by one, till 
twenty-seven sheep. lay dead around the mill, and the owner of 
the mill (and this was the pith of the joke) had to pay for the 

Note. — I hav^ given you the story as it was told. If any 
body doubts the tale, I cannot help it. 

" Aaron Hill's father used to work -oxen, and sometimes ride 
them. One day, Aaron rode an ox over to Eli Overman's of an 
errand. (One version says he went courting.) Said Eli, " Did 
thee ride ? "' '' Yes," said Aaron. Said Eli to one of the boys, 
" Put up Aaron's beast." The boy went out, but came back, 
saying, " I can't find any beast." " I thought thee said thee 
rode." "I did; I rode an ox," piped out tiie bashful boy. 
" Go turn it to the straw-stack," said Eli." 

[Aaron says the stories on him are " bogus."] 

" James Clark was once driving to Whitewater, when a big 
walnut struck him on the back. He was fire-mad in a second, 
thinking somebody had struck him. He wheeled, crying out, 
" Who did that? '"' But " nary man." 

A man — Mr. Cartwright — coming from North Carolina, had 
heard of white walnuts, and that they were good to eat. He set 
upon a lot of buckeyes and went to eating them. Some one 
asked him : 

" What are you eating ? " 

" White walnuts." 

" Like them ? " 

" Not overly well, but think I will after awhile." 

A young fellow, whom I will not name, once went to Fort 
Wayne, with his brother and brother-in-law, with provisions for 
the Indian trade. The roads were terrible through the bogs and 
the marshes. The young fellow — only a lad, as it were, and a 
mild, gentle lad, at that-^-could not get his oxen through the 

His brother-in-law, a wild, rough, profane fellow, would come 
and whip and swear, and thrash them through. 

Finally, at a bad crossing, the wild fellow told the boy he 
would not swear for him any more ; that he must get through 
himself. The lad tried, but "no go." 

" You must swear at them." 

" I don't know how ; besides, I don't wish to." 

" You must, or stay here in the swamp," was the unfeeling 

The boy, grown desperate, seized Km gad, swung it over the 
oxen's head, and, laying on with fearful blows, broke out into a 
sort of half swearing, yelling as if the Indians were after him. 
The oxen went through, whether by the whipping, or the yelling, 
or the swearing. But the lad was so mortified that he offered 
the other all his truck money (33 or so) if he would not tell of it. 
The fellow took the money and made the promise, but broke his 
word and told of it before he got to Spartansburg, and kept the 
money to boot. 

Of course these tales, related by Mr. Kelly, were obtained by 
him from early settlers, since he himself came to the region at a 

comparatively late date ; and it is no more than likely that they 
should have been stretched somewhat in the various tellings to 
which they had, in the course of years, been subjected. 


" At Canal Dover, Ohio, a merchant proposed that I be his 
clerk. I was surprised at the offer, but ' took up ' with it, and held 
it till he sold out (two and a half years). At Union City I was 
putting up a store for Benjamin Hawkins. He bought goods at 
Cincinnati, and came and put the bills into my hands, saying, 
" When the goods come, I wish you to ' open them out ' and go 
to selling them." I was astonished, for 1 was at the first of it ; 
but I took him at his word, and when the goods were " hauled " 
from Greenville (for the railroad was not in running order yet) 
I went to work. Afterward we agreed for my wages, and I 
stayed with him for some years. . But he left, and I concluded 
to set up for myself I chose the boot and shoe trade. I went 
to Cleveland and bargained for $800 or $900 worth ; I could 
pay only part cash. Said the dealer, " That is a pretty large 
bill;" "yes, but I need them. If you prefer, I will let you take a 
note I have for a farm I sold ($550)." " Well, leave it." I did 
so ; soon sold out, so as to need a new supply, sent cash in part 
payment of the debt, and for the new stock,. and soon, when 
that note came due, he sent it to me to collect, which I did, and 
paid him. From that time I could always get whatever I wished. 
My store was the first of the kind in the city, and, of course, it is 
the oldest in the town. I carry now $10,000 to $12,000 worth 
of goods, making large sales annually, and have been mostly 
without a partner." 

Note. — His failing health and feeble strength made him take 
in a partner a few years ago, and finally to sell out entirely in 
1880, the firm being now Gordon & McKee, and still later, Gor- 
don & Thomas. 


" We passed through Cumberland Gap ; they hailed us, but al- 
lowed us to pass. At Cumberland Ford we encountered ZoUi- 
cofter's army. We asked to pass their lines ; Zollicoffer said, 
"No; you may get through, perhaps, but not here." I said, 
" We will not harm you ; we have property North, and we wish 
to go to it." But still he said, "No." So we turned back 
through the Gap into Powell Valley, taking a circuit of thirty- 
five miles. We crossed Cumberland Mountains by terrible 
roads. It was a whole day's travel over a track but little used. 
But we met no army nor any soldiers. There were eight wag- 
ons in company ; four stopped in Tennessee, turning aside to a 
settlement of Friends there. These stayed in Tennessee till 
spring. The other four wagons came directly forward through 

We crossed the Ohio River at Madison. People welcomed 
us in a very friendly manner, one old blind man remarkably so. 
The people wished to make a dinner for us, but we could not 
stop. We stayed an hour or two, and when we started we found 
in each wagon nice things — pies, cakes, etc., as tokens of good 
will. There were about twenty persons in the company, my 
family having seven in number. We came through Rush County, 
Ind., to see relatives there, then to West River, where we stayed 
two months, at Absalom Dennis'. Afterward we came to Mark 
Diggs', arriving there in January. The main trip took us 
seven weeks. We got through safe and sound, thankful to find 
at last a quiet haven afar from storm and tempest, and a peaceful 
home among friends in a land of safety." 

" Away from slavery." That refrain has been sung for 
three-quarters of a century, and solemnly, mournfully marching 
to its steady chorus has been the ceaseless movement of the endless 
column, leaving the southern plains and valleys, crossing the 
mountain heights, and threading the yawning "gaps," crossing 
the beautiful river and spreading itself at length like a fertilizing 
flood over the virgin Western plains. What wonder that, under 


the weakening power of tliis dcplotive process, the Southern land 
should become enfeebled and decrepit, as though worn out with 
deadly infirmity. This avalanche of human beings poured in a 
limitless flow upon these widespread plains been like the vi- 
tal current giving life to the new created body politic. And 
what we have gained they have lost, and what a loss ! Why 
may the process now not be reversed — that as the mighty virgin 
West once received her life and strength through the emigration 
thither of the best and worthiest of the dwellers in the Southern 
clime, so now the West may, now and in future years, give back 
to the depleted and enfeebled South, depleted by a process of 
impoverishment extending through several generations, and en- 
feebled and well-nigh exhausted by a long and bloody and disas- 
trous war — by hundreds and by thousands — the worthy and vig- 
orous descendants of the sturdy pioneers who fled, years ago, 
from the plague and curse of the Southern land— the institution 
of human slavery? Slavery is gone, and the emptied and im- 
poverished South-land cries out to the wealthy and populous 
North and the hardy and vigorous West to send from their 
abundant and overflowing population to restore her waste and 
desolate places, and (o renew the prosperity of the elder, ancient 


Meetings— PioNicKi:s—AoKi> Pe 

SOME old settler.s met in Moorman Way's grove, northeast of 
Winchester, June S, ISOL Articles of association were pre- 
Bfint«d by Hon. Jeremiah Smith, and were unanimously adopted. 

Ai-ticle II provides as follows: "Any person who bas re- 
sided thirty-five years in Randolph County may become a mem- 
ber by signing these articles.'" 

Akt. VIII. — The association shall meet once annually, at 
such time and place as it may fix. * * * The meetings shall 
be bold for sociability and for reminiscences of old times, man- 
ners and customs; and members shall furnisb to such meetings 
historical sketches, from their own knowledge or recollection, for 
file or record, as the association may order. 

At the tii'st meeting, seventy. nine persons .signed the roll. 
Officers were chosen as follows: 

Hon. Jeremiah Smith, Winchester. 

J. C. Bowen, Groensfork; Joseph Pearson, Washington; 
William Hunt, West River; David Heaston, White River; Dan- 
iel B. Miller, Ward; George Huffman, Tranklin; William Macy, 

We suppose none wore present from the other townships. 

Martin A. lleedor. Secretary; James Clayton, Treasurer. 

At the afternoon meeting, speeches were made by the follow- 
ing persons: Jesse Parker,"* J. C. Bowen, Squire Bowen, Lu- 
cinda Hiatt, William Macy, Eli Edwards, Jeremiah Smith, 
George Hiatt, David Heaston, Joseph Macy, John Coats, Temple 
Smith, Jonathan Edwards, James Clayton, George Ritenoiir, 
Zachary Puckett 

September 7, ISOl, the association held its second meeting. 
l'"oiir persons joined. 

Addresses— Walter Ruble, D.iniel B. Miller, H. D. Hufl'man, 
Elias Kizer, Miles Hunt, William Kennedy. 

Juno >S, 1802, limitation as to time changed from thirty -five 
t(3 twonty-fivo years. Eighteen persons signed the roll. 

Juno i:{, LSf);!, fourth meeting, twenty-ono persons joined. 

Addrossos — John PeoUe, Wavne County; Jesse Parker, Rev. 
William Hunt. Hon. Jorcmiab Smith; Rebecca Jii\ir,n, Wayne 
f^ounty (written). 

Juno 11, l.S()4, fifth meeting held. 

Addresses— Hon. Jeremiah Smith (written): Henry Summers, 
William Hunt, Elias Kizer. 

June 10, 18(i5, sixth meeting held. A large number joined. 

Addresses — Jeremiah Smith, "Tornado;" Jeremiah Cox, 
Wayne County, Ind.; James C. Bowen, First Term of Court; 
Miles Hunt, Elias Kizer, Temple Smith, etc. 

June 8, ] S()(), seventh meeting held. 

Addresses — Jesse Parker (written); Elias Kizer (written); H. 
D. Huffman. 

June 0, 1807, eighth meeting held 

Addresses — Joseph Pearson, H. D. Huffman, Gen. A. Stone, 
H. H. Neff, Miles Hunt, J. W. Williamson, Jesse Parker, etc. 

June 11, 18()S, ninth meeting held. H. D. Huffman "played 

Addresses— Willis C. Wilmore (written); Ciuiis Cleny (writ- 
ten); J. B. Abbott, H. D, Huffman, T. W. Roeco, W. D. Fra- 
zoe presented a hymn book printed in 1829. 

June 10, 180'.», tenth meeting. 

Addresses- Willis C. Wilmore (written); Isaac Jonkinson, 
Fort Wayne; H. D. Huffman, spelling school. 

June 9, 1870, eleventh meeting. Eight members joined. 

Addresses — Hon. Jeremiah Smith, H. D. Huffman, J. C. 
Bowen, Ithamai' I' egg, George W. Vandeburg. 

June 8, 1871, twelfth meeting; thirteen new members. 

Addresses— H. D. Huffman, Temple Smith, W'. D. Stono. 
Asahel Stone, H. H. Neff, Mrs. E. A. McGriff, Miles Hunt. 

June 6, 1872, thirteenth meeting; seven new members. 

Addresses — Jeremiah Smith, " Civil History," Winchester, 
I), inocrat; Henry D. Huffman, reminiscence. 

No meetings held till September 13, 187!). 

Members in all from tbo first, 242. 

October 25, 1879, now association formed; thirty-seven mem- 
bers joined. 

Addresses— Miles Hunt, Thomas M. Browne, W'. C. Wilmore 
(written). Whole number, 27'J. 

.Juno 14, 1880, sixteenth meeting. Speaking by Miles Hunt, 
William Robinson, E. Tucker. E. Tucker presented portions of 
history of Randolph County in course of preparation by him. 
The project was unanimously indorsed by the meeting, and rec- 
ommended to public favor. 

Members in order of coming into county: 

[Note. — The roll is defective. About half the members seem 
never to have been recorded in the permanent book. J 


Jesse Parker, April, 1814; James C. Bowen, October 22, 1814; 
Squire Bowen, October 22, 1814; Robert Way, May, 181(^; John 
Puckett, May, 181(); Jesse Way, February, 1817; William Macy, 
February, 1817; Jonathan Edwards, 1817; Elizabeth Edwards, 
1817; Abigail Clayton, 1817; Anna Reed, 1817; Jeremiah Smith, 
August, 1817; Armsbeo Diggs, 1817; Mary Diggs, 1817; Luciu- 
da Hiatt, 1817; Edward Wright, 1817; Elihu Cammack (born). 
1817: Eli Edwards, 1817; Anderson D. Way, 1818; Daniel Wy- 
song, 1818; George Hyatt, 1818; Benjamin Puckett, 1818; Jo. 
seph Pearson, 1818; Mary Pearson, 1818; Levi Green, 1818; 
James Ballanger, 1818; Elisha Shoemaker, 1818; Rachel Ruble, 
1818; Catharine Edwards, 1818; William Hunt, 1819; David 
Lasiley, 1819; Zach Puckett, 1819; David Heaston, 1819; Cath 
arine Heaston, 1819; Polly Wright, 1819; George Huffman, 
1819: Elizabeth Huffman, 1819; William Coats, 1819; Joseph 
Macy, 18J9; Martha Hickman, 1819; Eli Lasley, 1819; John 
Coates, 1819; Temple Smith, 1819; SothMofiBt, 1819: E. L. Brown 
(born), 1819; Rebecca Puckett, 1820; James Clayton, 1820, 
Christian Huffman, 1820; Stephen Huffman, 1820; John Rite- 
nour, 1820; Walter Ruble, 1821; Henry Edwards, 1821; Fally 
Edwards, 1821; Nathan Rinard, 1821 ; John Rinard, 1821; Elias 
Kizer, 1821; Daniel B. Miller, 1822; Levi Ruble, 1822; Amos 
Mann, 1822; James Pierce, 1822; Mary Reeder, 1822; Martin 
A. Reeder, 1822; Sarah Thomas, 1823; Hannah Rossmsn, 182;J; 
Margery Kizer, 1823; Hannah Way, 1823; Matilda Beals, 1823; 
Harvey Wysoug, 1823; Thomas W. Kizer, 1824; Amos Smith, 
1824; Miles Hunt, 1825; Eli Hiatt, 1825; N. P. Heaston, 1825; 



Honry D. Huffman, 1825; Stephen Moorman, 1825; Lafayette 
Irvin, 1825; Henry B. Cox, 1825. 

Members from September 1, ISfil. to June, 1803, inclusive: 
William Kennedy, March, 1817; Nancy Kennedy, March, 1817; 
Joab Ward, April 7, 1819; Charity Coffin, October, 1815); Uriah 
Pierce, October, 1810; Martha Pierce, October, 18U); Burkett 
Pierce, October, 1819; Moses Lasley, March, 1820; Henry T. 
Mclntyre, November, 1820; Elizabeth Wright, 1820; Nancy 
Miller, October 12, 1820; Tarlton Moorman, April 27, 1820; 
Thomas Pierce, November, 1822; Lydia Pierce, November, 1822; 
Josfeph Thornburg, January, 1S27; Andrew Aker, May 18, 1828; 
Hannah Aker, May 18, 1828; Silas H. Moore, September 24, 
1820; Israel Wright, June 3, 1830: Elizabeth Wright, June 3, 
1830; Samuel Wright, June 3, 1830; Benjamin Harris, Septem- 
Iwr 20, 1831; Ensley Jones, March 3, 1832; James D. Bowen 
(born), December 23, 1832; George Addington, September 19, 
1832; Jacob Elzroth, April 1«, 1833; Elizabeth Elzroth, April 
16, 1833; Christian Habich, October 10, 1833; William A. Macy, 
October, 1833; James Evans, October, 1834; Thomas Alexander, 
June, 1835; Edward Edger, January, 1830; John Hoke, October, 
1830; Joseph Lucae, October, 1836; Stephen Haines, December, 
.1830; Adam Wright, 1830; Andrew Devoss, January, 1837; Jo- 
seph Edger, Januai^ 27, 1837; Silas Colgrove, October 20, 1837; 
Rebecca Colgrove, October 20, 1837; John H. Dunn, May, 1838; 
Tyre T. Puckett, Absalom Oren, Charlas Coffin. 

From 1804 to 1870, names not found; 98 members; 1871-72, 
members joined: 

William Barnes, Harrison Anderson, Andrew J. Lasley, Jacob 
Beals, Rebecca Beals, Priscilla Smith, Jacob Farquhar, Amos Or- 
cutt, William Butler, John W. Hill, W. D. Stono, Henry T. 
Semans, William Shockney, Ithamar Pegg. Jesse Addington, 
Hester A. Aker, Margaret Astley, John Lindley, John D. Sum- 
mers, Christian Hoaston, Jacob LaAley. 

1879— John Neff, aged fifty-seven, 1839; Harriet Neff, sixty- 
seven; Thomas M. Browne, fifty, 1844; W. S. Hunt, sixty-one, 
1840; Lavina Hunt, fifty-nine, 1829; S. J. Farquhar, forty- one, 
1838; Jacob A. Hinshaw, fifty, 1831; Philip Barger, sixty-five, 
1838; Mahlon Farquhar, sixty-nine. 1837; W. M. Botkin, fifty- 
six, 1821; John Jenkins, forty-nine, 1837; C. W. Lewis, sixty- 
one, 1825; Mary A. Hunt, sixty-six, 1816; Nancy Hunt, forty- 
eight, 1831; John Connor, forty-nine, 1830; J. C. Denton, sev- 
enty-six, 1827; Julian Denton, sixty-seven, 1826; Solomon Se- 
mans, seventy-three, 1817; Tyre T. Puckett, sixty-nine, 1819; 
Temple Smith, seventy-three, 1819; Alfred McCanny, sixty-six, 
1837; J.T. Hunnicutt, sixty-two, 1833; Alpheus Hoagland, fifty, 
1832; Levi Dolby, seventy-three, 1832; Stephen Haynes, sev- 
enty-nine, 1834; Judith Way, seventy-two, 1819; Lydia Jones, 
sixty-three, 1817; Jane G. Edger, sixty-three, 1837; Ellen 
Haynes, sixty-four; Stephen Moorman, fifty-six, 1823; John 
Ellis, sixty-two, 1837; Lizzie Goodrich, forty, 1839; Laura E. 
Fisher, thirty-fivei, 1844; Mercy Pierce, forty-eight, 1839; Hester 
Aker, seventy-three, 1834; Polly Reeder; Fanny R. Teal, thirty- 
nine, 1840. 

The loss of a part of the list of members is greatly to bo 
regretted, but there seems to be no way to supply the lack. 
Many of the members are dead, but for the most part we have no 
means of determining the number. Very few of the first settlers 
are yet living. 

Jesse Parker, Bethel, Wayne County, 1814, (dead); James C. 
Bowen, near Arba, Randolph County, 1814 ; Squire Bowen, 
Spartansburg, 1814; Jesse Way, Winchester, 1817; Elihu Cam- 
mack, near Bartonia (born), 1817, moved to Iowa in 1881; 
George Hiatt, near Winchester, 1818; David Lasley, near Win- 
chester, 1819; Polly Wright, near Winchester, 1819; Temple 
Smith, near Stone Station, 1819; Mary A. Reeder, Winchester, 
1822; Martin A Reeder, Winchester, 1822; Hannah Rossman, 
Winchester, 1823; Thomas W. Kizer (born), Winchester, 1824; 
Amos Smith, Stony Creek, 1824; Miles Hunt, 1825; Eli Hiatt, 
1825; Stephen Moorman, 1823; Lafayette Irvin (born), Winches- 
ter, 1825; Burkett Pierce, nearDeerfiold, 1819; David Lasley, 1819; 
Moses Lasley, near AVincbester, 1820; Henry T. Mclntyre, Maxville 
(bom), 1820 ; Andrew Aker, Winchester. 1828 ; Israel ^'right. White 

River, 1830; Ensley Jones. White River, 1832; James D. Bow- 
en, Greensfork (born), 1S32; George Addington, 1832; William 
A Macy, Wayne, 1833; Edward Edger, Winchester. 1830; Ste- 
phen Haines, Unionsport. 1836; Joseph Edger, Ridgeville, 1837; 
Silas Colgrove, Winchester, 1837; Rebecca Colgi'ove, Winches- 
ter, 1837; Tyre T. Puckett, White River, 1820; Priscilla Smith, 
Stone Station (dead, winter of lSSl-82j; Philip Barger, near 
Fairview; James McProud, Green Township; John Ford, Green 
Township; Ruth Wallace, Monroe Township; John H. Bond, 
Stony Creek; Job Thornburg, Stony Creek; Joab Thornburg, 
Stony Creek; Susannah Diggs, Nettle Creek; William A. Thorn- 
burg, Stony Creek; PeiTy Fields, Ward; Jacob Corl, Jackson; 
Uriah Ball, Union City; Robert Pogue, Union City; Jehu 
Hiatt, Winchester; J. B. Beverly. Winchester; Benjamin R. 
Shaw, Spartansburg; Gideon Shaw, Winchester; J. Armfield, 
Thornburg. Windsor; William Peacock, Jericho; Asenath Thom- 
as, Jericho; Asahel Stone, Winchester; Jamas S. Cottom. Win- 
chester; Henry H, Neff, Winchester; John Neff, Sr., Winchester; 
W. W. Smith, Winchester; Nathan Reed, Winchester; Edward 
Edger, Winchester; Joseph Edger, Ridgeville; James Adding- 
ton, near Ridgeville; Thomas Addington, New Dayton; John 
Mann, Spartansburg; Thomas Middleton, Spartansburg; Will- 
iam Locke, Spartansburg; Moorman Way, Winchester, died in 
fall of 1881;"jan6 Fisher, Union City (died February, 1882;) 
Willis C. Wilmore, White River: William C. Diggs, Jr., now 
residing in Iowa; Fanny Hill, Jericho; Thomas Ward, Win- 
chester; Daniel Hoffman, Winchester; William Taylor, Spar- 
tansburg; Silas Johnson, Lynn; Eli Reece, Cherry Grove; Will- 
iam Chamness. West River; Isniah Rogers, Bloomingsport; 
WilliamDiggs, White River; Hannah (Mendonhall) Diggs, Win- 
chester; Thomas Moonnan, Winchester: Moses Mfirks, Parker; 
Abram Hammer, Monroe; Paul Beard, iynn; James M. Clark, 
Spartansburg; James Clark, Greensfork; Henry Hoover, Wayne; 
Robert Miu'phy, Wayne; Amos Cadwallader, Greensfork; Fran- 
cis Frazier, Jericho; Silas Johnson, Lynn; William Peacock, 
Jericho; Asenath Thomas, Jericho; Arthur McKew (died Jan- 
uary, 1882;) John Key, Ward Township; Aaron Simmons, Jack- 
son Township; Mrs. Reeves, Jackson Township. 


John Bone, early; Philip Barger, 1838; Martin Boots, early; 
Tunis Brooks, 1833; Thomas Brown and sons, 1833; Samuel 
Caylor, 1837; Zebulon Cantrell, 1839; Daniel Culver, early; 
Nathan Davis, early; John Ford, early; John Garringer, 1830; 
Isaac Garringer; Jonathan Garringer, 1835; William Gray; 
Nathan Godwin, 1837; Thomas Godwin, 1837; Jonathan Green, 
1833; Elijah Harbour, 1835; Thomas Hubbard, 1837; Bennet 
King, early; Ulrich Keener, early; Benjamin Lewallyn; John 
Life, 1838; David Killburn, early; Benjamin Mann, early; An- 
tony McKinney, 1837; William May, 1857; John B. McKin- 
ney, 1837; James McProud, early; Neselrode, early; Porter; Al- 
exander Stevens, 1830; Martin Smith, 1830; William Vineyard; 
Jacob Winegartner; Israel Wirt, 1830. 


Thomas Addington, 1805; William Addington, 1833; Jesse 
Addington, 1834; James Addington, 1830; Thomas Addington, 
1834; John Addington, 1832; E. T. Bailey, 1847; Sebastian 
Brunnengast, 1833; AVilliam Deinbin, 1830; Joseph Edger, 
1837; George Hoffman, 1838; Mr. Jones, 1830; Moshach Lew- 
allyn, 1817; Benjamin Lewallyn, 1830; Arthur McKew, 1831; 
Edward McKew, 1831; George McPhereon: William R. Merine, 
1833; Ezekiel Roe, 1831; Abram Renbarger, 1832; Pardon Sher- 
man, 1837; Robert Sumption, 1854; Francis Stevens, 1830; 
James Stevens, 1830; Andi-ew Stevens, 1835; Alexander Stevens, 
1835; W. J. Shoemaker; William Wright; John Woodard, 1837 ; 
Jacob Winegartner, 1833. 

Alexander; William Bragg, 1832; George W. Barber; Curtis 
Butler; Frank Blake, 1822; Martin Boots, 1822; Eli Blount; Ben- 
jamin Clevinger, 1850; Glapp; William Doty, 1828; EdwardEd- 
ger, John T. Evans, Edward Evans, Samuel Emery, Perry Fields; 
Lambert Fields, 1831 ; Jessa Gray, Samuel Helms, Abram Harsh- 



man, William Jackson, Henry Kizer, Andrew Key, Samuel Kane, 
William Kizer, Aquila Loveall; John Key, I82".t: Andrew Mc- 
Cartney; James Massoy, 18] 7; Massey, 1817; Daniel Mock, 
James Mayo; Riley Manihall, 1820; William Massoy, early; 
Eobert Massey, early; Daniel B. Miller; John Mock, Reason 
Malott; Joseph Orcntt, 1838; Amos Orcutt, 1838: William Odle; 
Burkett Pierce, IS'iO, Uriah Pierce. William Pogue, Robert 
Pogne, Robert. Parsons, Francis Peake, George Ritenour, Will- 
iam Simmons. Samuel Sipe, John H. Sipe, John B. Sipo, Jephtha 
Sutton, Temple Smith, Calvin Soarl; Allen Wall, 1817; John R. 
Warren, 1830; John Whipple, 1847. 


Brockns, very early; Brockus, very early; Beach, very early; 
Ishmael Bundy, very early; Isaiah Cox, 1836; William Cox, be- 
fore 1836; Jacob Corl, 1838; Ezekiel Clough, 1862; Chandler; 
Andrew Debolt, 1828 (perhaps); Thomas Devor, 1834; Henry 
Debolt, 1844; George Debolt, 1844; Abram Harshman, 1S32; 
Jacob Harshman, 18-32; Reuben Harshman, 1834; Isaac Harsh- 
man, 1837; Hinkle,18— ; John Hoke, 1836; Peter Hoke; Jacob 
Johnson, 1833; John Johnson, 1833; Seth Macy, before 1830; 
Mangus; Eli Noftsinger, 183U; George Porter, 1827; James 
Porter, 1829; Jamea' Reeves, 1332; Thomas Shalor, 1820; 
Philip Storms, 1826; Amos Smith, John Skinner, James Skin- 
ner, Aaron Simmons ; James Simmons, 1827; William Simmons, 
1828; Siaemore. Sheets; David Vance, early; Thomas Wiley, 
1836; James Wickersham. 1832; James Warren, 1835; Dolphus 
Warren; William Warren, 1834. 

John Anderson, 1833 ; Branson Anderson, 1833; Edward Bw- 
ton, 1840; Leven IBarton, 1850; Bailey, Jacob Bennett; John T. 
Chenoweth, 1840; Elijah Cox, William Cox: Jeremiah Cox, 
1825; Elihu Cammack (1817) 1846; John Dixon, 1832; Silas 
Dixon, 1832; Dowuing; John Foster, 18151; Mason Freeman, 
1833 ; Francis Frazier, Fai-nes, Fahnestock ; James 
Griffis, 1833; Green, 1832; Graves; Ezokiol Gullett, 1840; 
George Gullett, 1840; Henry Hill, 1818; Benoni Hill, 1818; 
Daniel Hill, 1818; John Hartman, 1848 ; Solomon Hartmau, 
1848; Peter Hoover, Sr., 1834; Peter Hoover, Jr., 1834; Fanny 
Hill (1817) 1836; William Kennoa, 1830; Thomas S. Kennon, 
1830; Hezokiah Locke, 1833; Robert Murphy, 1834; Smith Mas- 
terson, 1833; W. S.Morton, 1856; William A. Macy, 1853; D. T. 
Morris, 1858; Amos Peacock, 1818; Abram Peacock, 1819; 
William Peacock, 1819; William Pickett (1828) 1853; Poor, 
early; David Robinson; William Shockney, 1840; Samuel Shock- 
ney, 1840: Sheets; George Thomas, 1835; Mrs. Teeter; Will- 
iamson, 1838; John W. Williamson. 

Thomas Addington. 1834; Andrew Akev, 1828; Thomas 
Aker, Michael Aker; John Aker, 1837; James Butterworth, 
1840; Simeon Brickley. 1843; Thomas M. Browne, (1844). •-; 
Thomas Butts, 1824; Nathan Butts, 1838; Thomas Brown, 1834; 
William Coates; Benjamin Cox, 1817; Simon Cox, 1817; John 
Cox, 1818; John Coatos, 1819; Stephen Clavton. 1822; Abigail 
(Way) Clayton, 1817; James Clayton, 1822; Thomas Clevingor, 
1845; George Cox (born) 1820; L. D. Carter, 1840; Edmund B. 
Carter, 1840; Henry Carter, 1840; .John D. Carter, 1840; J. J. 
Cheney, 1852; John H Cottom, 1843; James S. Cottom, 1843; 
David J. Cottom, 1843; .John W. Cottom, 1843; Silas Colgrove, 
1837; Charles Conway, 1817; Martha (Mendenhall) Diggs, 1837; 
WilliamDiggs, Jr., 1810; William Digg.s, 1818; Armsboe Diggs, 
1817; Littleberry Diggs, 1817; Jacob Elzroth, early; John Elz- 
roth, early: William Edwards, 1817; Jonathan Edwards, 1817; 
Jacob Fisher, 1826; John Fisher, 1824; Ab.salom Gray, 1818; 
Simon Gray (born), 1824; Carey S. Goodrich, 1831; Edmund B. 
Goodrich, 1831; -John B. Goodrich, 1831; Stephen Harris, 1831; 
H. D. Huffman, 1820; Barnabas Hunt, 1847; David Hea.ston, 
1819; Christian Heaston, 1^19; Jehu Hiatt, 1833; Abram Heas- 
ton, 1833; David E. Hoffman, 1838; John Irvin, 1819; S. C. 
Irvin (born). 1827; George Hiatt, 1818; .Jonathan Hiatt, 1818; 
Ensley Jones, 1831; Lydia (Wright) Jones (born), 1817; 

Thomas Johnson, 1.S3:!; William Kennedy, JS17; Nathaniel 
Kemp, 1841; Isaiah Kemp, 1841; Elias Kizer (1821), 1831; 
Thomas W. Kizer (1S24), 1831; David Lasley, 1819: Peter Las- 
lov, 1819; David Macy, 1820; Elisha Martin, 1832; John Mar- 
tin, 1822; Robison Mclntyre, 1819; Henry Mclntyre, 1820; 
Hiram Mendenhall, 1837; Morgan Mills, 1821; John Monks, 
1820; Tarleton Moorman, 1832; John A. Moorman, 1822; Stephen 
Moorman (born), 1822; James Moore, 1845; C. C. Monks (born), 
1827; G. W. Monks, 1820; John K. Martin, 1837; Joseph Mof- 
fat; John Neff, 1833; H. H. Neff, 1833; John Neff, Sr., 1833; 
Willis Perry 'colored); Mark Patty, early: Harvey Patty, 1835; 
Joseph Puckott, 1819; Isom Puekett, 1819; Thomas Puckett, 
1820; Zachary Puckett, 1820; Tyre Puckett, 1819; James Purs- 
ley, 1831; Jesse Pursley, 1833; Peter Reinhoimer, 1865; Isaac 
Pearson; Jesse Reynard (born), 1819; Solomon Reynard, 1817; 
Jehu Robinson, 1822; William Robinson, 1822; Martin A. Reeder, 
1822; Mary Reeder, 1822; Walter Ruble, 1824; Nathan Reed, 
Alfred Rossman; Leroy Starbuck, 1831; Durant Smith, 1829; 
Walter Starbuck, 1831; John Starbuck, 1831; Ezra Stone, 1839; 
Asahel Stone, 1839; William D. Stone, 1839; John Sample, 1819; 
Solomon Semans, Godfrey Sumwalt, John Sumwalt; Jeremiah 
Smith, 1817; Paul Way. 1816: Robert Way, 1810; Jesse Way, 
1817; William Way, 1820; William Way, Jr., 1820; John Way; 
Henry Way, 1816; Solomon Wright. 1817; Jacob Wright, 1818; 
John Wright, 1818; Isaac Wright, 1818; David Wright, 1818; 
David Wysong, 1818; E. L.Watson, 1850; Israel Wright, 1827; 
Samuel Wright, 1827; Willis C. Wihnore, 1831; Joab Ward, 
1819; -Toel Ward, 1819; Thomas Ward, 1819; Moorman Way, 
1817; Judith (AVilsun) Way. 1817. 


Adams, 1836; Mi-. Bowers, early; Philip Baughn, early; 
Phili]) Booher. 1835; John Baughn; William Brod.'rick, 1853; 
David Call, John Craig; Mr. CaiT, 1835; Andi-ow Cortner, Lev- 
en Cos, James Driver, Jacob Driver; Jonathan Flood, 1836; 
Isaac Garringer, Abram Garst; Elias Halliday, 1851 ; Eli Hiatt 
(1821), 1803; Peter Hester, 1830 (perhaps); Eli Hiatt, 1830; 
James Howry, 1835; Abram Hammer, 1830; David Haas; Ber- 
nard Kew, 1832; A. Lewallyn. 1845; David Macy, 1800; Aaron 
Macy, 1852; William Macy; Jethro Macy, 1854; John A. Moor- 
man (1822), 1807; Joseph Macy, Andrew Martin; Morgan ftlills, 
1834; Moses Marks, John B. Mills, Luther Moorman, Andrew 
McCamy; Jonathan Peeples, 1830; John Rody, 1833; J. B. 
Reed, 1833; Henry Rash, 1835; Jo.seph Smith, 1835; Samuel 
Smith, 1835; Mr. Sawyer, Henry Saley, Jacob Wright, Jacob 
Windermaker, John F. Wood, William Wood, James Wood, 
Thomas Wall is. 


Isaac Ambnrn, 1829; Samuel Amburn, Jacob Beals; Isaac 
Branson, 1819; John H Bond. 1831; Joesph Bond, 1833; Abram 
Clevingor, John Connor, John Coons, John ('asteeu; John Clev- 
inger, 1828; Jonathan Clevinger, early; Andrew J. Dye; Jolin 
Diggs, 1822: M'illiam Dixon, 1829; John Domory (colored), 
1825; Jonathan Finger, William Holloway, Joseph Hewitt; 
Jethro Hiatt, 1829; Solomon Hobaugh, John Holloway, Hosoa 
Lamb, Morgan Mills. William Moore; Joab McNees, 1829; 
John M. McNees, 1829; Reuben Medlar, 1840; George Moore, 
18:38; Henry Moore, 1839; William Merriwether, 1840, Joseph 
Rooks, 1822; Richard Robbins (colored), 1820; Robert Scott 
(colored), 1832; James Scott (colored), 1832; George W. Smith- 
son. Ira E. Smithson; Randolph Smullen. 1825: Amos Smith, 
1829; Isaac Thornburg; John Thornburg, 1824; Joseph Thorn- 
burg, 1825; Joab Thornburg, 1825; .Job Thornbiu-g, 1825: Tsaac 
Thomas, 1830; Nathan Thornburg, 1829; William A. Thornburg, 
1825; David Vestal, 1823; Lemuel Vestal, 1825; Daniel Vestal; 
Solomon Wright (1817), 1829. 

John Burroughs. 1822; Isaac Branson, 1824; Thomas Bur- 
roughs, 182-; Mahlou Branson, John Bcokout; Bright Gist, 
1831; Jacob Crouso, 1832; Matthew Chavis (colored); Willian) 
Clevinger, 1828; Isaac Crouse (born), 1837; Jonathan Otuiaay, 
1840; Walter Canady, 1829; John C. Clevinger (born), 1836: 


M. L. Canady (born), 1848; John Clevinger, 1828; Abnihiim 
Colman (polorod); Joel Drake, 1828; Mark Diggs (1821), 1827; 
Wilkersou Gray, 183."); John Grubbs; Jordan Halste ad, 18;il; 
William Hendricks; Solomon Hanscom, 1855; Benjamin Hunt, 
1828; Antony Johnson. 1S2U; Reuben Johnson, 18;i2; L. \V. 
Johnson, 18:52; Henry Leaky. 1831 ; George Leaky, ISJil; Christ- 
ian Leaky, 1837 ; Henry Moss'by, John Massy, Phiiieas Macy, Dr. 
Maulsby; Samuel Outland (colored), 1825; Benjamin Outluud 
(colored), 1825; Mason Powell, Martin Scott (colored) ; William 
Shullabarger, 182:5; Solomon Sparks, Enoch Sayles, Hamilton 
Snodgrass. John Snodgrass. William Snodgrass. Robert Scott 
(colored), Benjamin Skipworth (colored). Dosha Smothers (col- 
ored), Jerry Terry (colored), Ichalx)d Tharpe, Jacob Tharpe; 
Isaac Thornburg. 18:30; John T. Yardeman, 18(10; Thomas 
Wilkerson (colored), Isaac Woods (colored). Samuel Woods 
(colored), Jacob Woods (colored). Jesse Woods (colored); Lemuel 
Wiggins, 1858; George W. Wine, 1830; Hicks K. Wright, 
Philip AVoocls (colored). 

Elijah Arnold; Hugh Botkin, 1810; Joshua Ballenger, 1817; 
William Blount, 1817; Thomas Brower. 1817; Isaac Barnes, 
1818; William M. Botkin (born), 1823; Butler; Jesse Cox, 1817; 
John Charles. 1845; Bela W. Ci-oppcr. 1833; Daniel Cropper. 
1833; William Cox, 1823; William Chamness (1810), 1854: 
Nathaniel Case. 181G; Valentine Gibson, William Gibson. John 
GAvynn; Arny Hall, 1817; William Hunt, ]SI8: AVilliam S. 
Himt, 1840: Stejihen Haynes, 1834; David Hunnicutt. 1832; 
John T. Hunnicutt, 1833; John E. Hodges, 1818; Jonah Heaton, 
1810; Joseph Holling.sworth, 1810; Miles Hunt; Samuel Jack- 
son, 1817; John Jordan, 1817; David Jones, 1817; Joseph Jay, 
181S; Peyton Johnson, 18:W; Robert Lumpkin, 1831; James 
Malcom, 1817; William Macv, 1821: Albert Macy, 181i); Rufus 
K. Mills, 1857; Moses Martindale, 1817; Odle. 1815; Charles 
W. Osborn, 1857; John Proctor, 1817; William Peacock, 1818; 
Martin Phillips, 1810; Isaiah Rogers, 1810; A. Rotz (born), 
1821; William Smith, 1817; Samuel Sales, 1817; Samuel Smith; 
Jeremiah Smith, 1817; David Smith, 1817; Ira Swain (near), 
1810: Robert Starbuck, 1833; James Smith, 1818; Evan Shoe- 
maker, 1817; James Thornburg, 1817; Daniel Worth, 1823; 
Thomas Worth, 1822; Joshua Wright, 1810; Frederic Zim- 
m, 1818. 

Travis Adcock. 1815: James Abshiro. early: William Barnes, 
18;S7; Benjamin Bond. 1834: Paul Beard. Sr., 1817; Paul Beard, 
Jr., 1817; Joseph Baxter, 1824; Elijah Brock; William Benson 
(colored), 1843; Michael Benson (colored), 1840; John Barnes 
(Wayne), Alfred Blizzard, Beeson; Ciu-tis Cleny, 1817; 
George Daly, 1843; W. A. W. Daly, 1843; Francis Frazier, 
Sr., 1817: Gideon Frazier; James Frazier, 1817; Francis 
Frazier, Jr., 1817; Nicholas Gai-rett, 1841; Thomas Gar- 
rett, 1841; Isaac Hockett; Obadiah Harris,. 1817; Ste- 
phen Hockett, 1817; Jacob Hinshaw, 1832; Edward Hunt, 
1817; Joseph Hockett; Jesse Johnson, 1817; Silas Johnson, 1S17; 
William Johnson (born), 1S23; Samnol Jennings, 1825; Jona- 
than Johnson, 1817; John Johnson, 1817; Joshua M. Johnson 
(born), 1831; David Kenworthy: John Bloorman, 1817; Samuel 
Moodv, 1821; Isaac Moody, 1823; Malachi Nichols, ISIO; Henry 
D.Nichols (born). 18:32; Valentino Pogg (Wavne). 180S; Thomas 
Phillips; Eli Reoce, 1828; Samuel Smith, 181U; J. H. Stiue, 
1851; Edward Scott. 1820; Daniel Shoemaker, 1818; Thomas 
Tharpe; Edward Thornburg, 1817: Joseph T. Wood, 180(). 

Thornton Alexander (cxjlored), 1822; Isaac Alexander (col- 
ored), 1S22; William Ai-nold, Elizabeth Arnold; Harrison An- 
derson, 1835; Squire Bowen, 1814; James C. Bo wen, 1814: Ste- 
phen Barnes, 1830; D. Bowles, George Bowles, Henry Bailey, 
Stanton Bailey: James Cammack, 1815; John Cammack, 1810; 
Reuben Clark, 18111; Abner Cadwallader, 1833: Thomas Cad wal- 
lader, 1833; John W. Clark, ISSti; Richard Corbott, Daniel 
Comer, W. T. Chenoweth; Charles Crist, 1854; John Clark; 
Mitchell Campbell. ^K>()■ Ira Cadw.allader, (833; Alliwi Davis 

(colored), 1833; Frederick Fulghum, 1821; John Foster. Joshua 
Foster: Orpha Griffin, 18:i0; Philip Hockett; William Hunt, 
1844; Thomas Hough, 1844: John W. Hill (born), LS:!!!; Jere- 
miah Horn, 1.S20; William Hill, 1823; P. Holland (colored), 
l.S:i3; John James, 1S17; James Jackson; James Kelly. 1N42: 
William Locke, 1828; William Lewis. 1833: Ezokiei Lewis 
(colored). 18:i2: F. G. Morgan, 1830; K. H. Morgan, IS51): 
Henry McDonald, iS5'.); Samuel F. Middletou; Thomas .Middle- 
ton, 18:S(); John Mann, 1820; William A. Macy, 1S;!3; Issac 
Mann, 1810; Malachi Nichols, 181(i; Issac N. Nichols, (Cornel- 
ius Overman; Ei^raim Overman, 1814; Eli Overman, 1815; 
William Osborn; Thomas AV. Parker, 1814; Jesse Parker, Thomas 
Parker, Margaret Parker, James Peale, John Peale; John Ran- 
dlo (colored), 1833; Jesse Small, 1815; Obadiah Small, 1815; 
David Semans, 1825; Joseph Shaw. 1831; Stockdale, 1835; Col- 
lier Simpson (colored), Mi's. Small; John W. Thomas, 1814; Wil- 
liam Taylor, 1.s:30; Clark AVilkutts, 1811; Windsor Wiggs, 1820; 
AVillis C. Wilmore, 1831. 

)WNSHIP, 1> 


John Bone, 73; Anna A. Bone, 75; Bhoda Boots, 7('); AVill- 
iam McCracken, 72; Susanna Myers, 74; Zebulon Cantrell, 72; 
John Ford, 77; Eleanor Hubbard, 73; Thomas Hubbard, 70; 
Stanton Jones, 7('); Rebecca Jones, 70; Margaret Jarnagin, 81 ; 
Julia H Lipe,70; James G. McProud, 77; Hannah G. McProud, 
74; Mary Thornburg. 74; Jose])h F. Vicki'oy, 71t; John Wood- 
Population of Green Tosvnship, 1,040; Fair-.iow, 100; total. 


Eighteen persons over seventy years. Total ages, 
Average age, 75.8; one aged person to eveiy 03.3. 

Oldest person in townshiji, Margaret Jarnagin, 81 yean 


Caroline Bergwitz, 81 ; Elizabeth Engle, 71; Lucinda Janes, 
82;, AVilliam McFarland. 82; Jane N. Porter, 80; Robert Star- 
buck, 74; Elizsiboth Sims, 74: Pardon Sherman. 78; Mary Sher- 
man, 74; John Ullam, 82; Elizabeth AVood, 71). 

Papulation of Ridgeville, 775; Franklin, 874; total, 1,04'.). 

Number of old [.ersons. 11; total ages, 857; average, 77.1); 
one to 150; oldest person in township, John Ullam, eighty-two 

AVilliam Addington, 70; Sarah Alexander, 75; John Beara, 
70; Mary Baugh, 78; Malinda Bergman, 75; Rosella Bai'ber. 
73; Elkanah Brouse. 73; Nancy Brouse, 70; Elizabeth Cole, 75: 
Amelia Courtney, 75; Mary Courtney, 77; James T. Evans, 70; 
Zilpha Evans, 73; Perry Fields, 70; Millie Fields, 75; .Jacob 
Hotmere. 84; Christina Hotmere, 72; Clarissa Halo, 70: Mary 
Hindsley, 75; George Kemp. 75; Sarah Lollar, 72: AVilliatn 
Montgomery, 81; Andrew McCartney, 75; Sarah MoCift'tney. 75; 
Burkett Pierce. 87; Jane Ross. 75; Sarah Ronbarger, 73; Tem- 
ple Smith. 73; Philip Shivoling. 77; Priscilla Smith, 71; Bar- 
bara Si]ie. 75; Barbara Sipe, 74; Caspar Stick. 70; John Sipe. 
74; LydiaSt. Clair, 74; Mary Sipe. 70; Marv AVhitoneck. SO; 
Ja.son"AVhipple. 78. 

Population of Deertiold. 102; Saratoga, 13'"); Randolph, 54; 
AVard Township, 1.570; total, 1,802. 

Old persons, 38; ages, 2.835; average, 74.0; one to 4!); 
oldest person in township, Bm-kott Pierce, eighty-seven years. 

Jacob Corl. 74; Elizabeth Corl, 73; Daniel Cobleutz, 74: 
Ezekiel Clough, 7'^; Thomas Devor, 77; John Gittinger, 70: 
John Hoke, 70; Jacob Johnson, 87; Mary Johnson. 85; Jacob 
Mangus, 78; Elizabeth Mangus, 72; James Porter. 78; Hannah 
Porter. 74; Cathai'ine Sutton, 87; Michael Shank, 1)5; Joseph 
Sutton, 70; William Sutton, 72; Aaron Simmons, 70; AVilliam 
Stokesburv, 72; Henry Wevrick, 75. 

Populiition of Now Pittsburg, 80; Jackson Township. 1,2!)1); 
total, l,37i». 

Number of old settlers. 20; total ages, 1.531; .iverage, 70.5; 
one to 0',); oldest person, Michael Shank, ninety-live years. 


Gessine Able, 70; Jacob Bennett, 70; Mary Blackman, 70; 
Isaac Clifton, 71 ; Sarah Conklin, 78 ; Ezra Coddington, 73; Silas 
Dixon, 73; Joel Elwell, 73; Francis Frazier, 78; Lutitia Fra- 
zier, 7(S; Julia Fleming, 71; Peter Hoover, 74; John Hartman, 
70; Rebecca Harris, 74; Clarence Keister, 71; Robert Murphy, 
75; Mary Miller, 71; William Pickett, 78; Mary Pickett, 73; 
Margaret Scott, 74; Susan Woodbury, 74. 

Population — South Salem, 31 ; Bartouia, 33; Harrisville, 112; 
Wayne Township, 1,710; Union. 2,478; total, 4,370. 

Old pe"sons, 21; ages, ],r>40; average, 73.0; one to UO. 
Oldest persons in township, Francis Fnizier, 78; Lutitia Frazier, 
7S; William Pickett, 78. 

Issac Burkett, 77; Sarah Baker. 78; Jacob Baker, 77; Uriah 
Ball, 73; Simeon Branham, 73; George W., 72; Horace 
Dwinell, 70; John Fisher, 88; Jane Fisher, 77 ; Rachel Fitzsim- 
mons, 78; Eleanor Farley, 70; Dennis Faley, 70; James Hook, 
73; Isrum H. Ingle, 84; Rhoda Ingle, 80; (.atharine Masslich, 
70; John McMahan, 74; Robert Pogue, 77; Eleanor Ruby, 73; 
Nancy Stevenson, 77; James Thorn, 76; Eleanor Thorn, 78. 

Population of Union City, 2,478. 

Old persons, 22; ages, l.T)',),"); average, 72."); one to 112.0. 
Oldest person in city, John Fisher, eighty-eight years. 

Williams Austin, 73; Andrew Aker, 77; Hannah Aker, 74; 
Edgar Bowser, 70; Sally Bowser, 70; Salina Boohr, '.»]■ John 
Cox, Sr.,77; Hopsy Cox, 72; Eli Edwards, 72; Isaac Engle, 75; 
George Hyatt, 74; Lucinda Hyatt, 72 : John Harvey, 70; Robert 
S. Hogemann, 75; Aggie Hawkins, 70; Millie Harvey, 70; Ens- 
ley Jones, 70; Margaret Johnson, 79; Thomas Johnson, 72; 
Philip Kabol, 70; David Lasley, 80; Hannah Lasley, 70; Jacob 
Muckey, 78; Mary McCrista, 7'J; Mar}- A. Mosor, 70; Michael 
Moser, 70; Catharine Moser, 70; Louis Neff, 70; Sarah Oland, 
75; Luddy Pegg, 71: Tyre T. Puckett, 70; Mary Pugh,70; John 
Pickett, 71; Thomas Pierson, 81; Ann Pierson, 73; Lydia Pierce, 
7(!; Mary Pegg, 73; Rachel Rynard, 84; WilliamRetz, 73; Mary 
Ramsey, 75; Charles Summers, 73; Durant Smith, 78; James 
Segraves, 84; Isaac Wright, 71; Willis C. Wilmore, 79; Sarah 
Wilmore, 77. 

Population- -White River, 3,288; Buena Vista, 30; Unions - 
port, 37; Maxvillo, 62; Winchester, 1,065; total, 5,388. 

Old persons, 4t) ; ages, 3,434; average, 74.7; one to 77. Old- 
est person in township, Salina Boohr, ninety-six years. 

Esther Aker, 73; Louisa Brown, 73; Minnie Blatchford, 
81; Mary Carter, 77; Edward Edger, 70; Jacob Henderson, 70; 
John Hallowell, 70; James Moorman. 85; Henry Miller, 70; 
Daniel B. Miller, 82; Rebecca Payne, 82; Willis Perry. 8(); Al- 
fred Rossman, 72; Mary Reeder. 84; Nancy Swain, 7U; Judith 
-Way, 73; Jesse Way, 72; L. Way, 70. 

Population, 1,005. 

Old persons, 18; ages, 1,375; average, 74.16; one to lO'J. 
Oldest person in city, Willis Perry (colored), eighty-six. 

Jacob Arbagast, 70; Leonard Boyce, 70; William Broderick, 
70; Ellen Cox, 78, Calvin Cecil, 72: Nancy (Jecil, 73; James 
Cecil, 70; Eli Hiatt, 78; Hannah Hunt, 70; Joseph Hewitt, 72; 
Sarah Hewitt, 75; Elizabeth Harrison, 71; Barbai-a Howland, 
05; Susannah James, 76; John Johnson, 70; Sarah Johnson, 75; 
Abigail McGuire, 73; Elizabeth Miller, 73; Nancy McNoes, 70; 
Catharine Miller, 72; Elizabeth Roberts, 81. 

Population — Farmland, G08; Parker, 200; Monroe Township, 
1,022; tota:, 1,800. 

Old persons, 21; total ages, 1,587; average ago, 75.5; one 
to 05. Oldest in township, Elizabeth Roberts, 81 years. 

Isaac Amburn, SIO; John H. Bond, 71; George A. Carman, 
71; Elizabeth Cannau, 72; Jacob Driver, 73; John H. Denton, 

70; Ruth Faulkner, 71; Elizabeth Helun, 70; William C. 
Holmes, 77; Elizabeth Holloway, 72; Catharine Hiatt, SO; Es- 
ther Lynch, 75; John McNees, 74; Hannah Meriweather, 72; 
Mary Moore, 71; Benjamin Pugle, 71; Ira E. Smithson. 80; 
Amos Smith, 80; John Service, 71; Mary Service, 74; Susanna 
Thornburg, 83; Job Thombm-g, 78; Joab Thornburg, 85; Eliz- 
abeth Thornburg, 85; Sarah Terrell, 77; Mary A. Weaver, 70; 
Solomon R. Wright, 78; Margery Wright, 82. 

Population— AVindsor, 134; Stony Creek, 1,206; total, 1,338. 

Old persons, 28; ages, 2,138; average 76.4; one to 47.8; 
oldest person in township, Isaac Ajuburn, ninety years. 


Thomas Bookout, 73; Nancy Bookout, 71; Hugh Bailey, 75; 
Joshua Chamness, 73; Rebecca Chamness, 71; Susan Diggs, 72; 
John Grubbs, 86; Mary Grubbs, 76; Nancy Gilmore, 75; Wilk- 
erson Gray, 78; Joshua P. Hunt, 74; Miles Hunt, 71; Antony 
Johnson, 80; Elizabeth Johnson, 85; Hannah Lamb, 75; Theo- 
dore Lamb, 80; Elizabeth Milton. 73; Jsicob Mulf ord, 72 ; Will- 
iam Oakerson, 70; William Snodgrass, /O; Martha Shires, 70; 
Sarah Segraves, 77; Wood Weaver (colored), 72; Margaret 


, 73. 

Population — Losantville, 52; Nettle Creek Township, 1,417; 
total, 1,460. 

Old persons. 24; ages, 1,708; average, 75; one to 60. Old- 
est person in township, John Grubbs, eighty-six years. 


Nancy Adamson, 71; Jane Brewer, 72; William Butler, 76; 
Reuben Bias, 70; Elizabeth Clark, 73; William Chamness, 87; 
Elizabeth Earawas, 79; Michiiel Grace, 75; Jonathan Hunt, 70; 
Matilda Hoover, 70; Andalusia Harvey. 79; John Jenkins, 70; 
Peter Ladd, 75; Martha Lamb, 72; George Moore, 71; Sarah 
Macy, 75; Lydia Maxwell, 75; Elizabeth Mann, 71; Martha 
Mendenhall, 79; John Porter, 70; Martin Scott, 79; Beulah 
Starbuck, 86; Ira Swain, 70; Aaron Schmuek, 70. 

Population — Huntsville, 163; West River Township, 1,634: 
total, 1,797. 

Old persons, 24; total ages, 1.785; average, 74.6 years; 
one to every 75. Oldest person in township, William Chamness, 
eighty-seven years. 


Lydia Ashby, 78; Simon Adamson, 73; Sarah Bnimtield, 78; 
Rebecca Bales, 73 ; Jacob Bales, 73 ; ElenBond, 78; Sarali Bax- 
ter, 79; Sara Bodie, 79; James Blansett, 73; Caleb Cogshall, 82; 
Margaret Cogshall, 75 ; Catharine Daly, 75; .Susan Fudge, 72; 
Philip Farmer. 73; Hillery Green, 77; Mary A. Green. 80; Eliz- 
abeth Gordon. 73; Nancy Hinshaw, 79; MartinL. Hardwick, 77; 
Elizabeth Hardwick, 72; Rachel Harrold, 76; Ann Hinshaw, 74; 
Silas Johnson. 78; Rachel Jeffries. 73; Mary Lykens, 74; Mosos 
Lasley, 70; Anna Lykins, 76; Jesse Mills, 70; Deborah Mills, 
70; Benjamin Miller, 73; Rebecca Miller, 77; Lutitia Neal, 78; 
Susanna Puckett. 72; Rebecca Phillips, 77; Deborah Rockhill. 
87; Isaiah Rogers, SO; William Rash, 02; EliReece, 70; Phcebo 
Stout, 82; Jesse Stetler. SO; Sarah C. Sharji, 87 ; Daniel Thomas, 
80; Mary Thomas, 75; Hiram Wilkie, 70; Mary E. York, 80. 

Population — Lynn, 239 ; Bloomiugport, 141 ; Rural, 37; 
township, 1,922; total, 2.339. 

Old persons, 45; ages, 3,463; average, 77; one to 52. Old- 
est person in township, William Rash, ninety-two yeare. 


Charlotte Arhart 75; William Benson, 74; Malinda Brown, 
71; Squire Boweu, 75; Lydia C. Banks, 81; James C. Bowen, 
78; Mary Cook, 75; Maria Cotman, 80; Charles Crist, 79; Mary 
Crist, 70; Keturah B. Chenoweth, 76; James Clark, 75; Esther 
Dempsey,71; Baker Elliot, 70; Jesse Flood, 70; Stephen Grave, 
70; Thomas Hough, 73; Elizabeth Hammond, 79; James N. 
Hart, 73; Mazania Horn, 70; Enos Hiatt, 74; Samuel Kesler, 
70; Robert G. Kinsev, 70, William Locke, 75; Hannah Locke, 
72; WilHamB. Lewis, 70; Thomas A. Middleton, 80; William 
Moore, 70; Abraham Manning, 84; John Mann, 75: Mary Mc- 
Donald, 70; Hannah Morgan, 80; Levitt Mitchell, 71; Nanoy 



Newbem, S5; Philip Penniiii^^on, 72; David Pierson, 80; Mar- 
garet Parker, 73; John Randle, 84; Priscilla Shoemaker, 70; El- 
nora Slick, 79; William Taylor, 81; Tabitha Taylor, 77; Lucin 
da Thompson, 80; Manlove Thomas, 77. 

Population— Spartanburg, 209; Arba, 109; township, 1,809; 
total, 2,127. 

Number of old persons, 44; total ages, 3,308; average age, 
75. 2; one to every 48.3. Oldest person, Maria Cotman (colored), 
eighty- six years. 



XT is thought that a general account of the cemeteries, their 
location, the names of persons buried respectively in each (so 
far as can be ascertained from tombstones, or otherwise), with 
age, date of death, etc., would be of interest as a piirt of the 
general history of the county. It is greatly to be regretted, 
however, that so many of tLo pioneers who are known to have 
died within the county have no memorial discoverable, by way 
of tombstones or otherwise, that may tell to succeeding genera- 
tions when, where, how long they lived and acted among men. 
We would fain hope that the next ages may show improvement 
in this respect, though nothing done as to coming generations 
can ever supply the lack of care in the past. 

As a rule, the names of persons not less than sixty years old 


African Methodist, Section 12, Town 19, Eange 12, Stony 
Creek Township; Alexander's, Section 1, Town 16, Range 1, 
Greensfork; Arba, Friends, Section 33, Town 16, Range 1, 
Greeusfork; Buena Vista, Soction 9 Town 19, Range 13, West 
River; Catholic, Union City, Section, 23, Tovm 18, Range 1, 
Wayne; Cedar, Friends, Section 26, Town 20, Range 12, Stony 
Creek; Cherry Grove, Friends, Section 4, Town 18, Range 
14, Washington; Dunkards', Section 13, Town 18, Range 

1, Jackson; Dunkirk, Friends, Section 20, Town 20, Range 
14, White River; Fairview, Section 4, Town 21, Range 12, 
Green; Fountain Park, Section 20, Town 20, Range 14, 
White River; Gilead, Disciples, Section 21, Town 10, Range 1, 
Greensfork; Griffis family, Sectioo 25, Town 17, Range 1, 
Wayne; Hoover's, Section 12, Town 17, Range 1, Wayne; Hope- 
well, Protestant Methodist, Section 30, Town 21, Range 13, 
Green; Huntsville, Section 28, Town 19, Range 13, West River; 
Jericho, Friends, Section 20, Town 20, Range 15, Wayne; John- 
son's family. Section 33, Town 18, Range 1. Jackson; Liberty, 
Section 32, Town 19, Range 14, Washington; Little Creek, 
Baptist, Section 13, Town 18, Range 12, Nettle Creek; Losant- 
ville (south). Section 10, Town 18, Range 12, Nettle Creek; 
Lynn, Friends, Section 11, Town 18, Range 14, Washington; 
Maxville, Methodist, Section 20, Town 20, Range 13, White 
River (new one named Woodlawn) ; west of Maxville, Section 20, 
Town 20, Range 12, Stony Creek; Mt. Zion, Methodist, Section 

2, Town 19, Range 14, White River; Neff, family. Section 33, 
Town 20, Range 14, White River; N. Dayton, Section 35, Town 
21, Range 13, White' River; N. Lisbon, Disciples, Sections 11 
and 12, Town 18, Range 1, Jactaon; Peacock's, family. Section 
10, Town 20, Range 15, Wayne; Pittsburg, Section 6, Town 21, 
Range 15, Jackson; Pleasant Hill, east of North Salem, Section 

3, Town 21, Range 15, Jackson; Pleasant Hill, north of Farm- 
land, Section 1, Town 20, Range 12, Monroe; Pleasant Ridge, 
north of Huntsville, Section 15, Town 19, Range 15, West River; 
Poplar Run, Friends, north of Pleasant View, Section 12, Town 
19, Range 12, Stony Creek; Prospect, Methodist, Section 24, 
Town 21, Range 14, Ward; Rehoboth, Methodist, northwest of 
Farmland, Section 2, Town 20, Range 12, Monroe; Ridgeville 
(old). Section 12, Town 21, Range 13, Franklin; Ridgeville 
(new). Section 12, Town 21, Range 13, Franklin; Ritenour's, 
Methodist, Section 18, Town 21, Range 14, Ward; Salem, 
"Boundary," Section 32, Town 19, Range 13, West River; Sar- 
atoga, Section 0, Town 20, Range 15, Ward; Sheets, Section 28, 

Town 18, Range 1, Wayne; Smith's, family. Section 5, Town 18, 
Range 13, West River; Snow Hill, Section 23, Town 19, Range 
14, Washington; Spartansburg, Section 10, Town 10, Range 1, 
Greensfork; Steubenville, Section 13, Town 21, Range 12, 
Green; Sparrow Creek, Friends, White River: Swingly, south- 
east of Windsor, Section 32, Town 20, Range 12, Stony Creek; 
Thornburg (Hardshaw), Section 4, Town 20, Range 12, Stony 
Creek; Union Baptist (colored), Section 13, Town 19, Range 
12, Nettle Creek; Union, southeast of Windsor, Section 5, Town 
20, Range 12, Stony Creek; Union Chapel, west of Bloomings- 
port, Section 11, Town 18, Range 13, West River; Union City, 
Section 26, Town 18, Range 1, Wayne; White River, Friends, 
Section 22, Town 20, Range 14, White River; Whitesell's, Sec- 
tion 8, Town 20, Range 15, Wayne; Windsor, Section 29, Town 
19, Range 12, Stony Creek; Wiggs,' southeast of Spartansburg, 
(Norwich, old Quaker cemetery); Winchester, Section 20, 
Town 20, Range 14, White River. Thus there are, early or 
late, within the bounds of the county, not far from sixty 
burial grounds, public or private, besides others, mostly family 
grounds, concerning which no information has been obtained. 
Some of the cemeteries are in beautiful condition, being cared 
for in a neat, tasteful, becoming manner. Many, however, have 
been allowed to go out of repair, presenting a melancholy and 
forsaken aspect. 

John Kays, buried about 1S39, first person buried there. 

Lewis Burden, father of " all the Burdens," died January 1, 
1848, aged 00 years 5 months. 

Benjamin Lewis, father of Ezekiel Lewis, very old, date of 
death not known. 

Milly, wife of Benjamin Lewis, very old; died perhaps in 

Thornton Alexander, Sr., died September 10, 1851, 72 years. 

Ezekiel Lewis, died December 8, 1858, 01st year. 

Margaret Shaffer, " Aunt Peggy," died about July, 1805, 05 

Mary Davis, wife of Allen Davis; date of death not known, 
50 years months. 

Collier Simp.son, died October 8, 1805, 70 years. 

Mary Ann, wife of Collier Simpson, died December 9, 1805. 
00 years, 

Sarah A., wife of R. Holly, died December 24, 1800, 85 years. 

Allen Davis, died about 1870, 80 years. 

Abraham Cotman, died in 1870, 85 years. 

Polly Burden, widow of Lewis Burden, died in 1870, sup- 
posed to be 100 years old, or even more than that. 

Susan Bobbins, wife of Richard Robbins, died January 7, 
1877, 52 years. 

Richard Robbins, died February 2(), 1878, 78 years. 

Silas Burden, died in 1879, 02 years. 

Phillip Holland, died about 1872, 83 years. 

Cesar Peale, very old, died in the winter of 1880. 


N 33, I 

N 10,1 

E 1. 

Sarah Murray, died September 5, 1846, 05 years. 

Henry Horn, died September 8, 1840, 59yeai-s. 

Sidney Barnes, died in 1852, 02 years. 

Samuel H. Middleton, died July 28, 1850, 02 years. 

John W^ Thomas, died April 8, 1859, 72d year, (2d settlor.) 

Mary W., wife of Oljed Macy, died December 24, 1801, 78 

James Ellis, died August 10, 1804, 04th year. 

MiUa Ellis, died October 1, 1804, 65 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Parker, died May 31, 1805, 05th 

James Lewis, died October 0, 1805, 70th year. 

Isaac Clements, died June 13, 1806, 70 years. 

Elizabeth Clements, died January 23, 1868, 74th year. 

Paul Newbum, died August 16, 1860, 02d year. 

Benjamin Moorman, Sr., October 6, 1866, 84 years. 

Mary Cadwallader, died February 13, 1867, 65 years. 

Jeremiah Horn, died -July 27, 1869, 60 years. 



Rachel, wife of Harman Bailey, died July 15, 1870, 00 years. 

James Longfellow, died September 6, 1871, 71 years. 

John Tharp, died December 3, 1871, 80th year. 

Richard Corbitt, died May 1, 1872, 74 years. 

Sarah, wife of Edward Thomas, died October 17, 1872, 100 
(said also to be 104) years. 

Edward Thomas, died March 9, 1873, 80 years. 

Hiram Hill, died March 17, 1873. 00 years. 

Lemuel Wasson, died March 0, 1873, 76th year. 

Jabez Hiatt, died Jiine 21, 1874, 00 years. 

Rachel, wife of Benjamin Elliot, died June 20, 1875, 61 years. 

William Chenoweth, died October 18, 1876, 74 years. 

Edward Thomas, died January 11, 1877, 78th year. 

Wesley Harmon, died March 6, 1877, 05th year. 

Anna, wife of John Tharp, died September 27, 1877, 83d year. 

Seth Gardner, died March 12, 1878, 7lBt year. 

S. W. Maines, died July 18, 1878, 63d year. 

Jacob Horn, died November 10, 1878, 71st year. 

Elizabeth, wife of James C. Bowen, died February 17, 1879, 
00 years. 

Didamia, wife of Joseph Skinner, died April 30, 1879, 77th 

Jemima, wife of William A. Macy, died May 24, 1879, 75 

Ailsey, wife of L E. Moore, died July 3, 1879, 74 years. 
Martha Wiggs, date of death not stated. 
William Wiggs, date of death not given. 


Balsor Cramer, died July 23, 1803, aged 63 years. 
Benjamin Bright, died February 24, 1870, 66th year. 
James L. Bright, died February 26, 1870, 70th year. 
Matilda Trammel died December 12, 1871, 64 years. 
I. W. Trammel, died March 5, 1872, 72 yeaiB. 
Abigail Bright, died January 1, 1875, 05 years, mother of fif- 
teen children. 

TOWN 19, RANGE 13. 

Thomas Gillum, died February 9, 1845, aged GO years. 
Jane Gillum, died May 15, 1855, 72 years. 
Robert McCracken, died September 23, 1858, 73d year. 
Urith McCracken, died August 1, 1861, 74th year. 
Elizabeth, wife of James Hurst, died May 29, 1804, 72 years. 
Alexander S. Starbuck, Company C, Ninth Indiana Cavalry, 
died at Indianapolis September 8, 1805, 18 years. 
Thomas Brooks, died January 28, 1808, 78th year. 
Fountain Murray, died February 10, 1878, 07 years. 

TOWN 18, RANGE 1. 

The Catholics have a cemetery two miles north of the city, 
on the Salem Pike, embracing a suitable <piantity of land to 
answer the pm-posos of burial for many years to come. The 
ground seems well suited to the end intended, being dry and 
rolling, and capable of the adornment suitable for so sacred a spot. 
The location is greatly retired, one would think rather too much 
so for readiness of access, since the distance from town re- 
quires n journey of two miles from the church for every inter- 
ment; however, the road thither is always in good condition. 

A large congregation of Catholics reside at Union City, on 
both sides of the line, and in the vicinity, and many burials oc- 
cur among that class of our fellow citizens. 

Ferdinand Wiese, died January 11, 1801. aged 63 yeai-s. 

Patrick Ragan, died October 31, 1809, 60 years. 

Gertrude Wiese, died May 10, 1872, 73d year. 

Joseph Schranz, died November 5, 1874, 02d year. 

Thomas Burke, Mayo Countv, Ireland, died November 20, 
1878, 50 years. 

Daniel Kitty, died October 21, 1879, 04 years. 


Joseph S. Bond, died November 17, 1840, aged 61 years. 

Rachel Bond, died October 28, 1842, 62d year. 

John Harrold, died November 29, 1840, 92d year. 

Phebo Thornburg, died March 14, 1809, 60th year. 

Nathan Thornburg, died August 18, 1875, 65th year. 

Eunice Bond, died January 24, 1870, 64 years. 

William Whittaker, died March 31, 1872, 72d year. 

Erastus Lucas, died December 1, lSi2, 02d year. 

Elizabeth, wife of Rejiben Medlar, died February 22, 1874, 
00 years. 

Chai-ity Hubbard, died February 1, 1874, 09 years. 

Joseph Hubbard, died September 7, 1878, 75 years. 

Esther Fodrea, wife of William, died February 23, 1876, 
64 years. 


Thomas Peirson, Sr., died May 1, 1821, aged 85 years. 

Samuel Robbins, died Febniary 14, 1837, 74 years. 

William Peirson, died August 10, 1831, 70th year. 

Edward Thornburg, died December 19, 1834, 83d year. 

Elizabeth Peirson, died June 4, 1835, 71 years. 

Elizabeth Peirson, died December 31, 1830, 08th yeai-. 

Martha Hockett, died February 4, 1839, 78 years. 

Mary Harris, died October 7, 1844, 71st year. 

John Pegg, died March 13, 1846, 75 years. 

Jane Woodard, died December 14, 1840, 74 years. 

Lydia F. Watkins. died April 27, 1850, 74 years. 

Abram Himt, died September 9, 1851, 07 years. 

Mary, wife of Isham Good, died Febrqpry 4, 1853, 07th year. 

Alice Frazie, wife of John Frazie, died May 25, 1855, 78 

John Frazie, died September 17, 1800, 80 years. 

Keziah Thornburg, died February 4, 1801, 92d year. 

John Frazier, died September 10, 1801, S2d year. 

Jonathan Johnson, died March 14, 1802, 01 years. 

Samuel M. Cook, died June 4, 1802, 80th year. 

Samuel Hillson, died August 19, 1802, 04 years, 

Rachel Marine, died March 25, 1803, 00 years. 

Joseph Baxter, died August 22, 1803, 76 years. 

Joshua Chamness, died December 19, 1803, 03 years. 

Sarah Bond, died June 24, 1804, 75th year. 

John E. Ballard, Company F, First Indiana Cavalry, died 
October 24, 1804, 29 years. 

Phebe Blizzard.died March 15, 1800, 89 years. 

Nicholas Garrett, died December 5, 1860, 78th year. 

Mary, wife of Isaac Beeson, died January 0, 1807, 78th year. 

Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Peirson, died May 3, 1807, 66 

Lydia, wife of Joshua Chamness, died July 12, 1867, 75th 

Miriam Charles, died March 25, 1867, 66th year. 

Martha Peirson, died June 25, 1 807, 78 years. 

John Peirson, died February 9, 1808, 77th year. 

Andrew Farquhar, died March 8, 1870, 57 yeara 

John Marine, died March 17, 1871, 71 years. 

Nancy, wife of Samuel Robbins, died September 14, 1871, 
8Rth year, 

Absalom Dennis, died November 10, 1872, 05 years, 

Robert Miller, Sr., died March 22, 1874, 77 years. 

David Smith, died July 25, 1874, 02 years. 

Sarah B., wife of Clayton Stevenson, died November 5, 1874, 
03 years. 

Benjamin Hunt, died November 11, 1874, 02 years. 

Edward Thornburg, died November 24, 1874, 71st year. 

John Ozbun, died April 5, 1877, 83d year. 

Clayton Stevenson, died January 10, 1877, 00 years. 

Keziah Thombui-g, died April 20, 1877, 71 years. 

Meekey, wife of Nathan Hockett, died July 54, 1877, 69 yeara 

Elijah Hinshaw, died March 3, 1878, 62 years. 

Nathan Hockett, died 11, 1878, 80th year. 

Margaret, wife of Jesse Stettler, died July 13, 1878, 83 yeare. 

Thomas Adamson, died October 13, 1878* 60 years. 

Mary, wife of Samuel Hillson, died November 27, 1879, 59th 



- Eebecea Thombrtrg, died November 10, 1880, 76th year. 

Elizabeth Hoggatt, bom January 7, 1793; date of death and 
age not given. 


Eli Nofiflinger, bom April 6, 1806, died October 8, 1872, 
67th year. 

Abraham Root, died Jlay 2, 1876, 77 years. 

Elizabeth Root, died May 8, 1876, 77th year. 

Barbara Flory, wife of John Flory,died August 28, 1876, 73d 

George Retry, died October 20, 1876, C2d year. 

This cemetery is comparatively new, having been in use some 
ten or eleven years only. 


Great numbers of graves have rough stones, with no inscrip- 

W. H., died 1833. 

Joseph Puckett, Sr., died November 7, 1835, 51st year. 

Mary Pickett,' wife of above, died November 14, 1846, 60 

Jesse Green, died September 14, 1838, 60th year. 

Sarah, wife of Jesse Green, died September 27, 1873; 102d 
year, a widow thirty -five years. 

Samuel Ruble, Sr., died October 17, 1839, 62 years. 

Rachel, wife of Samuel Ruble, died in October, 1844, 62 

James Wright, died July 24, 1851, 55th year. 

John Wright, father of Solomon Wright, died November 13, 
1851, 77th year. 

Sarah, wife of Walter Ruble, died Januaiy 22, 1852, 60th year. 

Catharine, vrife of Stephen Hofifman, died October 27, 1852, 
63 years. 

Stephen Hofifman, died October 17, 1868, 86 years. 

Emsen Wright, died November 22, 1853, 56 years. 

Rachel Wright, died May 29, 1857, 56 years. 

John IJemor)', died November 9. 1860, 76 years (colored). 

Lecy, wife of William Thomas, died, October 9, 1860, 61st 

Solomon Reynard, died January .5, 1861, 63d year. 

Nancy, wife of Willis Perry (colored), died September 1, 

Epitaph. — " I was a slave, freed by a lawsuit prosecuted by 
David White, the Quaker. May God bless his name! My hus- 
band's freedom was bought for $675. He made the money on 
rented land. Who of you that tauntingly say of my race, "They 
can't take care of themselves,' have done better?" 

Rachel, wife of Levet Ruble, died August 16, 1864, 54th year. 

Levet Ruble, died Januai-y 19, 1871, 66th year. 

Martha, wife of William Tocus, died September 17, 1866, 66th 

Elder Zaohariah Puckett, died April 1, 1867, Qlst year. 

Elizabeth Hufi&ier, died March 21, 1879, 60 years 

Ruth Green, died March 10, 1880, 74th year. 

Dunkirk Graveyard is one of the oldest in the county. It is 
full of graves, and doubtless contains the bodies of many old 
settlers. It has, however, but very few tombstones, and the 
places of burial of these ancient pioneers can never be known. 
Great numbers of rough, unlettered stoups are found thickly set 
over the cemetery, and many unnoted hillocks raise their melan- 
choly heads above the consecrated ground, but they yield no 
token of the one who may chance to lie buried deep beneath 
them. Why should it be thus? And shall this state of things 
continue through the ages to come? God fbrbid! 


Robert McKinney, aged 61 years. 
Joseph McKenney; Revolutionary soldier, 90 years. 
Elizabeth, wife of Nathan Godwin, died July 24, 1843, 59th 

John Miller, died April 15, 1856, 61st year. 

Samuel McClure, died in November, 1858, 75 years. 

Catharine Hall, died December 1, 1860, 90 years, 

Elizabeth Gilbert, died May 4, 1801, 63d year. 

Thomas J. Rees, killed at Pittsburg Landing April 7, 1862, 
Company E, Thirty-sixth Indiana, 21st year. 

Barbara McClure, died December 31. 1862, 80 years. 

James Campbell, Sr., died January 24, 1863, 71 years. 

Abigail, wife of Rev. Abner Wolverton, died August 6, 1863, 
52d year. 

Marvel G, Street, Company E, Thirty-sixth Indiana, died at 
Murfreesboro, Tenn,, April 22, 1863, 35 years. 

Eliza, wife of Moses Friddle, died October 14, 1863, 63d year. 

James Sullivan, died August 20, 1864, 63 years, 

Ailcey, wife of James Sullivan, died July 6, 1868, 64 years. 

Thomas A. Gustin, Company G, One Hundred and Twenty- 
fourth Indiana, died October 20, 1864, 34 years, 

Oliver Sullivan, Company A, Eighty-fourth Indiana, died 
July 13, 1864, 25 years, 

Loring B, Morris, Company E, Thirty-sixth Indiana, died 
November 15, 1864, 21 years. 

Franklin L. Keever, Company E, Nineteenth Indiana, died 
April 12, 1865, 25 years. 

Alfred Evans, Company H, One Hundred and Thirtieth, Indi- 
ana, died April 9, 1865, 34 years. 

Michael Goons, died December 4, 1865. 68th year. 

Catharine, wife of Joshua Coram, died February 26, 1867, 74 

Eli Jarnagin, died April 22, 1867 (soldier), 23 years. 
Randall Lockbart, died May 27, 1867, 65 years. 
Elizabeth, wife of John Bone, died October 20, 1867, 61 years. 
Elizabeth Ulm, died December 23, 1867, 76 years. 
Susannah, wife of George Sites, died October 25, 1818, 60 

Adam Keener, died December 3, 1869, 89th year. 
Rhoda, wife of Rev, Elijah Harbour, died July 15, 1870, 82 

Rev, Elijah Harbour, died Seytember 13, 1872, 84 years. 
Pradence, wife of T. G. Harris, died September 15, 1871- 72 

A.' B. Webb, died December 20., 1872, 61 years. 
Antony W. McKinney (war of 1812), born in Kentucky in 
1794, and died August 26, 1873, 79 years. 

Caleb Manor, died July 21, 1874, 68th year. 

John Life, Sr,, died March 30, 1875, 75th year, 

Joel Wilson, died April 1, 1875, 70th year. 

William Rees, died May 9, 1875, 69th year. 

Jacob Wise, died June 8, 1875, 77th year. 

Nathan Godwin, died November 3, 1875. 96th year. 

Charles May, died September 18, 1876, 84th year. 

Rebecca, wife of John Campbell, died Oct 25, 1879, 61 years. 

Laban Hickman, died January 7, 1877, 70 years. 

Isabel Beekman, died March 6, 1877, 59th year. 

T. C, Harris, died March 22. 1877, 78th year. 

Robert N. Judy (soldier), died September 4, 1877, 32 years. 


Three different burial-places have been set apart in the vicin- 
ity of Winchester for the use of her citizena 

First Cemetery. — Charles Conway in 1834, established a 
graveyard near and east of the lot now occupied by the Christian 
(Disciple) Church, The intention had been to locate the burial 
ground east of Salt Creek, but for some reason that was never 

The place was on some accounts unsuitable, and most that 
have been buried there were afterward removed. 

Second Cemetery. — In 1844, David Heaston permitted the 
use of a spot southwest of town, in a bend of Mud Creek. 

This ground, though in use as a cemetery for thirty-six years, 
was most unfit for the purpose. The soil was wet, and to drain 
it was nearly an impossibility; yet several additions were made, 
two by A. J. Neff, who owned the lands adjoining, and one by 
Mr. Heaston himself. 



The lirst addition was 151ix227i feet in size, and contained 
seventy-seven lots, and was recorded August 22, 1862. The 
second addition was made by A. J. Neflf, on the south side, con- 
sisting of thirty-six lots, recorded July 19, 1807. 

The third addition also was donated by A. J. Nefif, on the 
north and east sides, containing 120 lots, and recorded Aiigust 
14, 1870. But the citizens wore uni-econciled to the inconven- 
Jenci« of the place, and, while on the one hand many took the 
Ijodies of their fi-iends elsewhere for biu-ial, on the other ofiForts 
were made to obtain a more suitable location. 

In 1877, a petition signed by iive-eighthsof the tax-payers of 
the place was presented to the town authorities, praying prompt 
action by them upon the matter. 

A committee of nine persons was ajipointed, three from each 
ward, to wit: First Ward, A. Stone, A. Teal. J. J. Cheney; 
Second Ward, .J. M. Hodsou, R. Bosworth, L. W. Study; Third 
Ward, T. W. Kizer, J. M. Carver, J. W. Diggs. This move- 
ment proved a failure, and the committee never reported 
Shortly afterward Gen. Asahel Stone purchased grounds of Chris- 
tian Heaston, south of town, comprising forty acres, at a cost of 
$4,000; had it surveyed and platted inabaost cimous and pictur- 
esque manner at a further outlay of 1300; and, on the first day 
of March, 1880, he, in conjunction with his worthy wife, exe- 
cuted a deed of the property, under the name of " Fountain 
Park Cemetery," to the town of Winchester, under a suitiible 
Board of Control, and with regulations intended and adapted to 
secure neatness, taste, beauty, quiet, and every proper character- 
istic of a resting-place for the dead, naming also three pereons 
as a Board of Control, viz., Asaiiel Stone, H. H. Neli' and T. W. 

The gift was thankfully accepted by the Trustees of the town, 
and, on the M day of July, 1880, the tract was dedicated as a 
bui'ial ground in perpetuity, in the presence of a large and in- 
terested assembly. 

Addi-essos wore delivered by Rev. B. F. Foster, Rev. A. I. 
Luollan and Hon. T. M. Browne. The addresses were worthy 
of the occasion The one delivered by Gen. Browne especially 
was a gem of the rarest kind. Utterances found therein are 
worthy to be engraved in imperial marble, and set in memorial 
archways above the entrance to the consecrated ground in which 
repose the moldering bodies of oui- loved and lost. 

"Is it true, as some would teach us, that we are all afloat on 
a trackless sea, with neither chart nor compass to direct nor to 
guide, at the mercy of the winds and the waves, simply di-ifting, 
ilrifting aimlessly and hopelessly until some fierce storm wreck 
our vessel and the shattered bark go down beneath the fathom- 
less waters without the hope of resurrection? True, indeed, 

' None, none return from those quiet sliores, 
Who cross with tlie bo.atnian cold and pale; 

We hear the dip of the golden oars, 
And catch the gleam of the snowy sail ; 

and then the voyager passes out of sight; but, because we see no 
returning sail shall we believe that it has gone down in endless 
night? May wo not still haVo faith that it has anchored at the 
other shore? * * * I'jjdt spirit is immortal has been the al- 
most unchallenged conviction of the master minds of all ages, 
and the bed rock of every system of religion. * * * The 
profoundost depths of our being respond to this faith in an end- 
less life. * * * Let ua aliide therein until the end. * * 
* It will cheer us in lite and be our solace in the hour of 
death. It will give our lives at all times and in every struggle 
a heavenward side. 

"I am now done. It seemel to me fit that in this solemn 
|)resenco and upon this sacred occasion, I should speak a word 
for that faith that lightens the veiy darkness of the tomb. Let 
the stones that may be erected in those sacred jirecincts be not 
monuments of jiride nor ambition, nor wealth nor even of sor- 
row, but rather let them Ije memorials of a people's faith in on 
overruling God, and of an endless life beyond the grave." 

Thus far, Gen. Browne. His whole address is even more 
sentimental, devotional and profoundly religious than those of 
the clerical gentlemen who spok(( from the same ]>latfonu on 
that interesting occasion. 

Many lots have already been purchased, some burials ]>«^« 
been made, a few removals from the former burial-tJ-i-''"iid have 
been effected, and more are in contoropl.ition xne gift of the 
generous donors is duly appreciate! by a grateful community, 
and future yonra nnd iLjri*. will ^.i-oe-r-s-o and revere their memory. 
It may be not amiss to remark that the whole amount of funds 
to be received from the sale of lots, etc., above the expense of 
attendance is to be applied to imi)roving and beautifying the 
hallowed spot, that the ideal of the generous donors may be com- 
pletely realized, and that the sacred inclosure may come to be, 
as swiftly pass the rolling years, still more and more worthy the 
cultured and refined sentiment of an intelligent, sympathetic, 
Christian people. 

E 14. 

N 29, TOWN 20, 

Ezra Stone, Iwrn May 11, 1791, and died August 23, 1848, 
57 years; removed from old cemetery. 

Rebecca, wife of William Badgley, died February 2, 18!J9. 
86 years; removed from old cemetery. 

Eliza Kizer, died Mai'ch 6, 1867, 67 years; removed from old 

Margery, wife of Elias Kizer, died October 30, 1809, 70 
years; removed from old cemetery. 

Joseph A. Badgley, died July 14, 1868, 08 years; removed 
from old cemetery. 

Elijah Stevens, died October 15, 1869, 62 years; removed 
from old cemetery. 

Abigail, wife of Joseph A. Badgley, died January 27, ISS], 
82 years. . 

John Jenkinson, removed from old cemeteiy. 

Mi's. Jenkinson, wife of above, removed from old cemetery. 

Moorman AVay, died August 17, 18X1, 73 years. 

Mre. Way, wife of above, removed from old cemetery. 

]VIrs. Goodrich, long time widow of Hon. E. B. Goodrich, 
diet! in September, 1X81, about 80 years. 

QlLE.^D CEMETEay, OREENSFOUK, section 21, TOWN 10, RAN'GE 1. 

Joseph Shaw, May 6, 1857, 64 voars. 

Sarah Shaw, March 10, 1860, ()2 years. 

Joseph Smith, October 5, 1857, 77 years. 

Rebecca Smith, September 14, 1869, 83 years. 

Susannah, wife of Uriah Ball, September 4, 1864, 51) years. 

David Kinsev, October 17, 1865, 85 years. 

Fannie Elliot, July 25, 1867, 63 years. 

Miles Elliot, Ajiril 6, 1880, 84 years. 

Hannah, wife of Peter Deverage, July 20, 1868, 67 years. 

Samuel Armstrong, August 31, 1809, 72 years. 

Rebecca Horner, April 20, 1873, 82 years. 

Miriam Clark, August 2, 1875, 66 years. 

Pharaoh Clark, February 21, 1877, 73 years. 

Elizabeth Gray, February 22, 1X78, 73 years. 


James Griffis, October 1, 1859, 61 yeai-s. 

Mai-garet Grifiis, Februiu-y 2, 1809, 54 years. 

George Elston, Januaiy 8, 1872, 59 yeai'S 

Elizabeth Elston, February 6, 1872, 53 years. 

George McClmo, about 1870, 65 years. 

Mrs. McClure, about 1875, 70 years. 

The above is only a private burying giunnd, on a beautiful 
knoll, in the middle of the " Old Griffis Farm," and but few 
persons have l^oen buried there. 


Sarah wife of John Dixon, March 31, 1842, 51 years. 
John Dixon, March 12, 1805, 75 years. 
John Anderson, March 4, I860, 65 years. 
David Wasson, December 9, 1850, 75 years. 
Barbara Hoover, wife of Peter Hoover, April 3, 1852, 

Peter Hoover, November 16, 1858, 82 years. 



Ostharine Law, December 7, 1852, 82 yeai-s. 
Lewis Blackman, Febraary 18, 1850, 62 years. 
Dayid Williamson, May 5, 1857, 7(i years. 
George Woodbury, Company H, Eighty-fourth Indiana, died 
at FrarAlin, Tenn., April 18,1863, 82 years. 

Priscilla, wife of John Anderson, January 17, 1863, 77 years. 
Flora, wife of David VVasson, December 21, 1805, 84 years. 
Nancy, wife of Benjamin Dixon, December 18, 1868, 67 

Ann, wife of Ezekiel Pritchard, March 18, 1870, 02 years. 
Samuel Downing, M. D., July 7, 1871, 06 years. 
Hannah, wife of Abraham Teeter, December 17, 1872, 90 

John M. Williamson, May 26, 1874, 62 years. 
John Louder, August 25, 1875, 70 years. 
Sarah Louder, March 3, 1874, 00 years. 
Abner Anderson, December 8, 1877, ()7 years. 


Ebenezer Walker, May 24, 1852. 77 years. 
Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Fansher, August 17, 1853, 05 

Daniel Culv*, Sr., April 16, 1854, 82 years. 

Samuel French, July 15, 1857, 07 years. 

Esther, wife of Samuel French, April 29, 1858, 67 years. 

Jacob Tramar, August 1 5, 1867, 03 years. 

Rpv. Jonathan Flood, October 22. 1807, 86 yeai-s. 

Joseph Gantz, May 18, 1870, 59 years. 

Jesge Harrison September 20, 1870, 02 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of J. H Smithson, February 10, 1872, 03 

Eobert McCracken, June 14, 1872, 01 years. 

Sarah, wife of above, December 9, 1874, 02 year.s. 

John S. Bunsold, June 10, 1873, 63 years. 

Edith, wife of T. M Silvers, August 13, 1873, 00 years. 

Malinda Green, November 11, 1874, 05 years. 

Julien Green, December 29, 1874, 72 years. 

Peter M. Silvers, December 17, 1875, 07 years. 

Jacob Bales, May 3, 1875, 70 yeara 

Eachel R., wife of above, July 28, 1875, 02 years. 

Mary, wife of Philip Wetzel, March 12, 1870, 00 years. 

Isaac Holloway, February 23, 1877, 80 yoara 

William Cortner, February 24, 1879, 89 years. 

Catharine, wife of David A. Green, September 3, 1879, 51 


Hl9, I 

E 18. 

Mary, wife of Col. John Hunt, Fleming County, Ky., April 
24, 1843, 74 years. 

HughBotkin, February 27, 1851, 00 years. 

Catharine Jonefi, March 4, 1851, 80 years. 

Sarah, wife of William B. Hunt, October 10, 1855, 85 years. 

Nancy Lamb, July 29, 1856, 87 years. 

John Lynch, March 31, 1857, 62 years. 

Jesse Gaines, November 11, 1859, 80 years. 

Lucy, wife of above, September 30, 1863, 81 years. 

Elizabeth Jones, July 11, 1859, 63 years. 

James F. Jones, husband of the above, Campbell County, 
Va., July 17, 1868, 81 years. 

Benjamin Harris, June 12, 1863, 75 years. 

John Harris, November 26, 1863, 73 years. 

Celia B.. wife of above, Aiigust 18, 1878, 74 years. 

William Z. Pascall, Company C, Ninth Indiana Cavalry, 
died at the hospital, Indianapolis, May 2, 1864,?19 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Jonathan Butler, -July 26, 1864, 81 years. 

Jonathan Butler, January 18, 1868, 92 years. 

Benjamin Edwards, July 30, 1865, 67 years. 

Jesse Z. Paschall, January 11, 1865, 70 years. 

William A. Lamb, April 8,1808, 05 years. 

Rev. Bazil Hunt, Fleming County, Ky., October 30, 1809, 
80 years. 

William Miller, born in Donegal County, Ireland, in 1804, 
and came to America in 1844; died March 2, 1809, 65 years. 

Mary, wife of William Cabei-son, July 27, 1870, 67 years. 

Nathan Garrett, October 7, 1871, 05 yeara. 

Benjamin G. Lamb, volunteered July 20, 1862, in Com- 
pany D, Sixty-ninth Indiana Regiment; discharged Juno 3, 1865, 
and died August 29, 1872, 33 years. 

William Harris, Campbell County, Va,, March 8, 1873. 70 

Jacob Ross, June 30, 1873, 81 years. 

Isaac Mann, August 3, 1874, 79 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Bela W. Cropper, October 80, 1875, 81 

Bela W. Cropper, died in 1874, Baptist preacher, 83 years. 
Rev. William Hunt, 1877, 8(i years. 

Laiu-a, wife of Stephen Haines, Jlarch 26, 1878, 73 years. 
James Vanlandigham, March 9, 1880, 09 years. 
Jericho (Wayne Township, Section 30, Town 20, Range 15). 
Rachel Buckingham, September 7, 1844, 70 years. 
Joshua Buckingham, October 15, 1854, 85 years. 
Mary, wife of Benoni Hill, May 12, 1856, 07 yeiurs. 
Benoni Hill, August 20, 1870, 82 vears. 
Hannah, wife of Thomas Wells, September 18, 1802, (il 

William Nixon, November 13, 1865, 84 years. 

Hannah, wife of Simon Cos, October 11, 18()5, 54 years. 

Amos Peacock, July 24, 1850, 63 years. 

Hannah, wife of Amos Peacock, September 8, 1867, 74 yoai-s. 

Benjamin Schooley, May 24, 1867, 78 years. 

Aaron K. Schooley, November 12, 1868' 77 yeai's. 

John J. Peacock, June 22,1868, 58 years. 

J-ohn Price, January 9, 1809, 05 years. 

Mariam Cox, wife of Joshua Cox, December 24, 1872, 74 

Solomon Hinshaw, February 2, 1872, 55 years. 

William B. Cox, April 13. 1873, 72 years. 

Henry Hill, May 2, 1874, 83 years. 

Avis (Woodard) Hill, August 15, 1875, 79 years. 

Amy, wife of Thomas North, April 22, 1875, 70 years. 

Thomas North, Juno 8, 1878, 77 years. 

Margaret, wife of William B. Cox, July 20, 1870, 75 years. 

Hannah, wife of James Smith, December 1, 1877, 75 years. 

Jericho is an old burial-ground. Very many graves have 
only rough, unmarked stones. Some have initials, with neither 
name, age nor date. Is it too late, even yet, to supply the lack 
and to betoken the resting-places of the dead, sacrod to affection :' 
It is surely something remarkable that a people like the Friends, 
BO kind, so loving, so affectionate, so full of veneration for the 
departed dear ones, so penetrated with sympathy for the afflicted, 
should have, in ages past, felt it incumbent upon them to deny 
to their worthy and lamented dead a fitting public memorial u( 
the spot of their burial, that the visitors to the sacred inclosuro, 
through generations long to come, may feel their hearts bound 
as by a solemn and indissoluble tie to the souls of all the noble 
and worthy dead that have fallen asleep in Jesiis since first the 
forest wilderness began to become the peaceful abode of civilized 
Christian men and women. And will they not be convinced at 
length that the gentle and tender spirit of Christian love by no 
means forbids, but on the other hand, requires and commands 
that the memory of the lamented and beloved dead shall he 
kept perpetually alive, not merely in the secret heart of the mourn- 
ing soul and bereaved comrades left behind, but also by suita- 
ble tokens, not costly and for vain show and display, but modest 
and appropriate, that future times may learn where lie the mortal 
remains of those who were, during their lives, honored and 

Johnson'' a Burying- Ground (Jackson Township, northea^-t 
quarter of Section 33, Town 18, Range 1). — Elizabeth (Simmons) 
Noffsingor, wife of John Noffsingor, born April 11, 1878; died 
February 3, 1867, 79 years. Her sons were Eli John, Jacob, 
Absalom, James, Samuel; her daughters were Cathai-ine, Susan, 
Elizabeth, Lydia. 

Mary Cromas, wife of Abraham Cromas, October 31, 1849, 
59 years. 

Abraham Cromas, March 3, 1858, 02 years. 



William Goodman, 1870, 84 years. 

Mrs. Jacob Johnson died in the winter of 1880-81, very old. 

Jacob Johnson, August, 1881, 87 yeare. 

John Johnson, about 1878, 88 years; probably buried here; 
no tombstone, however, boon erected. 

Liberti/ (two and one-half miles north of Bloom ingsport, Sec- 
tion 32, Town 19, Eange 14).— William Rockhill. February 27, 
1852, 00 years, Brumfield, August 11, 1855, 57 years. 

Jacob B. Mills, bom July 27, 17'J8, and died May 14, 1858, 

Ezra Vandegi-iff, March 15, I860, fi4 years. 

Daniel B. Johnson, November 3, 1801, Company C, Nine- 
teenth Indiana, 20 years. 

Hem-y Braroley, November 14, 1802, 00 years. 

Letitia, wife of John Wood, November 8, 1803, 02 years. 

Jane, wife of J. B. Mills, born February 22, 1789, and died 
September 1, 1804, 70 years. 

Mary, wife of Pleasant Bales, December 31, 1804, 55 

Pleasant Bales, February 8, 1,S65, 54 years. 

George W. Daly, February 17, 1868, 75 years. 

Christian Rush, April 1, 1808, 05 years. 

James Abshire, bjrn August 1, 1777, and died July 18, 1808, 
91 years. 

Thomas Gordon, October 3, 1808, 02 .years. 

John John.son, February 11, 1871, 58 years. 

John N. Smith, September 11, 1873, 70 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Aaron Ballard, February 2, 1874, 7<l years. 

Little Creek (Maulsby's, Nettle Creek Township, Section 13, 
Town 18, Range 12).— Rachel Street, November 1, 1864, 09 years. 

Mary, wife of Thomas Maulsby, December 9, 1870, 02 years. 

Sarah, wife of Hicks K. Wright, August 5, 1874, 03 years. 

Hicks K. Wright, April 10, 1875, 03 years. 

Thomas Maulsby, Januaiy 19, 1878, 73 years. 

Cemeterij South of LosanfvUle (Section 10, Town 18, Range 
12).— Charles Johason, October 22, 1832 (earliest date), 13 years. 

Joseph Burroughs, September 13, 1837; not given. 

William Crouse, November 30. 1838, 75 years. 

Robert Lumpkin, November 12, 1842, 80 years. 

Jesse Sisk, April 10, 1845, 68 years. 

Catharine, wife of William Crouse, March 15, 1840, 75 years. 

Pheriba, wife of Nathan Sisk, August, 1847, 73 years. 

Joseph Johnson, March 26, 1848, 02 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Robert Lumi)kin. August 3, 1848,82 years. 

Joseph Bookout, August 13, 1855, 09 years. 

Paulin Seagrave, May 7, 1857, 02 years. 

Reuben Johnson, December 18, 1S58, 08 years. 

John Burroughs, September 6, 1802, 70 years. 

Mary, wife of Hosea Sisk, Juno 0, 1.S03, 00 years. 

Mary, wife of Reuben Johnson, August 11, 18(53, 69 years. 

Mary, wife of Jesse Oxley, July 22, 1804, 08 ycais. 

Sarah, wife of Joseph Bookout, March 20, 1872, 70 years. 

Richard Vanlandigham, May 20, 1872, 72 years. 

Damaris, wife of Jesse Chambers, January 3, 1870, 05 years. 

Charles BmToughs, March 10, 1870. S2 years. 

f.ijini— Friends (Washington Township, Section 11, Town IS, 
Range 14). --Samuel Peirson, March 14, 1837, 79 years. 

David Kenworthy, May 22, 1JS43, 72 years. 

Elizabeth Benson, January 31, 1844, 77 years. 

Phebe, wife of Samuel Peirson, January 3, 184S, 80 years. 

Moses Farmer, January 23, 1849, 83 years. 

Hannah Beard, June 2, 1851, 72 y(3ars. 

Sarah Farmer, September IG, ]S53, S3 years. 

Paul Beard, Sr., March 14, 1857, 77 years. 

Obadiah Harris, Jr., March 5, 1858, 84 years. 

Leroy Davis, October 15, 1859, 01 years. 

John Moody, October 29. 1800, 72 years. 

Mary Moody, September 7, 1802. 00 ycai's. 

Thomas Clevinger, November 20, 1800, 08 years. 

Isaac Moody, August 3, 18()9, 73 years. 

Jen'netta, wife of Lerov Davis, January 28, 1871. 80 years. 

PermeHa, wife of M. B. (Julphur, March 24, 1872, 73 years. 

Elizabeth H Piatt, November 11, 1874, 04 years. 

Reuben Farmer, February 25, 1874, 69 years. 

Mary, wife of Thomas Clevinger, June 3," 1875. 75 years. 

Agatha, wife of Joho B. Picket, July 29, 1875, 02 years. 

Millicent Moody, December 8, 1876, 00 years. 

Aaron Rich, July 4, 1877, 71 years. 

Note —Lynn Graveyard is an ancient burial-place, and con- 
tains the dust of many of the pioneers of Randolph; but rough 
stones, or none at all, show whore some of these aged fathers and 
mothers lie. 

Woodlawn {new, Maxville Township, Green W. Williams, pro- 
prietor; 258 lota Location, north side of the pike, opposite the 
.,,,.,,„ . ^j Maxville; recorded January 15, 

, east half of Section 20, Town 20, 
wnship). — Jesse Pursley> December 4, 

old Maxville Cemetery, i 

MnxviUe (old and i 
Range 13, White River 
1862, 87 years. 

Robison Mclntyre, September 15, 1871, 85 years. 

Mary Mclntyre, October, 1854, 73 years. 

Rebecca Mills, October 11, 1872, 78 years. 

Morgan Mills, April 30, 1878, 84 years. 

Armsbee Diggs, March 9, 1872, 72 years. 

Mary Digga, November 14, 1872, 72 years. 

Tarlton Moorman, December 30, 1875, 93 years. 

Peter S. Miller, January 5, 1876, 67 years. 

John Smnwalt, October 10, 1876_, 90 years. 

Mary, wife of Solomon Mason, 18/8, 71 years. 

Maxville Cemetery would seem to be an ancient burial- 
ground, though, for some reason, but few old persons have tomb- 
stones therein. One would suppose that many more have been 
deposited beneath this hallowed ground, but the earth gives no 

Cemetery Weat of Majcville (near the tf)ll-gate. Section 20, 
Town 20, Range 12).— Margaret, wife of Thomas Watson, March 
18, 1853, 88 years. 

Elizabeth Swain, December 30, 1859, 04 years. 

Miller's Biiri/ing-Groinid (Schoolhouse No. 0, Wai'd Town- 
ship, northeast quarter of Section 23, Town 21, Range 14). — 
Lucy Ann Poormau, wife of John Poorman, September 2, 1875, 

Joseph Dollar, December 15, 1809, 09 years. 

Kindred Smiley, buried at No. 6, Schoolhouse; no toralj- 

John Brannoman. buried in the summer of 1880, 82 years; no 

ML ZioH (White River Township, Section 2, Town 19, Range 
14).— Thomas Butts, August 8, 1848. 70 years. 

W. E. Fitzgerald, February 15, 1851, 105 years. Revolu- 
tionary soldier. 

Sarah Fitzgerald, September 7, 1851, 92 years. 

Josiah Pennington, January 5, 1852, 79 years. 

Alley Pennington, November 2, 1855, 76 years. 

Rachel Shockney, September 8, 1855, 67 years. 

Susannah, wife of John Haas, August, 1857, 60 years. 

Sarah Shockney, October 17, 1862, 59 yeai's. 

Charles Shockney, April 7, 1803. 05 years. 

James H. Surface, August 1, 1863, 20 years. Company C. 
Si.xty-ninth Indiana Regiment. 

Jacob L. Fudge, September 8, 1867, 63 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of John Ousler, July 7, 1856, 68 yeare. 

John Ousler, May 17, 1852, 74 years. 

Samuel Shockney, September 23, 1 859, 00 years. 

Catharine, wife of Valentine Oyler, July 17, 1873, 79 years. 

Valentine Oyler, March 19, 1852, 69 years. 

John M. Lucas, August 22, 1869, 00 years. 

William Kennedy, December 21. 1876, 77 years. 

William Shockney, July 3, 1.S75; 75 years. 

John M. Bishop, January 2, 1874, 81 years. 

Note— W. E. Fitzgerald, 105 years old, was killed by falling 
from a load of oats that he had loaded himself. He was strong 
and sprightly, though so old, and, except for this accident, might 
have survived for years. Mrs. William Kennedy died in the 
spring of 1881, 84 years. 



Sarah, wife of John M. Bishop, November 1,1880, 62 years. 

Hannah Ireland, February 3, 1864, 63 years. 

Elam Ireland, October 31, 1875, 80 years. 

"William Eobison, August 29, 1874, 72 years. 

Catharine, wife of Peter Forbep, July 12, 1870, 85 years. 

Abel Hinshaw, June 11, 1876, 77 years. 

Daniel Moore, August 30, 1876, 63 years. 

Susan C. Neil, September 28, 1876, 79 years. 

Jerusha Stine, October 3, 1876, 66 years. 

James W. Stine, October 16, 1876, 64 years. 

A^eJT" (near poor-house, Section 33, Town 20, Range 14). — 
Susannah, wife of Charles Summers, September 15, 1847, 85 

Dennis Kelly, March 29, 1849, 64 years. 

Susannah, wife of John Nefi^ October 5, 1854, 80 years. 

John Neff, SeptemVier 25, 1856, 85 years. 

Mary, wife of Dermis Kelly, September 15, 1866, 77 years. 

Polly, wife of Jacob A. White, January 7, 1878, 75 years. 
Mrs. Thomas Johnson (sister of Col. H. a Neff), August, 1881, 
old. The above would seem to be rather a private family ground, 
belonging to the Neffs and their friends, though some of that 
name are buried elsewhere. 

New Dayton (Bear Creek Graveyard) White Eiver Township, 
Section 35, Town 21, Range 13; size, 122 square rods; John Ray, 
proprietor; number of lots, thirty-five; recorded September 25, 
1872. Bear Creek Graveyard, second addition, John Ray, pro- 
prietor; number of lots, 110; Section 35, Town 21, Range 13; 
recorded August 11, 1877.— Maj. Brown, April 7, 1855, 63 years. 

Catharine, wife of Maj. Brown, April 15, 1855, 71 years. 

William Piatt, August 28, 1861, 75 years. 

John N. Gettle, Sr., March 29, 1862, 77 years. 

Esther, wife of James Stanley, November 22, 1862, 67 years. 

John Addington, Company A, Eighty-fourth Indiana, Septem- 
ber 12, 1864, 23 years. 

Dorcas, wife of W. R. Addington, September 8, 1869, 60 years. 

William R. Addington, October 5, 1875, 73 years. 

Francis Bergwitz, August 16, 1872, 80 years. 

David Booher, March 16, 1874, 76 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Walter Ruble, November 11, 1874, 68 yeai-s. 

Jane, wife of Salathiel Dodd, February 25, 1875, 76 years. 

Robert Stephen, December 29, 1875, 61 years. 

Joshua Mattbie, September 25, 1875, 62 years. 

John K. Puckett, xMarch 7, 1876. 73 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of George W. Smithson, April 4, 1876, 80 years. 

John Winship, September 7, 1876, 82 years. 
—-Elizabeth, wife of Luke Hollowell, October 8, 1877, 62 years. 

Margaret Manser, December 5, 1877, 77 years. 

Walter Ruble, December 8, 1878, 89 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Joshua Maltbie, June 29, 1879, 55 years. 

New Lisbon (new, Charles Trine, President Lisbon Cemetery 
Company; 601 lots; Section 11, Town IS, Range 1, across the 
pike from tlie Lisbon Church, in Jackson Township; recorded 
October 5, 1875. 

Note — -The old cemetery is a short distance south of the new 
one, and on the other (the east) side of the highway. 

A'^eu) Lisbon (Disciples,' Jackson Township, Sections 11 and 
12, Town 18, Range 1).— Julia Sutton, October 1, 1849, 55 years. 

Cornelius Sutton, bom June 20, 1780, and died August 30, 
1859, 79 years. 

Mary Boles, November 26, 1850, 76 years. 

George Debolt, June 20, 1853, 60 years. 

RachelDebolt, December 30, 1861, 65 years. 

James Ferrill, October 3, 1854, 72 years. 

Elizabeth Ferrill, March 26, 1857, 73 years. 

Samuel W. Hughes, January 5, 1856, 72 years. 

Rachel Wickersham, September 15, 1855, 70 years. 

James Wickersham, October 7, 1873, 93 years. 

Rev. Thomas Wiley, September 23, 1862, 52 years. 

Rachael Banta, February 6, 1863, 59 years. 
"^ David Banta, October 6', 1867, 71 years. 

Betsey Lambert, January 26, 1865, 74 years. 

Jonathan Lambert, bom January 15, 1819, and died Sep- 
tember 24, 1869, 71 yeara 

Andrew Stone, Febmary 2, 1866, 81 years. 

Peter Yeiser, March 27, 1867, 65 years. 

Mary Yeiser, January 29, 1871, 72 years. 

Lucinda Thomson, wife of J. Thomson, October ' 24, 1876, 
64 years. 

James Reeves, 1874; old; ten children, six living. 

Norwich (old Quaker, near C. Crist's, southeast of Spartans- 
burg, Section 15, Town 16, flange 1). — This cemetery was estab- 
lished in 1825, and is still in use for purposes of burial. A 
large number have been interred here, but only a few old persons 
have tombstones, as follows: 

Aaron Adams, 70 years. 

Esther Miers, 1870, not given. 

Samuel Ruby, not old. 

James Moore, October, 1875, 99 years. 

Hannah, wife of James Moore, April 20, 1869, 85 years. 

John Randle (colored), September 27, 1881, 85 years. 

Windsor Wiggs, 1856, 63 years. 

Sarah, wife of Windsor Wiggs, August 4, 1881, 84 years. 

Like some other cemeteries in this region, it lies in the midst 
of a farm, nearly half a mile from any public highway, and with 
no avenue of entrance. 

Peacock Graveyard (one and a half miles northeast of Jericho 
Meeting-house, Section 30, Town 20, Range 15). — Abram Pea- 
cock, 1833, over 70 years. 

Aaron Hill, 1855, over 80 years. 

Amy Cox, 1850, over 80 years. 

David Lyle, 1850, over 60 years. 

Mrs. Rhoads, 1850, very old. 

Rebecca Manor, daughter of old Mrs. Rhoads, 1825; old. 

Note — This yard has no tombstones, and George and Ase- 
nath Thomas gave me the above from memory, and the statements 
are only approximations, and possibly not very close ones at that. 
The burial-ground is private, and only a few have ever been 
deposited therein. 

New Pittsburg (Jackson Township, Section 6, Town 21, Range 
15).— Archibald McFarland, June 10, 1850, 77 years. 

Mary, wife of ArchibaldMcFarland,May 10, 1857, 81 years. 

William Simmons, March 24, 1849, 51 years. 

Mary, wife of William Simmons, December 5, 1860, 53 years. 

Esther Marsh, wife of Jesse Marsh, December 10, 1856, 56 

Phebe, wife of Arthur Trew, December 12, 1857, 79 years. 

Nancy Fields, wife of Lanceford Fields, February 22, 1861, 
52 years. 

Lansford Fields, May 11, 1866, 66 years. 

John Stick, October 27, 1867, 79 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of John Albright, February 6, 1871, 61 years. 

Susannah McFarland, wife of Joseph McFarland, April 26, 
1872, 58 years. 

Joseph McFarland, November 6, 1879, 62 years. 

Julian Stick, wife of Casper Stick, May 1, 1876, 66 years. 

Silas Richards, July 7, 1878, 58 years. 

Thomas Croyle, early settler, buried in the old cemetery; re- 
interred in the new; no stone; very old. 

Nunnamaker, soldier in the war of 1812; drew pension; died 
in the summer of 1880, 84 years. There is an old cemetery near 
Pittsburg, but it is out of repair and not in use, and we do not 
know whether any tombstones are there or not, since, in fact, we 
did not discover its precise location. 

Pleasant Hill (east of Salem, Jackson Township, Section 3, 
Town 21, Range 15). —William Cline, August 23, 1853, 107 years. 

Bell Woten, May 17, 1856, 91 years. 

Demas Lindley, November 29, 1857, 73 years. 

Jane, wife of William Cline, January 27, 1862, 61 yeara 

Henry Dehny, August 26, 1863, 83 years. 

Thomas P. Smith, December 30, 1863, 73 years. 

Mary, wife of Thomas Peden, October 14, 1866, 56 years. 

Thomas Peden, April 12, 1868, 76 years. 

Susanna, wife of Demas Lindley, July 2, 1869, 72 years. 

Mary, wife of Henry Denney, April 30, 1870, 63 years. 

Rev. Tyler Weld, July 6, 1870, 61 years. 

Stephen Marine, June 14, 1870, 67 years. 



Barbara, wife of J. Zeiler, April ;:i, 1871, 05 years. 

James Lambert, Ootober 16, 1S7J, 03 years. 

John Moore, January 15, 1872, 03 years. 

Charles Simmons, bom March 20, 179St, and died March 10, 

Catharine, wife of Abraham Walters, May ID, 1875, 88 years. 

John Lindley, September 5, 1 875, 00 years. 

John Zeiler, October 3, 1877, 74 yoare. 

James G. Constable, March 8, 1878, 68 years. 

Nancy, wife of James G. Constable, December 28, 1879, 00 

Nancy, wife of Thomas Devor, Febi-uary 0, 1880, 08 years. 

Cemetery one and a half miles north of Farmland, Section 1, 
Town 20, Eange 12.— John Cox, Au^st 13, 1800, 90 years. 

Leven Cox, August 17, 1876, 78 years. 

Peter Heater, very old; no stone. 

Pleasant Ridge (West River Township, Section 15, Town 19, 
Range 15, was laid out about 1842, by John Jenkins. The first 
burial was a child of John and Frances Jenkins October 30, 
1842, child 4 years. The interments in these grounds have been 
few). — Frances C. S. Jenkins, wife of John Jenkins, January 3, 
1877, 06 years. 

John Kepler, January 24, 1 848, 85 years. 

Isabelle Shearer, Pebruai-y 10, 1853, 70 years. 

Mrs. Kepler, very old. This cemetery is connected with a Pres- 
byterian Ohm-ch, established some thirty-five or forty years ago. 
The edifice is still standiag in the graveyard, but no worship has 
been held therein for many, many years. 

Poplar Run — Friends (Stony Creek Township, northwest 
ouarter of Section 12, Town 19, Range 12). --John Diggs, Jan- 
uary 22, 1803, 00 years. 

Catharine Diggs, October 29, 1 807, 04 years. 

Frederic A. Pettibone, February 2, 1874, 73 years. 

Mark Diggs, June 14, 1878, 79 years. 

Henry W. Moore, May 9, 1879, 75 years; no stone. 

Solomon Hanscom, 00 years. 

Margaret Hanscom, 60 years. 

Restore Lamb, age not given. 

Prospect (Ward Township, Section 24, Town 21, Range 14, 
east of Deertield). --Mary Cooper, wife of Ezekiel Cooper, Janu- 
ary 20, 1846, 81 years. 

John Witt, September 28, 1847, 67 years. 

Mary Pogue, wife of William Pogue, December 30, 1854, 
73 yeai-8. 

William Pogue, March 12, 1856, 76 yeai-s. 

Mary, wife of E. Bragg, November 3, 1857, 53 years. 

Mary, wife of W. Bragg, July 10, 1858, 74 years. 

Nancy, wife of Michael Bannon, February 1 2, 1863, 09 years. 

Michael Bannon, February 3, 1870, 82 years. 

Ahaz Cartwright, August 20, 1863, 77 years. 

Susan, wife of Walter Smiley, September 11, 1805, 04 years. 

Salome, wife of John Sarff, September 13, 1809, 69 years. 

Abraham Harshman, September 15/ 1868, ()8 years. 

Susan, wife of Robert Pogue, March 10, 1871, 05 years. 

Nancy Ann, wife of Daniel B. Miller, December 18, 1872, 
07 years. 

James Warren, June 27, 1876, 92 years. 

Judge Daniel B. Miller, spring of 1881, 83 years. 

Milly.wife of Perry Fields, February, 1881, age not given. 

Reuben Harshman, spring of 188], age not given. 

William Sizemore, 1877, 90 years. 

Esther Sizemore, 185(.», 60 years. 

Jodiah Sizemore, 65 to 70 years. 

It is rather remarkable that in u cemetery so old and so cel- 
ebrated as Prospect, no more monuments of Glderly''person8 are 
found. Whether it is because few are buried there, or because 
the placing of memorial stones has been neglected, we cannot 

An old Cemetery; many graves; few tombstones; many old 
settlers douljtless lie sleeping beneath the gi'assy sod, but no 
human eye can designate the spots whore they respectively wait 
the last groat day. 

Rehoboth (four miles northwest of Farmland, Section 2, 

Town 20, Range 12). — Minors L. Fowler, March 9, 1803, Com- 
pany C, Nineteenth Indiana, age not given. 

George Cowgill, June 15, 1865, 72 years. 

Rhoda, wife of Philip Lykens, April 27, 1860, 71 years. 

Colia, wife of George Cowgill, July 2, 1807, 82 years. 

Margaret Brinkley, September 13, 1871, 58 years. 

Abram Grove, Septoml^r 29, 1870, 72 years. 

Jacob Windermaker, no stone, died perhaps in 1805, 75 years. 

Mr. Chessman, no stone, died perhaps in 1806, 75 or 80 years. 

Ri(l(jcrillc (east of town, new, Franklin Township, Section 

12, Town 21, Range 13).— Peter Dailey, January 10, 1S79, 71 

Pennell Mendenhall, April 10, 1871, ago not given. 

Hugh Williamson, October 26,1873, 73 yeax-s. 

Mary Anna Williamson, May 2, 1878, 73 years. 

Nancy, wife of Peter Dailey, August 21, 1877, 81 years. 

The old Ridgeville Graveyard is in disuse and neglected. 
Most of the interments in the region are made in Ritenour's 
Cemetery, as the oldest and most carefully kept burial-ground 
in the region. One would have supposed that a place settled 
as long as the vicinity of Ridgeville has been, would have had 
a carefully preserved cemetery, dating back from the olden time. 
Such seems, however, to be not the fact. Indeed, the extensive 
settlement of the neighborhood was accomplished only much later 
than the original entry into that wilderness by the Lewallyns, 
the Kizers and the Wards. The old graveyard at Ridgeville ap- 
pears to have been uusuitablo, and, therefore, little used, and the 
new one has been opened for interments only for a short time. 

Ritmours (west of Deerfield, Section 18, Town 21, Range 
14. Addition to the old one, size, 90x120 feet; number of lots, 
forty-four; location, between Deertiold and Ridgeville, south 
side of Mississinowa River, by the old chapel ; recorded Octol>er 

13, 1865. Ritenour's Addition, soveuty-two lots; size, 80x242 
feet; recorded Octoljor 23, 1806).— Edward McKow, Juno 29, 
1850, 88 yeai-s. 

Aquila Loveall, 1851, 67 years. 

John Way, March 10, 1851, 90 years. 

Charles Sumption, February 10, 1852, 01 years. 

Susanna, wife of Philip Rarick, Sr., January 30, 1853, 71 

Catharine, wife of Edward McKew, December 16, 1858, 03 

Patience, wife of Jacob Clark, February 12, 1859, 66 years. 
Elizabeth, wife of Burkott Pierce, February 17, 1859, 62 

Elizabeth, wife of George Ritenour, December 4, 1859, 09 

' Ezekiel Roe, June 20, 1800. 73 years. 

John Woodbiu-y, May 10, 1800, 71 years. 

Joseph Berry, September 3, 1862, 89 years. 

James Q. Odle, Company C, Thirty-ninth Indiana Regiment, 
wounded atShiloh, Tenn., and died June 18, 1802, 22 yeai-s. 

Elizabeth, wife of Ezekiel Roe, October 9, 1802, 07 years. 

Barbara, wife of Joseph Berry, September 9, 1803, 83 years. 

Eve, wife of Robert Parsons, September 10, 1863, 78 vears. 

Robert Parsons, October 18, 1803, 89 years. 

Elizaljeth, wifeof George Ritenour, August 27, 1864, 69 years, 

Granbcrry B, Nickey, Seventh Indiana Cavalry, died at Mem- 
phis April 7, 1804, 28 years. 

John Willy, March 12, 18fU, 71 years. 

George Meek, June J 7, 1804, 78 years. 

Mary, wife of Josei)h S. Baker, November 27, 1805, 63 years. 

Mildred, wife of George Ritenour, August 29, 18()5, 71 years. 

Sarah, wife of John Kinneai', March 12, 1807, 75 years! 

Margaret, wife of Josiah St. John, October 28, 1868, 76 years. 

Hannah, wife of Robert Starbuck, April 8, 1869. 

Catharine, wife of Michael Wimar, December 28, 1800, 07 

Michel, wife of Adam Hollowell, April 10, 1870, 88 years. 

Sarah, wife of William Shoemaker, Sr., August 12, 1871, 75 

live, wife of J. P. Ulrich, bom in Baden Everstadt, Eiirope, 
in 1807, and died December 10, 1871, 65 yeai-s. 



Joseph Lewis, February 14, 1872, 6") years. 

John P. Champe, August 14, 1872, 6-") years. 

Samuel E. Turner, October 2, 1870, 71 years. 

Christena, wife of James Hester, Januaiy 9, 1873, 72 years 

Catharine Clapp, December 19, 1873, 03 years. 

Samuel Sipe, January 18, 1874, 75 years. 

Abigail, wife of A. Collins, March 17, 1874, 71 years. 

Mercy, wife of Joseph Lewis, April 13, 1874, 08 years. 

Christian Heaston, April 18, 1874, 07 years. 

Isabella, wfe of Christian Nickey, December 30, 1874, 70 

Elizabeth, wife of George E. Thompson, December 20, 187G, 
70 years. 

David Kiddlesbarger, January 29, 1876, 81 years. 

Sarah, wife of Joseph Elliot,' May 24, 1870, 02 years. 

John Fetters. May 13, 1870, 07 years. 

William Dail, June 0, 1870, 63 years. 

Daniel Mull, September 22, 1877, 00 years. 

Christopher T. Henisaor, September 13, 1870, 07 years. 

James HaJl, April 5, 1880, 81 years. 

George Ritenour, no stone, very old. 

Andrew Ritenour, no stone, very old. 

Mrs. Andrew Ritenour, 1879, no stone, very old. 

Isabella, wife of Ephraim Jellison, October 2, 1841, 03 years. 

Ephraim Jellison, May 8, 1840, 73 years. 

John Vaughn, September 31, 1804, 09 years. 

Thomas Jellison, September 20, 1804, 06 years. 

Rebecca Jellison, wife of Thomas Jellison, March 28, 1804, 
06 years. 

Frederica, wife of Martin Heniser, February 12, 1877, 70 

Sarah, wife of Christian Heaston, April 18, 1874, 07 years. 

A Mr. Clawson is thought to have been the first burial in Rite- 
nour' s cemetery, dute not known. In 1830, it had come f« be 
extensively used. Perhaps 200 persons had by that time been 
laid to rest there, from the whole region for eight or ten miles 
around, and, perhaps, farther even than that 

SaUm (on boundary near Swain's Hill, Section 32, Town li). 
Range 13). — Catharine, wife of PVedorick Zimmerman, March 
7, 1850, 80 years. 

Frederick Zimmerman, died in 1835; don't know whore ho 
was buried, no age given. 

Barton Andrews, November 14, 1 850, 64 years 

Elizabeth Tallman, January 5, 1.S57, 73 years. 

James Tallman, husband of the above, Februaiy 4, 1857, 
74 years, 

Lieut Salathiel D. Colvin. in the battles of Shiloh and Stone 
River; wounded at Chickaraauga, and died at Chattanooga Oc- 
tober 9, 1863, 36 years. 

Rachel Andi-ews, September 29, 1807, 09 years; an earnest 

Joseph Macy, February 18, 1809, 60 years. 

Jonathan W. Hunt, November 8, 1873, 59 years. 

Nancy, wife of Albert Macy, July 24, 1874, 97 years. 

John C. Retz, August 4, 1870, 06 years. 

Hardy Evans, March 18, 1877, 77 years. 

Sarah E.. wife of William Browne, 73 years. 

Saratoga (Ward Tovraship, Section 0, Town 20, Range 15; 
James T. Evans, proprietor; 110 lots; recorded June 9, 1874). 
— Ann, wife of John A. Warren, April 21, 1878, 03 years. 

Mary, wife of John R. Warren, October, 1879, 52 years. 

David Almonrodo, June, 1880, 65 years. 

Hiram Gillnm, July 27, 1871, 07 years. 

Mary Ann, wife of John A. Bransz, March 10, 1875, 02 

Elizabeth wife of E. C. Hendrickson, February 5, 1876, 00 

Saratoga Cemetery is new, the town itself having had an 
existence only a few years. 

Slieets'' Graveyard (near Union City, Section 28, Town 18, 
Range 1 ).— Lydia, wife of A. Sinks, April 24, 1858, 62 years. 

Peter Weimar, August 31, 1859, 60 years. 

Never much used, and now lying in the comer of a field. 

wholly neglected, the stones lying broken and prostrate on the 
ground, a sad sight, a forsaken, forgotten graveyard, left to the 
weeds or the ruthless plow desecrating the hallowed soil. 

Snow Hill (Washington Township, Section 23, Town 19, 
Range 16). — John Hinshaw June 18, 1856, 72 years. 

Margaret, wife of John Hinshaw, Febniary 17, 1860, 69 years. 

Isaac Robbins, October 22, 1805, 72 years. 

Samuel Hiatt, March 12, 1800, 01 years. 

John N. Denckson, November 7, 1876, 09 years. 

Originally in connection with a Methodist Church, but that 
has been gone for many years. 

Sparroiv Creek (north of Buena Vista; Section 33, Town 20, 
Range 14).- — This graveyard is much out of repair. Few tomb- 
stones are found. Daniel Beals' grave is there, who was 
quite aged. Several Addingtons lie there, but no gravestones, 
except Daniel Beals,' show an age beyond sixty years. Many 
graves appear, but nearly all have only rough stones, without 
any mark or definite token. A Friends' Meeting-House was once 
hero, but it has been gone for forty years or more. The ceme- 
tery has an old fence around it, but the only way of access is 
through an old field, and it is, perhaps, fifty rods from the high- 

Spartavshnrg (Greensfork Township, Section 10, Town 16, 
Range 1). -Ephraim Bowen, Sr., August 20, 1858, 89 years. 

Hannah Bowen, September ], 1844, 67 years. 

Elizabeth Ranney, September 7, 1859, 72 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Abram Manning, February 16, 1862, 09 

Caleb Manning, August 22, 1864, 64 years. 

Mary Jackson, August 5, 1803, 00 years. 

Hosea Knox, January 3, 1809, 73 years. 

Jesse Manning, 4, 1871, 75 years. 

John McKim, May 20, 1873, 61 years. 

Mary, wife of Thomas Hough, July 1, 1873, ijO years. 

James M. Bailey, October 22, 1873, 04 years. 

Margaret, wife of Philip Hulvey, Aiigust 21, 1874, 73 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of William Sasser, January 1, 1877, 64 yeai-s. 

Mary Ann Patchin, February 27, 1879, 05 years. 

Edward Jackson, February 20, 1879, 79 years. 

Steuhenville (Green Township, Section 13, Town 21, Range 
12).— Benjamin Morris, March 28, 1840, 88 years. 

Moses Meek, March 22, 1846, 75 years. 

Hannah, wife of Moses Meek, September 1. 1802, SO yeai>i. 

William P. Gray. November 7, 1860, 72 years. 

Mary, wife of William P. Gray, October 18, 1801, 72 yeai-s. 

Hannah, wife of John Dull, January 3, 1870, 50 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Zebulon Cantrell, July 2, 1872, 01 years. 

A church was built here in early times, but never finished, 
nor used for worehip. 

Swinghj (cno and a half miles southeast of Windsor, Stony 
Creek Township; Section 32, Town 20, Range 12).— Catharine, 
wife of Christian See, August 18, 1830, 49 years. 

Mary, wife of Elias King, March 1, 1845, 68 j'ears. 

Jane, wife of Moses Neely, March 26, 1848, 62 years. 

Agnos, wife of Henry Jones, July 26, 1848, 60 yeiirs. 

Moses Neely, April 3, 1853, 72 years. 

Margaret Clevinger, Januai-y 20, 1807, 70 years. 

Samuel Cloviuger, Sr., June 7, 1807, 81 years, soldier of 
1812 probably. 

Daniel Kegen-ies, bom May 25, 1800, and died September 4, 
1808, 02 years. 

Jacob Helm, September 10, 1809, 05 years. 

Mary A, wife of Dani<il Kegerries, November 0, 1874, 58 years. 

Soldier, no name nor stone. 

Tlwrnburg (Hardshaw Township, Section 4, Town 20, Range 
12). — Abram Clevinger, very old; Eunice, wife of the above, 
very old. We learned but little concerning the above burial 
ground. It was once with a Friends' Meeting- House, but the 
meeting was " laid down" (discontinued), and the graveyard has 
been but little in use for many years. We did not succeed in 
making it a visit. That is the only one (so far as we are aware) 
to which we failed to give a personal examination, being prevented 
therefrom by unavoidable circumstances. 



Union Baptist {Colored) (southeast of Pleasant View, Section 
13, Town 19, Range 12).— Amy, wife of Robert Scott, 18f54, 
84 years. 

Robert Scott, buried at Dunkirk in 1848, 78 years. 

Betsy Stafford, very old. 

Rev. Samuel Jones, 62 years, Baptist, 

Isom Davis, 70 years. 

George Smith, old. 

Betsy Jones, very old. 

Wells White, old. 

Jacob Boone, very old. 

Charity Boone, 80 years. 

Note — No stones; graveyard neglected. 

Vnimi (two miles south of Windsor, Section 5, Town 20, 
Range 12) — Drummond Smithson, December 31, 1844, born 
July 12, 1754; one year old when the old French war broke out; 
twenty-two years old (lacking eight days), at the signing of the 
" immortal declaration, " died aged 90 years. 

Mary, wife of Drummond Smithson, January 16, 1851, 97 years. 

John Fletcher, August 20, 1854, 60 years. 

John B. Sample, August 23, 1854, 64 years. 

William Moore, October 7, 1855, 88 years. 

Winney, wife of William Moore, October 17, 1855, 95 years. 

John Fettars, December 30, 1859, 59 years. 

John M. Driskill, Company B, Thirty-sixth Indiana, died at 
Nelson's Furnace, Ky., February 20, 1862, 25 years, 

Simon Driskill, died at Nashville, Tenn., March 25, 1862, 
23 years. 

William S. Driskill, Company B, Thirty-sixth Indiana, 
December 31, 1862, 21 years, 

Mary, wife of William Jackson, February 17, 1864, 63 years. 

Mary B., wife of Samuel B. Clevenger, May 24, 1864, 55 yeai-s. 

Alexander Campbell, May 19, 1865, 61 years. 

Mary, wife of John Fetters, October 7, 1865, 63 years. 

Samuel B. Clevenger, November 30, 1865, 64 years. 

Solomon Faulkner, bom June 26, 1799, and died August 
25, 1867, 68 years. 

Elizabeth Wolfe, wife of Michael Wolfe, November 4, 1867, 
72 years. 

Catharine, wife of Wesley Clevinger, September 20, 1868, 
60 years. 

John A. Clevinger, May 25, 1869, 43 years. 

Jinzy, wife of William Moore, January 27, 1870, 74 years. 

Michael Wolfe, born March 18, 1791, and died March 21, 
1870, 79 years. 

Susannah, wife of E. T. Thomburg, November 4, 1872, 
60 years. 

Rev. Samuel Hardesty, February 11, 1873, 44 years. 

Wesley Clevinger, June 8, 1873, 67 years! 

Rebecca, wife of Isaac Ambiirn, June 28, 1873, 76 years. 

John Dudley, March 24, 1874, 83 years. 

Mary, wife of Ira E. Smithson, July 13, 1874, 75 years. 

William B. Thomburg, December 20, 1874, 33 years. 

Sarah, wife of Samuel O'Donald, January 23, 1875, 70 years. 

John Parker, February 16, 1875, 82 years. 

Samuel O'Donald, May 0, 1875, 71 years, 

Margaret, wife of James Neely, June 20, 1875, 64 years. 

James Neely, March 8, 1876, 67 years. 

John N. Odle, November 3, 1876, 54 years. 

John W. Dudley, December 2, 1876, 34 years. 

Mahlon Clevinger, February 20, 1877, 60 years. 

Docia, wife of John Dudley, February 3, 1878, 77 yeai-s. 

Elder George W. Terrell, March 22, 1878, 74 years. 

Henry Pool, August 30, 1878, 43 years. 

Margaret, wife of Amos Smith, November 3, 1879, 76 years. 

Ruth, wife of Solomon Faulkner, bom August 21, 1808, 
and died June 2, 1881, 73 years. 

Three soldiers, no name nor stone. 

At the first grave in Union Cemetery, Mr. Clevinger, then a 
young man, stuck into the ground a sprig of a tree, and the sprig 
is growing still, a pretty large tree. Union Cemetery is large, 
finely situated, and well cared for, and it seems to be extensively 

Union Chapel (west of Bloomingsport, Section 11, Town IS, 
Range 13);— Ann, wife of Isaiah Rogers, February 21, 1849, 

Jane Mumbower, December 6, 1849, 68 years. 

Rachel, wife of M'illiam Davisson, January 23, 1852, 73 

John Simcoke, July 11, 1853, 86 years. 

Robert Willis, Febriiary 22, 1857, 88 years, soldier of old 

Edward Fennimon, December 29, 1858, 78 years, 

John W, Cox, Company F, Thirty-sixth Indiana; enlisted 
September 1, 1801 ; wounded at Chiokamauga, and died at Chat- 
tanooga October 8, 1803, 18 years. 

William Engle, Thirty-sixth Indiana, wounded at Shiloh, 21 

William Botkin, Sixty-ninth Regiment Indiana, was in the 
battle of Richmond, Ky., and died at St. Louis Febmary 6, 
1863, 21 years. 

Mercy, wife of Joshua Sharp, June 2, 1863, 65 years. 

Marj' Ann, wife of Edward Fennimore, September 19, 1868, 
93 years. 

Pryor Harvey, December 8, 1869, 68 years. 

Samuel W. Fennimore, April 10, 1872, 05 years. 

Susanna, wife of Robert Penery, October 27, 1873, 06 years. 

Thomas Phillips, April 9, 1874, 82 years. 

Caleb Fennimore, March 24, 1876, 61 years. 

Susan, wife of W. A. Mumbower, November 22, 1876, 02 

Peter Botkin, November 24, 1870, 72 years. 

Robert Willis, a soldier of 1812; date and age not 
known; Capt. Craig, of the last war; William Daugherty and 
wife, who were very old, are buried at Union Chapel. He was a 
poor man with a large family, but was a hard worker, and 
cleared up during his life vast tracts of land. 


The tirst burying ground for Union City was laid out by 
Hon. Jere Smith and Dr. J, N. Converse, north of the original 
plat, chiefly between Howard and Plum, and somewhat north of 
Division street, and including what is now Oak Grove, the ele- 
gant residence and grounds of E. L. Anderson, Esq. 

There were 517 lots for private owners, and Lots 25 and 20 
besides. Some burials took place there, but the ground seemed 
not suitable, and it was but little used, and at this time many, 
perhaps most or all of the bodies, have been removed. 

Other grounds were selected, an association was formed, and 
a new cemetery was established. Union City Cemetery Associa- 
tion was formed Febmary 4, 1803. The first Trustees were 
Finloy Maloy, James White, Isaac P. Gray, John L. Roaenbush, 
Joel N. Converse. 

The company first bought six acres of land of Joel N. Converse, 
west of the present city limits, between the pike and the rail- 
road. They nest (in 1807), bought about one acre of Joel N. 
Converse, extending the ground north to the pike, and two acres 
southward to the railroad; plat recorded October 21, 1870. The 
third purchase was twelve acres west of the cre^k (1874), This 
last tjact, as also the new grounds south, has never been platted 
into lots. Cost of the grounds: six acres at IIOO per acre, $600; 
three acres at $150 per acre, $450; twelve acres at $200 per acre, 
$2,400; total, $3,450. The original six acres were platted into 
825 lots, with suitable streets between the lots, the re'-ord of the 
plat being made July 28, 1803, and the new purchase north has 
been platted. The plat was recorded October 21, 1870; number 
of lots, 120; size of lots, eight to thirty feet wide; price of lots 
in general, $1.50 per foot front; price of lots on streeta, 10- per 
cent extra; price of lots at comers, 20 per cent exti'a; ownere of 
lots, 328; price of digging graves at first, $1.50. under ten years; 
$2 above ton years; price of digging granes now, $3 aud $4. 
The company has been somewhat crippled by the last purchase, 
being considerably in debt on account of it, and not much im- 
provement has been attempted. However, a hedge has been set 
around the cemetery, and it is now in the second year's growth. 
The ground is well situated for the purposes of burial, being 



moderately rolling. Several lots have been set apart irrecoverably 
for the interment of soldiers, as also a considerable space for the 
use of non-lot owners. Many fine monuments and some costly 
ones have been erected at the graves of friends, and some 
shrubbery has been set, and fences placed around lots, and the 
cemetery begins to present a neat and tasteful, and even elegant 
appearance. Among others is found the beautiful shaft eroctt^l 
as a soldier's moniunont. It makes a fine display, and is a cred- 
itable and appropriate tribute to the memory of the brave de- 
parted. It is to be regi-etted that provision was not made for 
engraving upon the monument the several names of the soldiers 
at their respective interments. The Sextons have been as follows : 
First, Samuel Sutton, until April, 1872; second, F. A. Hinsch, 
until April, 1874; third, J. M. Wren, until December, 1875; 
fourth, B. F. Buckingham, to the present time, July 27, 1881. 

No record of bui-ials was kept for many years. The record 
was begun April 8, 187'.'i, and has been continued to the present 

The number of interments is given herewith: Kest of the 
year 1872, twenty-nine; whole of 1873, forty-one; 1874, thirty- 
nine; 1875, forty-five; 1876, sixty-nine; 1877, forty-five; 1878, 
thirty-six; 1879, fifty-two; 1880, fortytliree; 1881 (part), forty. 
The varying ^number of interments is somewhat striking: 
Last five months of 1880, thirteen; first live months of 1881, 
thirty-five; last three months of 1880, five; first three months 
of 1881, twenty-four; last two months of 1880, one; first two 
months of 1881, fourteen. The lowest number in one month is 
none; the greatest number is ten, viz., March, 1881. 

This record of interments does not show the full number of 
deaths in the city or its vicinity. The Catholics have a cemetery 
in the neighborhood, and all persons belonging to them are in- 
terred in that inclosure. Many are taken to the places whore 
friends or companions have been deposited in former years. 
Ever since the appointment of memorial services on Decoration 
Day, May 80th, (or May 31st if the 3(lth fall on Sunday), by the 
Grand Army of the Republic, appropriate and affecting, and 
sometimes greatly impressive observances have l)oon hold at 
the cemetery from year to year. The present burial-ground is 
apparently well suited to its objects, and will remain doubtless 
permanently consecrated to its 'sadly interesting puri>oses. TJie 
location is at a reasonable, yet not too great distance from the 
city. The ground is sufficiently rolling to present an agreeable 
appearance, and dry enough to answer the use to which it has 
been devoted, with sufficient slope, moreover, to allow a ready 
and adequate drainage, lying on both sides of the bed of the 
Little Mississinewa. 

The situation is retired, yet not too much so, lying between 
the highway leading to the fair grounds on the one hand, and 
the two westward railroad tracks on the other, and only just out- 
side the city limits. As already hinted, something has been done 
by way of ornamentation, many tasteful and some costly monu- 
ments have been erected in memorial of friends who are " loved, 
not lost;" and the whole result appears to approve the judgment 
and justify the discretion of those who made this second selec- 
tion of a cemetery for Union City. The regulations as to en- 
trance and deportment are strict, yet not too severe, but simply 
intended to secure the quiet, order and decorum needful in a 
place allotted to the resting-place for the dead. Location 
Wayne Township, Section 20, Town 18, Range 1 — Amasa 
Payne, November 2, 1856, 84 years. Catharine Roe, January 
15, 1857, 59 years. Note. — The above must have been buried 
elsewhere and transferred to this place, or else there was a 
private burying ground here before its use as a public cemetery. 

Frederic Roe, October 17, 1871, 00 yeai-s. 

John Hartman, March lU, 1804, 22 years. First Sergeant of 
Company C, Fifty-seventh Indiana Regiment, served two years 
and four months, and died at home. 

Barbara, wife of Charles Patty, October 22, 1804, 04 years. 

Rev. Timothy Colclazer, September 20, 1805, 54 years. 

Isaac Beal, April 11, 1809, 00 years. 

Mary, wife of Enoch Rogers, October 4, 1808, 81 years. 

Mary Swain, September 25, 1808, 04 years. 

James M. Worstler, July 8, 1808, 27 years. 

Samuel Janes, June 20, 1800, 79 years. 

Mary Morris, September 14, 1800, 78 years. 

Darius Converse, March 21, 1809, 52 year,'?. 

D. French, M. D., January 20, 1870, 08 years. 

Ann, wife of L. B. Pope, June 21, 1870, 75 years. 

Jacob Livengood, October 20, 1870, 03 years. 

Sarah, wife of J. G. McKeo, December 30, 1871, 05 yeai-s. 

Elizabeth Thomson, March 20, 1871, 84 yeai-s. 

James McFeoly, So])tembor 23, 1S72, 75 years. 

Ariston Dwinell (teacher), February 17, 1872, 30 years. 

Edward Stai-buck, Jr., September 25, 1874, 01 years. 

Mary Starbuck (first wife), January 13, 1800, 40 years. 

Lydia Ann Starbuck (second wife), March 27, 1803. 37 years. 

Hon. Jeremiah Smith, December 28, 1874, 70 years. 

Cynthia Smith, wife of the above, July 7, 1872, 57 vears. 

Eva G. Heck, May 1, 1875, 08 years. 

Timothy Masslich, Litiz, Penn., March 4, 1875, 73 years. 

Hannah, wife of William Parent, October 28, 1875, 05 years. 

John Keever, September 10, 1875, 01 years. 

Jacob Livengood, June 23, 1875, 03 years. 

John G. Doser, August 13, 1870, 05 yeai-s. 

James Rubev, M. D., December 17, 1870, 70 vears. 

Melissa A,, wife of J. S. Lotz, March 20, 18^0, 51 vears. 

Susan, wife of B. Hams, March 12, 1877, 84 yeai-s. 

Louisiana, wife of Daniel Paulus, December 1, 1877, 08 years. 

Louisa Wilkerson, March 21, 1878, 80 years. 

Nathan P. Woodbury, March 15, 1878, 70 years. 

John Fisher, February, 1881, 80 years. 

Mrs. Masslich, mother of Bontloy Masslich, summer of 1881 ; 
very old. 

Jane Fisher, relict of John Fisher, February, 1882, 78 years. 

White K/rec— Friends (Section 22, Town 20, Range 14). - 
Thomas Wright, April 30, 1835, 74 years. 

Thomas Wai-d, February 11, 1830, 80 vears. 

Margery Ward, May 12, 1843, 84 years. 

Nathan Barker, April 24, 1839, 71 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Michael Hill, March 24, 1840, 02 years. 

William McCristy, January 20, 1850, 84 years. 

Joseph Moflatt, June 30, 1854, 78 years. 

Mary Moffatt. April 10, 1855, 04 years. 

Joshua Cox, May 10, 1853, 05 years. 

Joseph Keys, October 0, 1854, 80 years. 

Mary, wife of Thomas Nixon, March 20, 1857, 73 years. 

Mary Hickman, November 1, 1857, 72 years. 

Ruth, wife of Nathan Barker, April 24, 1850, 01 years. 

Zachai-iah Hiatt, December 31, 1800, 82 years. 

Anna Hiatt, December 17, 1850, 81 years. 

Jemima, wife of Andrew Nesbit, June 3, 1859, 81 years. 

MiU-garet, wife of Joshua Cox, April 10, 1801, f')7 years. 

Mai'tin Comer, April 29, 1803, 70 years. 

Amy, wife of Joab Ward, August 27, 1804, f')7 years. 

William H. Broughman, Company C, Eighth Indiana Cavalry, 
April 12, 1800, 20 years. 

Thomas Pierce, November 5, 1808, 68 years. 

David Haworth, August 2, 1808, 74 years. 

Joel Ward, October 2, 1809, 81 years. 

Ruth Ward, May 12, 1871, 77 years. 

John Fraze, October 12, 1871, 03 years. 

Abigail Frazo, September 14, 1871, 77 years. 

Benjamin E. Keys, August 4, 1872, 75 years. 

Jacob Hickman, March 15, 1873, 03 years. 

Joab Ward, November 5, 1874, 84 years. 

Sally (Wright)Coats, July 11, 1875, 80 years. 

John Coats, 1878, over 90 years. 

Coats, 1877, 80 years. 

Miranda, wife of Isaac Coats, September 8, 1878, 08 years. 

Isaac Coats, July 23, 1870. 

White River Cemetery is very old. Friends' meeting having 
been established about or even before 1820. Mrs. Edwards, 
mother of Hamilton Edwards, resident south of Winchester, was 
buried in the autumn of 1881, being of a great age, 84 years. 

Whili'scU (three miles west of Union, Section 8, Town 20, 
Range 15). -Mary Weld, August 10, 1851, 00 years. 



Thomas Weld, Jamiaiy 3, 1852, O'J years. 

Eleanor Taggart, July 25, 1857, 'J2 years. 

Jane W., wife of J. B. Lawrence, January 17, 1858, 68 years. 

Samuel Conklin, March 30, 180(», 73 years. 

Joel F. Smith. November 3, 1803, 18 years. 

Henry Whitesell, March 7, 18()S, 82 years. 

William Martin, September 4, 1872, (>7 yeiirs. 

Jacob Whitesell, April iJ, 1877, 78 years. 

Mary, wife of Jacob Whitesell, November 14, 1803, 72 years. 

Magdalena, wife of Homy Whitesell, July 3, 1877, 83 years. 

Whidsor (Stony Creek Township, Section 21), Town 19, Kango 
12). — Three soldiers, no stone, and, of course, no inscription. 

John Dye, June 8, 1836, a soldier in the war of 1812, pro- 
bably, 44 years. 

Jacob Cline, February 1, 1840, soldier; must have been a 
mere- lad, bom in 1707, 43 years. 

Isaac W. and infant daughter, children of Jeremiah and 
Cynthia Smith (Judge Jere), died August 6, 1850, and Juno 2'.t, 
1853, ages not given. 

Luke Arnold, October 25, 1850. 00 years. 

Samuel Wilson, September t), 1858; a soldier, born in 17U4, 
eighteen years old in 1812, 04 years. 

John Gable, August 13, 1805, born in 17'J2, 74 years. 

Christena, wife of Jonathan Clevinger, June 27, 185'J, 71 

Thomas Wallace, February 7, 1870, 03 years. 

Nancy Cline, December 10, 1870, 08 years. 

John Carver, May 13, 1800, 62 years. 

James Hays, September 10, 1874" 8(> years, 

Jonathan Clevinger, February 12, 1875, 87 years. 

Amos A. Harold, December 20, 1875, 74 years. 

Perry C. Guukel, February 25, 1877, a soldier in the civil 
war, 36 years. 

Arabella, wife of Owen O. Thomson, May 14, 1878, 5',) year.s. 

Winvhrntcr (old ; David Heaston, proprietor; seventy-seven 
lots: location, southwest of Winchester, Section 20, Town 20, 
Kange 14; size, 151^x227.^ feet; i-ecordod May 22, 1802. A. J. 
Neff's addition; location, south side; thirty-six lots; recorded 
July 1',), 1867. A. J. Neff's second addition, 126 lots; location, 
north and east sides; recorded August 14, 1816. Fountain Park 
Cemetery, established by Asahel Stone, and donated by him to 
the citizens of Winchester for the pmijosesof a public cemetery; 
size of tract, forty acres; recorded March 1, 1880). 

John Huston, March 11, 1841), 05 years. 

Phebe Hull, wife of John Hull, Sr., August] 3, I84t), died of 
cholera, 70 years. 

John Hull, Sr., born in Connecticut May 1, 1760, and died 
August 20, 184'.t, cholera, 83 years. 

Susannah Reeco, born April 10, 1770, and died May 31,1850, 

Maria, wife of James Ramsey, February 2, 1852, 71 years. 

Jemima, wife of Jacob Kelly, March 1 8, 1 855, 73 years. 

John Way, September 25, 1850, 78 years. 

Paul W. Way, October 20, 1856, 71 years. 

Rebecca, wife of William Badgley, born in New Jersey Decem- 
ber 11, 1772, and died February'.), 185iJ, removed to Fountain 
Park Cemetery in 1881, 86 years. 

Achsah, wife of Paul W. Way, May 1, 1859, 73 years. 

Rev. Simeon H. Lucas, October 31, 1800, 45 years. 

Hester, wife of John H Campbell, November 2U, 1800, 

Esther, wife of Edmund Burton, October 7, 1861, 06 years. 

Martin R., son of E. and S. Thomas, Company G, Eighth 
Indiana Infantry, three years, August 3, 1862, 21 years. 

Lieut. W. L. Steele, Company H, Eighty-fom-th Indiana, 
died at Franklin, Teun., May 16, 1863, 37 years. 

Ann, wife of J. W. Steele, July 27, 1803, 03 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Jonathan Edwards, December 26, 1803, 
78 years 

David Ramsey, born in York County, Penn., October 17, 
1S02, and died June U, 1864, 62 years. 

Susannah Craig, bom August 16, 1704. and died June 3, 
1864, 70 years. 

Erastus H. Reed, son ,)f Nathan Eoed. Company F, One 
Hundred and Thirty-fourth Indiana, August 20, 1864, I'J years. 

Eliiiaboth Noff. oldest daugher of John Nefi, Esq., and wife 
of Jacob Elzroth, Esq., bom in Bototom't County, Va., October 
10, 17ll(), and died Se])tember 20, 1804, 08 years. 

Jacob Elzroth, 1803, very old. 

Capt. J. Lawrence Neff, Caiitain of Company G, One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-fom-th Indiana, commissioned in February, 
1804, Resaca to Atlanta, Franklin and Nashville; killed at 
Kingston, N. C, at the head of his company, March 10, 1805, 
age not given. 

Edmund Burton, October 4, 1805, 85 years. 

Cary S. Goodrich, October 1 4, 1805, 54 years. 

John Bolender, served six years as a grenadier, three years 
in active service against Napoleon Bonaparte, and died December 
9, 1805, 75 yeai-s. 

David Heastou, December 18, 1805, born in Rockingham 
County, Va,, came to Randolph inlSlO, soldier of 1812, 72 years. 

Sarah, wife of Christian Heaston, May 1 , 1806, 03 years. 

Rebecca Pierce, widow of John B. Goodrich, born at Peters- 
burg, Va., AugiLst 31, 1787, and died June 1, 1 867, 80 years. 

Polly, wife of Jehiel Hull, June 17, 1807, 61 years. 

Catharine Fie, September 14, 1867, SO years. 

Christian Habigh, April 8, 1868, 69 years. 

Nancy, wife of John Huston, February 5, 1869, 70 years. 

Joseph Martin, June 16, 1871, 71 years. 

Henry Summers, born in Augusta County, Va., July 15, 1784, 
and died August 10, 1871, 87 years. 

Sarah, wife of Thomas Brown, December 20, 1871, 74 years. 

Anna, wife of Nathan Reed, March 25, 1872, 04 years. 

Henry Carver, August 19, 1872, 09 years. 

Elizabeth Segi-aves, October 30, 1872, 08 years. 

Walter S. Monks, March 28, 1873, 57 years. 

George W. Monks, no stone. 

.Jehiel Hull, 1873, 70 years. 

Ellis Mullen, November 18, 1874, 76 years. 

Martha M. Watts, wife of Samuel Watts, Feb. 19, 1875. 08 years. 

Elizabeth, wife of Joseph Martin, born at Parmasen, Rhein, 
Bavaria, in 1815, and died June 9, 1874, 59 ye.irs. 

Catharine, wife of George Hay, March 20, 1870, 07 years. 

.loiias Lykens, August 15, 1876, 78 years. 

Catharine, wife of D;ivid Heaston, August 9, 1870, 83 years. 

Thomas Brown, May 20, 1877, 85 years. _ 

Christian Heaston, September 6, 1877, 7 ( years. 

Philippine, wife of Henry Harmann, April 13, 1878, 68 years. 

David Wysong, April 26_, 1878, 79 years. 

George Hay, May 15, 18/8. 63 years. 

George G. Gorstner. April 5, 1879, 70 years. 

Edward Wright, August 23, 1880, old. 

Soldier, unknown. 

Mrs. George W. Monks, no stone; particulars unknown. 

Proiiiii^ciunis. — John Monks and witv are buried on the old 
Monks farm, south of AVinchester; John Irving and wife are 
buried on the Irving farm, south of Winche.ster; Windsor Wiggs 
is buried in the cemetery on the Crist farm, southeast of Spar- 
tanburg. He died November 27, 1856; Sarah Wiggs, widow of 
Windsor Wiggs, died August 4, 1881; William Smith, father of 
Hon. Jore Smith, buried on his old farm in Section 5, Town 18, 
Range 13; burying ground 150 feet square, iron fence around 
the grave; Mrs. William Smith, wife of the above, buried at 
the same place; D.-miel Bales, buried at Sparrow Creek Ceme- 
tery, southwest of Dunkirk. 

DoTxbtloss many persons are interred throughout the county 
in private grounds unknown to the general public at the present 
time, as also to the writer of these sketches. 

In concluding this memorial to the dead, it is jwoper to state 
that great labor lias been bestowed upon the subject, yet the re- 
sult obtained cannot be supposed to be entirely uccm'ate, nor 
fully complete. But it may bo truly declared that the whole is 
as thorough as it was in the jiower of the autlior to; 
and the hope is indulged that a generous public will appreciate 
the difficulties of the t.isk attempted, and forgive such defects 
and errors as may by a critical examination bo discovered to exist. 





Setti.eji knts— Tkji I 


PERSONS of color came so early to the county, and in such 
numbers, and have remained, during the yeais since those 
olden days, dwellers in these regions, and in Randolph County 
in j)articular, so extensively and so permanently, that it has been 
deemed advisable to give an account of them in a separate chni>. 

There are three colored settlements in Randolph County. 
Ist, Greenville Settlement, northeast of Spartansburg. 
'2d, Cabin Creek Settlement, on Cabin Creek, not very far 
from Huntsville. 

3d, Snow Hill Settlement, Washington Townshi]). 

Tn 1822, Thornton Alexander, Sr., with a wife and nine chil- 
dren, moved from Warren County, Ohio, to Greensfork Town- 
ship, northeast of Spartansburg. Within a few years, he entered 
HOO acres of excellent land. In a short time, other colored fam- 
'lies followed Mr. Alexander, so that a considerable settlement 
was soon formed. In 1833, eleven years after he had entered the 
wilderness, iho following settlers were in the region: 

Ezekiel Lewis, east of Thornton Alexander; Collier Simpson, 
north of Alexander; William Lewis; Philip Holland, near the 
Griffis farm; Allen Davis, near Jessup's Mill; John Randlo, near 
Spai-tansburg, 1833. 

Colored persons continued to come in until, by 1840, the set- 
tlement had been quite large. About 1845, the Union Literary 
Institute, a manual labor boarding school, was established for indi- 
gent youth there by the munificence of Benjamin Thomas, James 
Moorman, James Clemens, Thornton Alexander and others, 
friends of the poor, both white and colored. Land to the amount 
of near one hundred and eighty acres was donated, and a charter 
obtained from the Logislatm-e. Rev. E. Tucker was emj)loyed 
as Principal, and a boai'ding house, by donations from triends 
of the cause, was erected. The school was opened in June, 
1816, and for years the school was somewhat famous throughout 
the region. Good schools were scarce then, and large numbers 
of all colors attended from Randolph and adjacent counties. 
Colored youth were mombei-s of the school fi-om Dayton, Piqua, 
Cincinnati, Richmond, Logansport, Indianapolis, from Shelby 
and Mercer Counties, Ohio, and even from Mississippi. Many 
colored youth received an education there who have since done 
good work for their people. 

Prof. Tucker left in 1854, and, after passing through various 
hands, and being intermitted for several years, the institution 
was revived again, and Prof. Tucker took charge, and taught 
from 1873 to 1871). 

The school is now under the supervision of Mr. Milton A. 
Roberts, a graduate of Spiceland Academy, a gentleman of fine 
talents and of high promise for future usefulness as an instructor 
of youth. It was originally a boarding school, but the change of 
tiiuos has brought it to be cl'iolly a neighlxirhood school. How- 
ever, it is still accomplishing a good work for those who attend 
its instructions. 

The settlement on the Indiana side of tlie State line now con- 
tains some thirty families, eitlier owning the land or renting from 

Most of the early settlers are dead. John Handle alone re- 
mains of the grown-up settlers, old and blind, but sprightly and 
cheerful. [He died, October, 1881.] Isaac Alexander, who 
came there as a boy seven years old, in 1822, still resides in the 

Many of the men volunteered in the army and gave good serv- 
ice in helping to crush the rebellion and to secure freedom to 
the down-trodden millions of their race; and they are reaping 
their due reward in the enjoyment of a full citizenship, bestowed 
on them by a grateful country. 

Some of the prominent residents now are William Shoemake, 
William Shafifer, Hiram Simpson, Jesse Flood, John Mason, Jesse 
Okey, Hiram Cotman, John M. Thompson, Lemuel Stokes, Jack- 
son Okey, Charles Mason, Levi Liusey, Pierce Thomson, Reuben 
Randle, William Lewis, Douglas Holland, William Oglesby, John 
Handle, Sylvester Holland, Charles Fox, Thomas Burden, Isaac 
Alexander, Richard Goons, John W. Randle, Patrick Goodall, 
etc., etc. 

The settlement hero lies on both sides of the Ohio lino, with 
by far the largest part in Ohio. In Indiana, a territory about 
one mile by three is occupied, while in Ohio nearly three miles 
square is covered by the colored residents. In Ohio, four school 
districts are to bo found, with a good schoolhouse in each, three 
of them being new brick edifices of good construction and neat 
design, and schools are maintained for seven to eight months in 
the year. 

The nucleus of the settlement in Ohio was foi-med alxmt fifty- 
five years ago, by James Clemens, Sr., with his large family of 
boys and girls, there being eight or ten childi-en, five of whom 
are still living. James Clemens and his wife, Sophia, are dead, 
both living to be about ninety years old. He took up in his life- 
time about six hundred acres of land, which is now mostly dis- 
tributed among his numerous descendants. The principal resi- 
dents now are Charles Clemens, James McKown, Keuben Goens, 
William Burden, William McKown, Zebedeo Buss, Asaniah Goens, 
Elijah P. Clemens, Windsor W. Epps, Leander Swaney, Sandy 
Jones, Riley Bass, Pen^ Clemens, Jjayton Clemens, A. J. Clem- 
ens, J. W. Clemens, Charles Carpenter. John Carpenter, Willson 
Smithj Mi-s. Mahala Clemens, Mrs. Dimmt, Alfred Clemens, 
Silas Wade, Moses Jefl'erson, Blake Durant, Sumner Durant, 
Silas Bobbins and many others. 

In the whole Greenville settlement, some years ago, there were 
about nine hundred people. There is on the Ohio side a Wes- 
leyan Church, and on the Indiana side an Afi-ican Methodist 
Episcopal Chui'ch. The clergyman among them are: Rev. Lem- 
uel Stokes, Indiana side, A. M. E. ; Rev. Charles Clemens, Ohio 
side, Wesleyan; Rev. Perry Clemens, Ohio side, Wesloyan. 

There are several jtromising young men, most of whom are or 
have been teachers: 

Elijah P. Clemens, teacher; Windsor W. Ej>ps, teacher and 
studying law; Silas Robbins, now practicing attorney at St. 
Louis, Mo.; Wesley Robbins, teacher, and practicing medicine; 
Wiley A. Robbins," faimer; John Wade, .attending school; Mai-- 
tin Clemens, teacher and farmer; Sunmer Durant, teacher and 
farmer; Blake Durant, teacher and farmer; Cassius F. Stokes, 
teacher at Kokomo, Ind. ; Lee Roy Stokes, teacher at Nobles- 
ville. Ind. ; Jackson Okey, teacher and f .inner; Milton A. Rob- 
erts, teacher and preacher and law student. 

During the nearly sixty years of the existence of this settle- 
ment, gi'eat niunbei-8 have emigrated from this " hive'' and gone 
to other regions, to helji form new settlements, or to the towns 
for readier access to the facilities for work. New .accessions h.ive 
been as constantly made to their numbers, and the growth from 
without and from within, combined, despite the ceaseless drop- 
])ing out to Grant County, to Paulding Coimty, to Michigan and 
where not, has raised the numbers in the settlement to eight or 
nine hundred souls. It is wholly a farming community, not hav- 
ing even the shadow or semblance of a town, unless, indeed, the 
old shell of a village at Tampico, on the Ohio side, be reckoned 
such, wherein no business, except liquor-selling occasionally and 
a blacksmith shop now and then, has been located or transacted 
for yeai-s. 

The people of color seem to have a natural aptness for music. 
The settlement has long been noted for the ability of many of its 
members in this respect. Many " schools ' ' have been held 
among them there, with pleasing success. 

From 1874 to 1878, a glee club existed in the Greenville set- 
tlement, composed of a few enthusiastic young persons — Elijah 
P. Clemens, Adeline Clemens, Richard Cotman, Philo A. Tucker 
(white), Jane P. Costen, Emma Goens, Ellen Goens, Eliz.abeth 
Goens and Lillie F. Tucker (white). The club took great delight 
together in their nmsical efforts, spending much time in prepar- 


ing amateur entertainmonts at Gxhibitiona, temperance meetings, 
etc., etc. 

Several of the same company formed tliemselves into a " band 
of singers," and gave several concerts thi'ongh the region, vi^ith 
good acceptance and success. 

During the years that are past, many celebrations have been 
held in. the settlement. First of August, Sabbath schools, tem- 
perance, emancipation, politics and other siibjects have called 
the people together at viirious times and their white fellow-citi- 
zens as well, in great numbers, and much pleasure and profit have 
been imparted by the addresses and exercises upon the several 

At one celebration, some thirty years ago, Hon. George W. 
Julian, then a young and earnest anti-slavery man, sinco and for 
many years a noted and powerful advocate of freedom and right 
in the national councils, and in still later times an adherent of the 
modern Democratic faith, gave, before a numerous and enthusiastic 
assembly, in a pleasant and shady grove in the Greenville settle- 
ment, a most feeling and eloquent appeal for human liberty and 
right, which has not even yet been forgotten by some who that 
day listened thereto. And it still continues, in the minds of the 
advocates of human freedom who knew the earnestness of Mr. 
Julian in that former day, and for so many subsequent years, in 
the advocacy of anti --slavery, to be a standing and inscrutable 
mystery how he could join himself to that party with principles, 
aims and methods still unchanged, against which, for five and 
twenty years, he had waged a war so fierce, so bitter, so unrelent- 
ing. But this, like the ways of the " heathen Chinee," may bo 
one of the things which no man can ever find out. 


The Greenville colored settlement began about 1822, in the 
State of Ohio. Not long after that date, others sought for homes 
in the wilderness f ai-ther west, and a nucleus was formed of what 
became Cabin Creek Settlement, lying chiefly, perhajis, in Net- 
tle Creek, but extending also into West River and Stony Creek, 
and slightly into White River Township. Colorc-d families be- 
gan to come into the region not very long after 1825, from 
North Carolina and Virginia, and, after a time, the settlement 
greatly increased, embracing several miles in extent, and compris- 
ing some eighty to one hundred families and several hundi'ed 
people. During later years, the number has materially lessened, 
the families having sold their possessions and moved to locations 
more suited to their notions. There are now some thirty to forty 
families, 'orming a single school district. 

John Demory came first to the western part of the county 
about 1825, with Lemuel Vestal, from North Carolina, Demory 
being the first colored person in that part of Randolph County. 

Two other colored families came soon afterward — Drew Tay- 
lor, on Eight Mile Creek, and Obadiah Anderson, in the south- 
east part of the county. Aftar them came Richard Robbins, 
Samuel Oatland and Benjamin Outland, who, as to the colored 
settlement proper, came first, or nearly so, shortly after 1825, 
settling in Stony Creek Township. Nearly all the families at 
present reside in Nettle Creek Township. The settlement is ex 
clusively a farming community, as there is no town whatever in 
connection therewith. 

Afterward came Robert Scott, Willis Crane, Nathan Ward, 
Dudley, Jewy Terry, Abram Cotman, Thomas Wilkerson, Mat- 
thew Chavis, Soeny, Robert Ward, Isaac Woods, Edward Outland, 
Abram Woods, Benjamin Skipworth, SamuelAVoods, John Smith, 
Jesse Woods, Philip Woods (father), Jacob Woods, Dosha Smoth- 
ers and a Iwgo family of girls, Colman Scott, Solomon Scott. 
There were also many others. 

The citizens in that settlement now are chiefly James Scott, 
Andrew Scott, Eleazar Scott, Ananiah Scott, Martin Scott, Mon- 
roe Barber, Peter Ladd, Wyatt Jennings, John Roberts, Richard 
Scott, Isaac Ward, David Stafford, Stephen Perkins, Burrell 
Perkins, Mrs. Paulina Scott, Charles Ban-acks, George Hill, 
Perry Stafford, John Sawyer, Greenberry Scott, Isaac Woods, 
Charles Smothers, Anderson Moore, George Outland, John Hall, 
Minerva Moore, Immanuel Stafford, John Watkius and some 

It is a fact to be noted that, in the spring of 1880, a colored 
man, John Roberts by name, was chosen Assessor of Nettle Creek 

Some old fogir-s, like Rip Van Winkle, who were not aware 
that the world had moved during the last twenty yeai-s, foaght 
hard against the attempt to elect him, and were very indignant 
at their failure; but Mr. Roberts has proved to bo a competent 
and worthy officer, and the sun shines and the rain falls as in 
olden time. 

There is also a Baptist Church, formed long ago, declining 
and apparently dying some years since, but revived and re-organ- 
ized, and now in active operation, with a few members. 

There were at onetime throe school districts and three school- 
houses in the settlement, which was then seven miles long and two 
miles wide. There is now only one schoolhouse, though some 
colored families attend at the white schools, and without objec- 
tion or complaint. 

The school is maintained by the public funds. 

A colored musical band is kept up, and its members are very 
proud of the fact that, at the soldiers' re-union, held at Win- 
chester in the fall of 1880, they gained the prize offered for pro- 
ficiency and skill in performance. 

There is also an African Methodist Episcopal Church in reg- 
ular operation in the settlement, in which worship and si 
are steadily maintained. 

Some twentj years or more ago, sevei-al colored families had 
their attention called to the fact that there were cheap lands at u 
point between Winchester and Lynn, not far from Snow Hill. 
They resolved to settle there, and did so, and by and by a settle- 
ment of several families had grown up in that region. 
They aie located in Washington Tovraship, and form a separate 
school district. Their children appear to be making good prog- 
ress, and the settlers in general arc approving themselves to the 
people in the region round about Since these various settle- 
ments began to be formed, many have emigrated to other places 
— to Grant County, Ind., to Paulding County, Ohio, and else- 
where. But a considerable number remain in each neighborhood 

It is a somewhat remarkable fact, and one favorable to the 
colored settlers, and to the people of Randolph County at large, 
that, in 1851, Randolph County gave a good, majority against the 
famous thirteenth article of the new constitution adopted for In- 
diana in that year. 

The people of these settlements belong mostly to the African 
Methodist Episcopal and the Wesleyan Chirrches. They have 
meeting-houses and preachers, and, on the whole, are a church- 
going people. 

The first settlement at Snow Hill was made about 1838. 
Gabriel Moore came into the region in 1888. Michael and William 
Benson moved there in 1840. Benjamin Copeland settled there 
about 1817. Davison Copeland settled there about 1850; Little- 
burn Winbtirn, about 1818 or 1841). Prentiss Copeland came just 
before the war. 

Afterw.u-d came Meredith Small, Elisha Boon, Wiley Law- 
rence and son, Jesse Winn, Thomas Watkius, Henry VVatkins, 
John Bragg, Isaac Watkins, Jamas Watkins, William Culfor. 

No more than ten or twelve families have been here at one 

The families resident now are Wiley Lawrence, William Ben- 
son, Mrs. Michael Benson, Thomas Watkins, Henry Watkins, 
Asbury Benson, l\Irs. Elisha Boon. John Bragg, Isaac Watkins. 
James AVutkins, William Culfor. 

There is an African Methodist Episcopal society and a pub- 
lic school. Some of the residents own the land on which they 
dwell; others live on rented f aims. The people of the settlement 
are moral and industrious, and the young are intelligent and well 
behaved, and, by their discreet deportment, merit the confidence 
and esteem of the community ih general. 

s of color have been residents of Randolph County out- 



side of the settlements referred to. Among them may be reck- 
oned, as having been for many years active and prominent among 
the people, William H. Demory, who resides some miles south- 
vrest of Winchester. He is an intelligent gentleman, a thrifty, 
enterprising farmer, and an active, worthy citizen, and has the 
respect of all who know him. His biography is given elsewhere 
in this work. His father, John Demory, is said to have been the 
earliest colored settler in the western part of the county. An 
account of his life, also, is given elsewhere. 

In later years, some persons of color have become residents of 
Winchester and Union City. At Winchester resides an old col- 
ored gentleman by the name of Willis Perry, whost-. biography is 
given. Another enterprising colored man is found there in 
the person of Kent Bro^vne, Esq., for several years an active, 
thriving and respected barber in that town. He became during 
the war an employe in the army of Gen. Thomas M. Brovnio, 
and came North with him. Kent Browne has many friends 
among the citizens of the county, and bids fair to achieve an 
honorable success. 

At Union City are a considerable number of families and per- 
sons of color, special mention of whom time and room now fail 
to give. 

Henry McDonald, who resides at Spartanburg, Ind., has 
been, through a long life, a laborious, worthy and reliable citi- 
zen, and still, though numbering more than threescore years 
and ten, is found vigorously plying his hammer and making the 
sounding anvil ring. 


There have always been among this people, 
who would indulge in intoxicating liquors. Considerable efiforte 
have been put forth to check the sin and the curse of drink, 
with at least partial success. 

In about 1850 (perhaps earlier), a temperance society was 
formed in the Greenville settlement, and carried on with interest 
and a degree of success, for, perhaps, ten or twelve years. That 
society finally went down. In 1874, when the Murphy movement 
aroused the country, a new association, auxiliary to the Christian 
Temperance Union, was formed and kept up for several years. 

The meetings were held at the two churches at frequent in- 
tervals, and great interest was maintained for a time by speeches 
and essays from the members, both male and female, by volun- 
teer singing by the young people of the settlement, by addresses 
from abroad, etc. And to the credit of the youth of the neigh- 
borhood, be it said, that right nobly did they each and all per- 
form the work assigned them. Some beautiful music was pre- 
sented, several excellent addresses were delivered, showing what 
young people, when aroused to action, can do for their country 
and their kind. 

It is a terrible commentary on the deadly mischief wrought 
by the sale and use of intoxicating drinks, and how nearly impos- 
sible is the task to destroy the terrible curse, that at a liquor 
saloon at Tampico, Ohio, in the colored settlement, on Christ- 
mas Eve, after a drunken shooting match in the immediate vicin- 
ity, and a furious fight among the parties thereto, one man was 
killed outright, another was so nearly killed that for a long time 
his life was despaired of, and still another was so badly beaten 
that his face was said by one who saw him the next morning to 
be nearly as black as that of a Guinea negro. Four men have 
been nearly ever since in the Greenville jail, and the first one 
tried (the trial taking place diuring the week beginning Monday, 
March 6, 1882), has been founvl guilty and sentenced to imprison- 
ment during life, and the trial of the second is now in progress 
(March 15, 1882). 

For many years two churches have been maintained in the 
Greenville settlement, viz.: African Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in Indiana; Wesleyan Church, in Ohio. The churches 
are just one mile apart. They have been established from forty 
to fifty years. Great numbers have belonged, from first to last, 
to one church or the other, and the societies have flourished more 
or less during the whole course of their existence. 

Eegular preaching services have been constantly maintained. 

and revival meetings have been held, continuing sometimes for 
weeks together, gathering into the church fellowship sometimes 
scores of professed converts. Many have backslidden from time 
to time, but many, too, have stood fast, enduring to the end, and 
going up to claim the promise of a heavenly mansion from their 
gracious Savior and Lord. Great numbers have ''died in the 
Lord." Their bodies slumber in the dust; their happy spirits, 
set free from earth and its besetments and entanglements, have 
gone, we may fain hope and believe, to be forever with the Lord. 
Some of the members of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church on the Indiana side have been Robert Scott, Matthew 
Lewis, Allen Davis, Daniel Burden, John Randle, Reuben Ran- 
dle, Levi Linzey, the Pnrnell brothers (three or four of them), 
Nimrod Lewis and many others. 

Among their preachers have been Paul Quinn (late Bishop of 
the African Methodist Episcopal Chiu-ch), Mackintosh, Ward, the 
Revels brothers. Harper, Mac Smith, Burden, Winslow, Radcliff, 
Chavis, Stokes and many besides. 

Stw7v Hill. — There is an African Methodist Episcopal Church 
at this settlement, which is reasonably flourishing, but we have 
no account of it at hand. It belongs in the same circuit with 
Greenville and some others. 

Regular Union Baptitt Church, Colored. — Nettle Creek Town- 
ship, one and a half ipiles southeast of Pleasant View. 

About 1843, Rev. Samuel Jones, from Mercer County, Ohio, 
came to Cabin Creek settlement and preached in a log school- 
house near the present site of the Baptist Church (a little south 
of James Scott's residence). He organized a church, which has 
remained to the present time. 

The memljers were Stephen Patterson, Isom Davis, James 
Scott and wife, Thomiis Robinson and wife. The meeting-house 
was built in 18(jO-G5. It was for some years a lively church, 
and several others were formed in the region, and a little asso- 
ciation was organized. The churches were at Newport, Green- 
ville settlement, one in Grant County and one in Rush County. 
A meeting of the association was held at Greenville settle- 
ment, in the Wesleyan Church, on the Ohio side. 

The churches at Greenville settlement and Newport (Fountain 
City) have gone down; the others are existing still. 

The church at Nettle Creek languished on account of finan- 
cial troubles, but in 1878 it was formed anew, with seven per- 
sons, and now consists of nine members, as follows: 

Tames Scott and wife, William Shoecraft and wife, Reuben 
Means, Keziah Scott, Ann Eliza Scott, Rachel Sawyer, Susan 
Amanda Wood. 

At one time there were thirty-five members belonging. 
The preachers have been Messrs. Samuel Jones (first), Samuel 
Jones (second), John Jones, Lee Van, Reuben Means, Unis B. 
Plane (present minister). 

They have Sunday school, but not very regularly. 
Cabin Creek {Colored) M. E. C/iwrc/t. —Began in 1833. The 
first meeting- house was at their old graveyard southeast of Pop 
lar Run Friends' Meeting-House. That house has been gone 
many years (closed in 1865), and they have worshiped in their 
schoolhouse to the present time. They are now erecting a taste- 
ful and commodious church near their public school building, 
which will furnish ample accommodations for worshiping assem- 
blies for years t(, come. The size is 28x38; cost, $700. 

Among their early members were Nathan Ward (Rev.), Ben- 
jamin Skipworth (Rev.), Burrell Jones (Rev.), Job Felton, Willis 
Grain, Harrison Hurdle, Elisha Hurdle, Hardy Evans, B. Per- 
kins, Elias Watkins, Richard Robbins, John Smith, James Fer- 
guson, Alexander Williams, William Davison (Rev.), Benjamin 
Outland, Samuel Outland. 

Some of their preachers have been John Turner, Mcintosh, 
Dove, Davison, Ward, William Trevan, Skipworth, Stokes, Wins 
low, Quinn, Crosby, Crosby, Daniel Burden, Harper, Price, Mc- 
Smith, Nichols, Alexander Smith, Chavis. 

The members now are P. Perkins, Chai'les Smothers and wife, 
Peter Ladd and wife, Maria Stafford, Edward Bolden and wife, 
Minerva Moore, Anna Weaver, Rev. Isaac Ward, Elias Watkins, 
Mary Jane Smith, Mahala Perkins, Eveline Jennings, Emily 
Barber, Rebecca Wood, Armeta Wood, eto. 


The settlment used to bo BPvcn miles long and two miles wide; 
now, only about two miles long. 

The meeting-house is in West Kiver Township, two miles 
southeast of Pleasant View. A large part of the .settlement is in 
Nettle Creek Township, though it used to extend into three — 
West River and Stony Creek also. 

The first preacher in the settlement was Rev. Paul Quinn, 
then circuit-rider, afterwai'd, dxu-ing many years, Bishop of Af- 
rican Methodist Episcopal Church, and dying at Richmond, 
Ind., several years ago. 

There were once eighty or one hundred families in that col- 
ored .settlement, and the Methodist class was strong and flom-ish- 
ing. The settlement and the Methodist society are both much 
smaller than of old. 


Wo furnish herewith short accounts of some who were early 
pioneers among tho colored people in Randolph County, or who 
have boon in some way distinguished among them. 

Thornton Alexander, Sr., farmer, colored, born about 1780, 
Ciilpeper Coimty, V3., a slave; but set free at thirty-six (ISIO). 
His master, Abram Sellers, brought him, with his wife and nine 
children, to Wan-en County, Ohio, in ISKi. He moved to Ran- 
dolph County, Ind., in 1822 (first colored settlor on Indiana side 
in Greenville colored settlement). He entered, first and last, 
820 acres of land. His patents are signed by James Monroe and 
Andrew Jackson. He died in 1851, aged about seventy-one 
years. He had fifteen children — thi-ee pair of twins. All lived 
to be grown but one pair of twins. He was twice married. Tho 
children were Gabriel and John, Henry, Thornton, Betsey, Jo- 
seph, Isaac and Jacob, Abraham, twins (no name), Lueinda, 
Mary, Joshua, Casey Ann. 

Gabriol, Uiii children, six living; twice married; dead many 

John, ton childi-en, three living; twice married; died 187U, 
aged sevonty-tive years; second wife still living. 

Henry, four children; diedjin 1840 by a tree-fall. 

Thornton, five children, all living; wife dead many years; 
barber, Richmond, Ind. ; seventy years old. 

Betsey, married George N. Black; six children; dead about 
ten years. 

Joseph, three children; dead thirty years. 

Jacob, man-led Rebecca Clark; two children; South Bend; 

Isaac, four times married — Virginia Clark, Charlotte Gales, 
Eliza Bass, Elizabeth Alexander; five children, all living. He 
is the only one that still holds any of his father's land. 

Abraham, died a young man. 

Lueinda, died (date not known). 

Mary, married Zebodoe Smith; died yeai's ago. 

Joshua, died, date unknown. 

Casey Ann, maiTi(!d Thomson; lives in Michigan. 

Mr. Alexander was a very enterprising, hard-working citizen, 
entirely unleamou, but of good sense and with sound business 
judgment, very energetic and economical withal. Like the chil- 
dren of many another thriving, hard-working fnrmer, his family 
did not seem to acquire the habits of economy and thrift prac-' 
ticed by their father, and tho whole tract, except some fifty acres 
held by Isaac Alexander and his family, has hmg since slipped 
from the fingers of his descendants, leaving very little to show 

So sadly true does tho fact turn out to be that the possession 
of a lai-ge property by a father, ])roves, in many instances, a nui- 
sance rather than an advantiige to his children. Ho works and 
saves and leaves his estate to them. They sjiond and lose, and 
ore niauv years are far worse ofl' than if they had begun with 


' ' When we came here I was ten years o'd. Sp;u^.ansburg had 
not been begun. That ground was th(!n a corn-fiold, and for sev- 
eral years afterward. Mr. Hawkins lived on the Hough place; 

Mr. Thomas, on tho Dan Comer place; someljody on the Frank 
Morgan place; Mr. Bailey on the Moorman place, below town. 

In the colored settlement, William Lewis and Philip Holland 
bought each eighty acres near the Griffis place. Lewis sold his, 
but Philip Holland kept his till his death, in 1872 or 1S73. 

Collier Simpson came about 1830. He died years ago. 

Ezekiel Lewis came not long after T. Alexander. Ho has 
been dead a long time. His widow lives at Foimtain City, Ind. 

I was at the Indian payments the year the last one was 
made. The Pottawatomies wore pai<l at Eel River, Pottawato 
mie Mills, beyond tho Wabash, at Tippecanoe, an Indian 
town; and the Miamisat tho forks of the Waba,sh, being the jimc- 
tion of the Wabash and Mississinewa. 

There wore jiorhaps five hundred of them in each place. Tho 
woods were fqll of them. The Indians were sent away the next 
season. I saw them at Piqua as they went down the canal t« 
Cincinnati to tako steamers down the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi for the far West. 

I have resided in Canada five years." 

Mr. Isaac Alexander has been married four times, the fourth 
wife being still living. He had no children except by his third 
wife. He resides on a part of his father's estate, and is gi-owintr 
old and feeble, though still able to do more or less work. 

He is the only one of his father's large family who remains 
in the settlement. The ri^st are either dead or removed long ago 
to other regions. 

Born a slave in North Carolina in 17i)8. His master's name 
was Roland Jones. He was set free in 1832. He came to Way no 
County, Ind., in 1834, and to Randolph County in 1843. Ho 
married Mary Ann Moore in 1842. He has had eighteen chil- 
dren, fom- in slavery, fourteen in freedom. Eight of the four- 
teen are still livllig. He is a Methodist Episcopal and a Repub- 
lican, and tesides ohe-half mile south of Rural, on the railroad. 
Although eighty-four years old, he is still strong and hearty and 
in good spirits, thankful to the Great Giver of all good for all 
the mercies received. Ho states as follows: 

My master's name was Roland Jones. I had a wife and four 
children, who belonged to Samuel Jones. He ''broke up," ami 
his property was sold by the Sherifl'. My wife and children 
were sold on the block and taken to Alabama, and I never have 
heard from them since, except once, a short time after. My 
brotlier, Michael, and my mother, were freed with me, at my 
master's death. 

My master had his fourth wife. We were to work the place 
and take care of her till she died, and we were to have the surplus 
of all we could make off the jilace, and Michael and myself were 
to have each one a horse and four- sheep, and our freedom. 

We took care of the widow till she died, and then we settled 
our affairs and moved to Indiana. We had $100 in money, and 
loft $125 behind, which we got afterward. We came with John 
Jones, who sold out and moved to Indiana. 

I had but little, but, by the blessing of God, I have been able 
to care for a family of fourteen children, and now see my eighty- 
fourth year, and I hope to be kept in peace and comfort till God 
shall see fit to call mo homo. 

Samuel Jonos, who owned my wife, was very prominent. He 
was High Sheriff of Rowan County; had been elected to the 
Logislatiu-e (both Houses) several terms, and was administrator 
of many estates; married into the wealthy Brown family, and 
got a largo legacy from his wife's grandfather. My master gave 
a fine plantation to Samuel and Robin Jones, and took his share 
in slaves, and tlien sot them free. 

Samuel Jonos fiom-inhe<l round like a ' ' green bay tree " for 
awhile, and then " broke up" and "went to sticks." The Sheriff 
sold his property, and he "took the prison bound," as it is called 
— i. o. , he was sent to jail for debt, but was allowed to live outside 
the jail under obligation not to go beyond a certain specified 
limit. Ho was a "Head Mason," and, in fact, was prominent in 
most matters of the region and time. Many believed that he 
" broke " fnll-haudod. 

Slavery was a hard and bitter thing, and I thank the good 



Lord that I have been spared to see the end of that " sum of all 


Born in 1807, in North Carolina, a slave; set free by Row- 
land Jones(see William Benson); married Nancy Lewis inlSH'J; 
came to Randolph County, Ind., in 1840. He has had 
children: was a farmer, and a Eopubli 
fifty-seven years old. 

His widow lives at Snow Hill settlement still, 
immai-ried. She belongs to the African Methodist Episcopal 

He died in 1804, 

Bom in Carroll County, Tenn., August 2, 1840. His mother 
had been freed before he was bom, but she, and he, too, lived on 
the plantation where she had been a slave till he was twenty- 
three or twenty-four years old. 

He went into the ai'my as a hostler for Col. Thomas M. 
Browne, starting the •' Cold New Years," January 1, 1804, and 
continuing with him through the marches of the regiment in 
Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas and Texas, till the Colonel 
was mustered out of service, at Hempstead. Texas, in the spring 
of 1800. Coming with Col. Browne to AVinchester in March, 
1806, Kent began W once as a barber, and has followed that busi- 

In 1867, he married Mary Burden, daughter of Marshal Bur- 
den, of Greenville settlement, Darke Co., Ohio, and they have no 

He had no education when young, and has not taken time to 
acquire any since, but he is shrewd and active in business, and 
highly respected by his fellow-citizens in the town of his resi- 

Was born in South Carolina, a freeman, in 1782. He came 
to Tennessee, and afterward to Wayne County, Ind., and again 
to Darke County, Ohio, Greenville settlement — the latter move- 
ment in 1888. He had thirteen children, eleven of whom became 
grown and were married and nine are now living. Their names 
were William, James, Priscilla. Lucy, Silas, Lewis, Daniel, 
Thomas, Caroline, John, Joel, Sidna, Biddy. He died in 1848. 
His wife, Polly, died in 1870. She is said to have been several 
years older than her husband, and to have been upward of a 
hundred years old when she died, in 1876. If so, she must have 
been born before the Declaration of Independence was made, and 
she had lived through the entire period of our independent na- 
tional existence. 


Born in 1702 in South Carolina. He was a slave, owned by 
Joshua Hickman, a Baptist. His wife wa.i Ann Maria Johnson, 
who was born in "Old Maryland," nine miles from Georgetown, 
D. C, about 1800. She belonged to Mr. Newsam. They were 
set free and came to Wayne County, Ind., in 1882, moving after- 
ward to Randolph County (Cabin Creek settlement), and still 
after that to Greenville settlement. 

He had three children, one of whom, Hiram Cotman, is now 

Abraham died in the winter of 1870, aged eighty- 
four years. Ho bought two diiferent tracts of land near Cabin 
Creek. First, he entered forty acres of land, and afterward 
boi.jht forty acres nearer Winchester. His widow is now living, 
and^resides in Greenville settlement, northeast of Spartanburg. 


Wiis born August 10, 1823, in Charlotte County, Va., his ances- 
tors having been free for several generations, during at least sev- 
enty or eighty years. He was one of fourteen children, thirteen 
of whom became grown and were married, and seven or eight are 

i/-, '"'.ther died in Virginia, in 1848, at the age of sixty years, 
havir , been a wagon-maker by trade, at which trade also Hillry 
work;; 1 in his youth and early manhood. His father was in good 
circumstances, owning 130 acres of land in Virginia, and he was 
an active, intelligent man, though without book education. 

Hillry came, in 1855, to Washington City, working there at 
his business as a wagon-maker. lu 1861, he came West to Ox- 
ford, Ohio, in 1801, going afterw;ird to Iowa, working on a firm 
one year in Johnson County, eighteen miles from Iowa City. He 
spent three years at Michigan City, Ind., turning neck-yokes 
with Hostler & Myers. In 1866, he set up business in turning 
neck-yokos, etc., at Portland, Ind., entering a partnership witli 
J. N. Templar of that place. He invested |2,0Ua in that enter- 
prise, and was so unfortunate as to lose the whole In 1868, he 
changed his place of business to Union City, at which place he 
remained until about 1881, when he removed to Parker (Morris- 
town), on the Bee Line Railroad. At Union City, he was in 
business with various persons, Messrs, Hartzell, Mason, Stocks- 
dale, Willson, etc. Mr. C. has very little education, but he pos- 
sesses great skill, having invented several ingcniou.s 
machines — .is an oscillating engine, a lathe for turning neck- 
yoke.-i, for both of which he obtained patents, and whicii seem 
both ingenious and practical, though, like many another skillful 
mechanician, he always lacks for means to make his contrivances 
extensively available. 

He has been twice married. His first wife was Elizabeth 
Davis, and they were married at Oxford, Ohio. She died at 
Michigan City, having been the mother of four children, three of 
them still living. His second wife was Mrs. Anna (Ratliffe) 
Berry, who, though twice married, has had no offspring. 

Ever since setting up business at Portland, Ind., he has been 
engaged in the turning business in some form. If he could com- 
mand capital equal to his business activity and shrewdness, he 
would indeed make a. stir among his fellow-citizens; as it is, he 
has, for many years, been wide-awake, and ever active and enter- 
prising among his fellow-citizens. 


Was born in Charleston, S. C, in 1774, He mawied Sarah 
Kobison in Anson County, N. C, in 1801. He came to Randolph 
County, Ind., with Lemuel Vestal, in J 825, on Stony Creek, near 
the Thornburg.s. He had eleven children, as follows: 

Mary, married William Weaver, living: Irvin, John, Han- 
nah; Robert, living in Cabin Creek settlement; Charles, Cole- 
man; AVilliam, living southwest of Winchester: Zachary; Phebo 
Ann, married Jacob Felters, living; Maston. 

He was the first colored man to settle in the west part of 
Randolph County. The second there was Drew Taylor, on Eight 
Mile Creek. The third was Obadiah Anderson, near Wayne 

Mr. Demory owned eighty acres of land and a house and lot 
in Winchester, at the time of his death, which took place in 1800 
in his eighty-sixth year. 

Is the son of John Demory, above mentioned. His biog- 
raphy is elsewhere given. We add some sketches describing his 
(juaint and varied adventures from his own lips. He now owns 
the eighty acres west of Winchester that used to belong to his 
father. He ib a prosperous and thrifty farmer. 


" In 1847, I crossed the ocean as Steward on the steamer 
Washington to Southampton, and Bremorhaven, and Paris. 
Returning to New York, I shipped on the steamer Hermann to 
England again, and after that on the Iroquois from New York 
to the West Indies. 

"I commenced life on ship-board in 1845, being body serv- 
ant to Commodore Perry on the James K. Polk, which was burned 
at the Straits of Gibraltar, and accomjianying the Commodore in 
a six-months' trip through the Mediterranean, the Rod Sea, 
Egypt and elsewhere. Returning to New York, he went up the 
Hudson to Whitehall and so to Buffalo, and upon Lake Erie to 
bring a vessel thence through to Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, 
Lake Ontario, the River St. Lawrence, the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and the Atlantic Ocean, to Brooklyn Navy Yard. The ocean 



voyages above mentioned took place after my service w